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Dopamine References: 2003

(917 References)

(2003). "[Parkinson disease: effective treatment of sleep disturbances]." Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 71(1): 2 p following 54.


(2003). "Aripiprazole (Abilify) for schizophrenia." Med Lett Drugs Ther 45(1150): 15-6.


Acar, N., J. M. Chardigny, et al. (2003). "Modification of the dopaminergic neurotransmitters in striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats fed for 21 months with trans isomers of alpha-linolenic acid." Neurosci Res 45(4): 375-82.

            Deficiency in n-3 fatty acids is known to disturb the release of dopaminergic neurotransmitters in rat brain. Since isomerization reduces the bioavailability of dietary fatty acids, the effect of the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid into trans alpha-linolenic acid on the dopaminergic neurotransmission was studied. Rats were fed for 21 months with a control diet, a diet unbalanced in cis alpha-linolenic acid and containing trans alpha-linolenic acid or the same diet in which the imbalance was corrected by increasing the levels of cis alpha-linolenic acid. After 6 and 21 months of diet, the fatty acid composition and the amounts of endogenous dopaminergic neurotransmitters was assessed in the striatum, the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. The isomerization of a part of dietary alpha-linolenic acid induced some modifications of the levels of endogenous dopaminergic neurotransmitters in all brain areas but was related to a very low incorporation of trans polyunsaturated fatty acids. Increasing the dietary levels of cis alpha-linolenic acid succeeded in correcting the endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations only in the frontal cortex but not in the striatum and the hippocampus. Thus, the levels of dopamine were lowered by 95% in the hippocampus. These results suggest that in addition to the imbalance generated by their presence, trans fatty acids may directly act on the concentration of dopaminergic neurotransmitters.


Acerbo, M. J., B. Hellmann, et al. (2003). "Catecholaminergic and dopamine-containing neurons in the spinal cord of pigeons: an immunohistochemical study." J Chem Neuroanat 25(1): 19-27.

            Within the different species belonging to the vertebrate radiation, catecholaminergic elements of the spinal cord present a partly conservative, partly variable pattern. Unfortunately, the overall picture is far from clear since the situation for birds is largely obscure. Therefore, we examined the distribution of dopamine (DA)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and fibers in the spinal cord of the adult pigeon by immunohistochemistry. TH-immunoreactive cells were located within two restricted areas. One group of cells with multipolar shape was located in laminae VI and VII, close to the white-gray border. These cells were more frequently found at rostral and caudal levels while being scarce at cervical-thoracic levels. The second group of cells was located in lamina VIII surrounding the central canal. These cells were bipolar in shape and were found ventrally and laterally to the central canal, with most of them contacting the lumen of the canal through a separate process. The TH-immunoreactive fibers were distributed in both the gray and the white matter. In the gray matter, they were mainly distributed around the central canal (lamina VIII), in the ventral horn close to the border of laminae VII-IX and in the lateral part of the dorsal horn in laminae II-VI. In the white matter the fibers were present in the lateral columns running longitudinal to the main axis. DA-immunoreactive cells were also located within two restricted areas, closely matching the distribution of TH-immunopositive ones. Additionally, the DA-immunoreactive cells had the same shape as the TH-immunoreactive cells, as bipolar neurons contacted the central canal and multipolar ones were located in the laminae VI and VII. Also the distribution of DA- and TH-immunoreactive fibers roughly matched. Both, DA-immunoreactive cells and fibers were scarcer than TH-immunoreactive ones. This finding suggests that the catecholaminergic system in the spinal cord consists of DA-immunoreactive cells as well as other catecholaminergic cells.


Adachi, K., M. Hasegawa, et al. (2003). "The superior colliculus contains a discrete region involved in the control of jaw movements: role of GABA(A) receptors." Eur J Pharmacol 464(2-3): 147-154.

            The role of GABA(A) receptors in the superior colliculus in the production of rat repetitive jaw movements was examined, as this nucleus receives tonic GABAergic inhibitory inputs from the dorsolateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the entopeduncular nucleus. Both regions are also connected with the ventrolateral striatum where stimulation of either dopamine or acetylcholine receptors has been found to elicit distinct types of jaw movements in rats. The GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (50 and 150 ng/0.2 &mgr;l per side) dose-dependently produced repetitive jaw movements only when injected bilaterally into a circumscribed region (A 3.0) of the lateral deeper layers of the superior colliculus; this region is known to receive input predominantly from the dorsolateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The effects of bicuculline were GABA(A) receptor specific because the effects were abolished by muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, given into the same site. The bicuculline-induced jaw movements differed qualitatively from those elicited by injection of a mixture of (+/-)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benz azepine-7,8-diol (SKF 82958; 5 &mgr;g) and quinpirole (10 &mgr;g), agonist at dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively, or carbachol (2.5 &mgr;g), an acetylcholine receptor agonist, into the ventrolateral striatum. Nevertheless, injection of muscimol into the lateral deeper layers of the superior colliculus (A 3.0) inhibited jaw movements evoked by the dopamine D1/D2 receptor stimulation. Conversely, the jaw movements evoked by acetylcholine receptor stimulation were enhanced by injection of muscimol into the superior colliculus. In conclusion, GABA(A) receptor blockade in a circumscribed region (A 3.0) of the lateral deeper layers of the superior colliculus elicits characteristic repetitive jaw movements, and the GABA(A) receptors in that region modulate the dopamine D1/D2 receptor-mediated and acetylcholine receptor-mediated jaw movements in an opposite manner.


Adachi, Y. U., Y. Aramaki, et al. (2003). "Halothane attenuated haloperidol and enhanced clozapine-induced dopamine release in the rat striatum." Neurochem Int 43(2): 113-119.

            The effect of halothane anesthesia on changes in the extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites (3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA)) induced by neuroleptics was studied using in vivo microdialysis techniques. Halothane attenuated haloperidol-induced dopamine release and enhanced clozapine-induced dopamine release in the rat striatum.A microdialysis probe was implanted into the right striatum of male SD rats. Rats were given saline or the same volume of 200&mgr;gkg(-1) haloperidol (D(2) receptor antagonist), 10mgkg(-1) sulpiride (D(2) and D(3) antagonist), or 10mgkg(-1) clozapine (D(4) and 5-HT(2) antagonist) intraperitoneally with or without 1-h halothane anesthesia (0.5 or 1.5%). Halothane anesthesia did not change the extracellular concentration of DA, but increased the metabolite concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. The increased DA concentration induced by haloperidol was significantly attenuated by halothane anesthesia, whereas the metabolite concentrations were unaffected. Halothane had no effect on the changes in the concentrations of DA or its metabolites induced by sulpiride. The clozapine-induced increases in DA and its metabolites were enhanced by halothane anesthesia.Our results suggest that halothane anesthesia modifies the DA release modulated by antipsychotic drugs in different ways, depending on the effects of dopaminergic or serotonergic pathways.


Adachi, H., Y. Sato, et al. (2003). "Direct evidence of facilitative actions of dopamine in the medial preoptic area on reflexive and noncontact erections in male rats." J Urol 169(1): 386-9.

            PURPOSE: We examined the effects of alterations of the extracellular dopamine level in the medial preoptic area on 2 erectile contexts, namely reflexive and noncontact erections, in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracellular dopamine level was measured in the medial preoptic area after administering the dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion hydrochloride (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri) into the same area through a micro-dialysis tube. We measured the frequency and latency of reflexive erections, and the frequency of noncontact erection during infusion of bupropion. RESULTS: Administration of 10 mM. bupropion was associated with significant elevation in the extracellular dopamine level in the medial preoptic area. Bupropion (1 mM.) and Ringer's solution did not induce significant alterations in dopamine in the medial preoptic area. The number of reflexive erections significantly increased and erection latency decreased during infusion of 10 mM. bupropion into the medial preoptic area. The number of noncontact erections was also increased by administering 10 mM. of drug. CONCLUSIONS: The altered dopamine level in the medial preoptic area affected 2 distinct penile erectile contexts, suggesting that the dopamine levels in the medial preoptic area may be involved in the regulation of erection. These results may have important implications for the central regulation of penile erection.


Adamou, M. and A. S. Hale (2003). "Erotomania induced by venlafaxine: a case study." Acta Psychiatr Scand 107(4): 314-7.

            Adamou M, Hale AS. Erotomania induced by venlafaxine: a case study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003: 107: 314-317. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2003. OBJECTIVE: To describe a never previously reported case of erotomania induced by venlafaxine and highlight the effect of antidepressants on the dopaminergic system. METHOD: A case of erotomania is described. RESULT: Erotomania occurring in two separate occasions developed after treatment with high doses of venlafaxine. The episode remitted only after lowering the dose of the venlafaxine. CONCLUSION: Erotomania may occur with agents such as antidepressants. The dopamine neurotransmission of mood can provide further evidence for the development of newer classes of antidepressants.


Adams, D. H., G. R. Hanson, et al. (2003). "Distinct effects of methamphetamine and cocaine on preprodynorphin messenger RNA in rat striatal patch and matrix." J Neurochem 84(1): 87-93.

            We and others previously reported that equimolar doses of methamphetamine and cocaine differentially increase preprodynorphin mRNA in striatum: methamphetamine causes a patchy increase, whereas cocaine produces a more homogenous one. The current study directly examined whether this effect reflects differential induction in the patch-matrix division of striatum, as identified by micro opioid receptor immunohistochemistry. In addition, we determined whether doses of cocaine (30 mg/kg) and methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) that produced equivalent increases in extracellular dopamine differentially affected preprodynorphin mRNA expression in striatum of male, Sprague-Dawley rats. In both experiments, methamphetamine and cocaine differentially affected preprodynorphin mRNA in striatum after 3 h. The high, equimolar dose of methamphetamine selectively increased preprodynorphin mRNA in the patch division of rostral striatum, whereas cocaine increased preprodynorphin mRNA throughout patch and matrix divisions of striatum. In contrast, a dose of methamphetamine (2.0 mg/kg) that caused an increase in extracellular dopamine similar to that produced by 30 mg/kg cocaine did not significantly affect preprodynorphin mRNA in any region of striatum. These data provide further evidence that cocaine and amphetamines exert distinct effects on the patch-matrix division of striatum and suggest further that the post-synaptic consequences of elevated extracellular dopamine produced by methamphetamine and cocaine are distinct.


Adir, Y. and J. I. Sznajder (2003). "Regulation of lung edema clearance by dopamine." Isr Med Assoc J 5(1): 47-50.

            In the kidney, dopamine inhibits Na,K-ATPase, which results in natriuresis because less Na+ is reabsorbed by the proximal and distal tubules. In contrast, dopamine stimulates Na,K-ATPase activity in the alveolar epithelium, leading to increased alveolar fluid reabsorption. Importantly, dopamine increases alveolar fluid reabsorption not only in normal alveolar epithelium but also in models of lung injury. Dopamine short-term regulation of alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase occurs via D1 receptor activation, protein kinase C and protein phosphatase 2A pathways, leading to increased Na,K-ATPase activity by recruiting sodium pumps from the intracellular compartment to the basolateral membranes. Conversely, D2 receptor activation by long-term dopamine regulates (approximately 24 hours) alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase via the MAPK pathway, [figure: see text] which results in de novo synthesis of Na,K-ATPase proteins. Conceivably, by increasing Na,K-ATPase activity and promoting alveolar fluid reabsorption, dopamine can be of clinical relevance for the treatment of patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to pulmonary edema.


Agartz, I., S. Shoaf, et al. (2003). "CSF monoamine metabolites and MRI brain volumes in alcohol dependence." Psychiatry Res 122(1): 21-35.

            Correlations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites (MAM) and brain structure have been described in schizophrenia, but not in alcoholism. To investigate the relationship between monoaminergic transmission and brain structure in alcoholism, the metabolites of dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA), norepinephrenine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol, MHPG) and serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA) were measured in lumbar CSF in 54 alcohol-dependent patients and 20 healthy subjects. The volumes of the cerebrum, total grey and white matter, total and ventricular CSF, left and right hippocampus, and corpus callosum area were measured with MRI. MHPG and age were positively correlated in alcoholic women. The MAM concentrations were not significantly correlated with the MRI volumes in the subject categories. There were no differences in MAM across subjects defined by diagnosis and gender, age of onset of alcoholism or comorbidity of psychiatric disorders. Total CSF, cerebrum, and white and grey matter tissue volumes differed between patients and healthy subjects. The greatest difference was the white matter reduction in alcoholic women. In alcoholic women and men, monoaminergic neurotransmission measured by the CSF MAM HVA, MHPG, and 5-HIAA is not significantly correlated with the size of different brain structures.


Agid, Y., I. Arnulf, et al. (2003). "Parkinson's disease is a neuropsychiatric disorder." Adv Neurol 91: 365-70.


Agmo, A. (2003). "Lack of opioid or dopaminergic effects on unconditioned sexual incentive motivation in male rats." Behav Neurosci 117(1): 55-68.

            The effects of dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs on sexual incentive motivation were evaluated in sexually inexperienced male rats subjected to a choice procedure. Various parameters of ambulatory activity were recorded as well. Two drugs stimulating dopaminergic neurotransmission, amphetamine and apomorphine, failed to affect sexual incentive motivation, although ambulatory activity was enhanced by amphetamine. The dopamine antagonist cis(Z)-flupenthixol reduced sexual incentive motivation, but only at a dose that severely disrupted motor function. Morphine had marginal effects on sexual motivation but reduced ambulatory activity. These effects were not reduced by a peripheral opioid antagonist, methylnaloxone. Loperamide, a peripheral opioid agonist, reduced sexual motivation through an opioid-independent action. Naloxone was ineffective. Neither dopamine nor opioids seem to be important for sexual incentive motivation.


Ahlskog, J. E. (2003). "Slowing Parkinson's disease progression: recent dopamine agonist trials." Neurology 60(3): 381-9.

            In recent clinical trials, chronic treatment of patients with PD with pramipexole or ropinirole was associated with a slower decline of imaged striatal dopaminergic signal, compared to levodopa monotherapy. Although this could reflect slowed progression of PD, equally plausible is a pharmacologic effect on proteins that interact with the imaging radioligands. To date, there is no compelling evidence favoring dopamine agonists over levodopa; either is an appropriate choice for initial treatment of PD.


Ahn, S. and A. G. Phillips (2003). "Independent modulation of basal and feeding-evoked dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex by the central and basolateral amygdalar nuclei in the rat." Neuroscience 116(1): 295-305.

            Interactions of the central and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala with the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system are implicated in the acquisition and performance of conditioned responses for food reward. This study investigated whether dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat is influenced by the amygdala and if so, to assess the significance of the interaction in free feeding of a palatable food. To this end, we examined the effects of reverse-dialysis of the sodium channel blocker lidocaine into either the central or basolateral on dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex as determined by microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The present results revealed for the first time that inactivation of the central decreased basal levels of dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, administration of lidocaine into the central significantly attenuated feeding-evoked increases in dopamine efflux in both terminal regions. These neurochemical effects were accompanied by feeding-related behaviours akin to the Kluver-Bucy syndrome. In contrast, inactivation of the basolateral affected neither food intake nor dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens, but triggered dramatic long-lasting oscillations in dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex, irrespective of whether food was presented or not. Overall, these findings indicate that the central and basolateral independently modulate dopamine transmission in both terminal regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. The central, in particular, and its influence on the dopamine system, may be involved in the regulation of food intake.


Akil, M., B. S. Kolachana, et al. (2003). "Catechol-o-methyltransferase genotype and dopamine regulation in the human brain." J Neurosci 23(6): 2008-13.

            A functional polymorphism in the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been shown to affect executive cognition and the physiology of the prefrontal cortex in humans, probably by affecting prefrontal dopamine signaling. The COMT valine allele, associated with relatively poor prefrontal function, is also a gene that may increase risk for schizophrenia. Although poor performance on executive cognitive tasks and abnormal prefrontal function are characteristics of schizophrenia, so is psychosis, which has been related to excessive presynaptic dopamine activity in the striatum. Studies in animals have shown that diminished prefrontal dopamine neurotransmission leads to upregulation of striatal dopamine activity. We measured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in mesencephalic dopamine neurons in human brain and found that the COMT valine allele is also associated with increased TH gene expression, especially in neuronal populations that project to the striatum. This indicates that COMT genotype is a heritable aspect of dopamine regulation and it further explicates the mechanism by which the COMT valine allele increases susceptibility for psychosis.


Akpinar, S. (2003). "The primary restless legs syndrome pathogenesis depends on the dysfunction of EEG alpha activity." Med Hypotheses 60(2): 190-8.

            A dopaminergic drug - lisuride exhibited increase in alpha, decrease in beta and slow activities on brain function measured by computerized EEG. It was postulated that reverse EEG changes might play role in the pathogenesis of RLS. During transition from wakefulness to sleep stage 1 changes in alpha activity initiate long-lasting alpha arousal responses and they continue increasingly at sleep stage 2. This dysfunction is probably due to a genetic vulnerability of EEG alpha rhythm and disinhibits the diencephalospinal dopamine system, mostly during sleep but also during wakefulness. The disinhibition produces background for activation of PLMs, disturbing sensations in brainstem and urge to move, motor restlessness at cerebral cortex, generally for legs. All lead to severe insomnia. In RLS patients, forced deviations from alpha to theta or beta activity are unsuitable and resting EEGs reflect a dopamine receptor-specific 'individual sensitivity.' This vulnerability is alleviated after lisuride with suitable CEEG changes.


Albin, R. L. and K. A. Frey (2003). "Initial agonist treatment of Parkinson disease: a critique." Neurology 60(3): 390-4.

            The evidence supporting initial dopamine agonist treatment of PD is reviewed. The two rationales for initial agonist treatment are reduced frequency of motor complications and possible relative neuroprotection by dopamine agonists. The basic science supporting these rationales is equivocal. The clinical evidence for advantages of initial agonist treatment is incomplete. More data are required to determine the optimal initial treatment for PD.


Alcayaga, J., M. Retamal, et al. (2003). "Dopamine inhibits ATP-induced responses in the cat petrosal ganglion in vitro." Brain Res 966(2): 283-7.

            The petrosal ganglion (PG) provides sensory innervation to the carotid sinus and carotid body through the carotid (sinus) nerve (CN). Application of either acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to the PG superfused in vitro activates CN fibers. Dopamine (DA) modulates the effects of ACh. We have previously shown that DA when applied to the PG modulates the effects of ACh on carotid sinus nerve fibers. We currently report the effects of DA on the ATP-induced responses in the isolated PG in vitro. While DA had no effect on the basal activity recorded from the CN, it reduced ATP-induced responses in a dose-dependent manner, when preceding ATP applications by 30 s. Our results suggest that DA-a transmitter present in a group of PG neurons and in carotid body cells-may act as an inhibitory modulator of ATP-evoked responses in PG neurons.


Allen, B. S., J. S. Veluz, et al. (2003). "Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and global reperfusion injury: Avoidance by making a pump prime reperfusate-A new concept." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125(3 Pt 1): 625-32.

            OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether damage after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest can be diminished by changing pump prime components when reinstituting cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Fifteen piglets (2-3 months old) were cooled to 19 degrees C by using the alpha-stat pH strategy. Five were cooled and rewarmed without ischemia (control animals), and the other 10 piglets underwent 90 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Of these, 5 were rewarmed and reperfused without altering the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood prime. In the other 5 animals, the bypass blood prime was modified (leukocyte depleted, hypocalcemic, hypermagnesemic, pH-stat, normoxic, mannitol, and an Na(+)/H(+) exchange inhibitor) during circulatory arrest before starting warm reperfusion. Oxidant injury was assessed on the basis of conjugated dienes, vascular changes on the basis of endothelin levels, myocardial function on the basis of cardiac output and dopamine need, lung injury on the basis of pulmonary vascular resistance and oxygenation, and cellular damage on the basis of release of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase. Neurologic assessment (score 0, normal; score 500, brain death) was done 6 hours after discontinuing cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS: Compared with animals undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass without ischemia (control animals), deep hypothermic circulatory arrest without modification of the reperfusate produced an oxidant injury (conjugated dienes increased 0.78 vs 1.71 absorbance (Abs) 240 nmol/L per 0.5 mL, P <.001 vs control animals), depressed cardiac output (6.0 vs 4.0 L/min, P <.05 vs control subjects), prolonged dopamine need (P <.001 vs control subjects), elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (74% vs 197%, P <.05 vs control subjects), reduced oxygenation (P <.01 vs control subjects), increased neurologic injury (56 vs 244, P <.001 vs control subjects), and increased release of creatine kinase (2695 vs 6974 U/L, P <.05 vs control subjects), aspartate aminotransferase (144 vs 229 U/L), and endothelin (1.02 vs 2.56 pg/mL, P <.001 vs control subjects). Conversely, the oxidant injury was markedly limited (conjugated dienes of 0.85 +/- 0.09 Abs 240 nmol/L per 0.5 mL, P <.001 vs unmodified pump prime) with modification of cardiopulmonary bypass prime, resulting in increased cardiac output (5.1 +/- 0.8 L/min), minimal dopamine need (P <.001 vs unmodified pump prime), no increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (44% +/- 31%, P <.01 vs unmodified pump prime) or endothelin levels (0.64 +/- 0.15 pg/mL, P <.001 vs unmodified pump prime), complete recovery of oxygenation (P <.01 vs unmodified pump prime), reduced neurologic damage (144 +/- 33, P <.05 vs unmodified pump prime), and lower release of aspartate aminotransferase (124 +/- 23 U/L, P <.05 vs unmodified pump prime) and creatine kinase (3366 +/- 918, P <.05 vs unmodified pump prime). CONCLUSIONS: A global reperfusion injury after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was identified and changed. The injury is mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals, resulting in organ and endothelial dysfunction. Modification of global organ and endothelial damage is achieved by modifying the blood prime in the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to deliver a controlled global reperfusate when reinstituting bypass.


Allen, J. F. (2003). "Superoxide as an obligatory, catalytic intermediate in photosynthetic reduction of oxygen by adrenaline and dopamine." Antioxid Redox Signal 5(1): 7-14.

            The superoxide anion radical is known to be the first product of photosynthetic reduction of oxygen mediated by a variety of electron carriers. The effectiveness of many of these electron carriers as herbicides, and the toxicity of the superoxide they produce, have been suggested to rule out oxygen reduction as a physiological component of normal photosynthesis. Here results with isolated spinach chloroplasts are presented that demonstrate that the related catecholamines adrenaline and dopamine mediate photosynthetic reduction of oxygen. Complete inhibition by added superoxide dismutase of light-dependent oxygen uptake by isolated chloroplasts and of the electron transport it supports indicates that superoxide is an obligatory catalytic intermediate, not a product, in adrenaline- and dopamine-mediated oxygen reduction. These compounds might function as chemical analogues of a proposed natural mediator, or oxygen-reducing factor, that allows oxygen reduction to participate in energy transduction in photosynthesis. The identity of the putative natural mediator and the role of oxygen reduction in photosynthesis are discussed. The fully oxidized form of adrenaline, adrenochrome, also acts as a mediator of photosynthetic oxygen uptake, but only by reducing oxygen to superoxide.


Allen, D. D., P. R. Lockman, et al. (2003). "Active transport of high-affinity choline and nicotine analogs into the central nervous system by the blood-brain barrier choline transporter." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304(3): 1268-74.

            Cigarette smoking is strongly implicated in the development of cardiovascular disorders. Recently identified nicotinium analogs may have therapeutic benefit as smoking cessation therapies but may have restricted entry into the central nervous system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to their physicochemical properties. Using the in situ perfusion technique, lobeline, choline, and nicotinium analogs were evaluated for binding to the BBB choline transporter. Calculated apparent K(i) values for the choline transporter were 1.7 microM N-n-octyl choline, 2.2 microM N-n-hexyl choline, 27 microM N-n-decylnicotinium iodide, 31.9 microM N-n-octylpyridinium iodide, 49 microM N-n-octylnicotinium iodide (NONI), 393 microM lobeline, and >/=1000 microM N-methylnicotinium iodide. Nicotine and N-methylpyridinium iodide, however, do not apparently interact with the BBB choline transporter. Given NONI's apparent K(i) value determined in this study and its ability to inhibit nicotine-evoked dopamine release from superfused rat brain slices, potential brain entry of NONI via the BBB choline transporter was evaluated. [(3)H]NONI exhibited a BBB transfer coefficient value of approximately 1.6 x 10(-3) ml/s/g and a K(m) of approximately 250 microM. Unlabeled choline addition to the perfusion fluid reduced [(3)H]NONI brain uptake. We hypothesize the N-n-octyl group on the pyridinium nitrogen of NONI facilitates brain entry via the BBB choline transporter. Thus, NONI may have utility as a smoking cessation agent, given its ability to inhibit nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked dopamine release centrally, and to be distributed to brain via the BBB choline transporter.


Alleweireldt, A. T., K. F. Kirschner, et al. (2003). "D1-receptor drugs and cocaine-seeking behavior: investigation of receptor mediation and behavioral disruption in rats." Psychopharmacology (Berl).

            RATIONALE. Dopamine D1-receptor antagonists and agonists both attenuate cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., operant responding in the absence of cocaine reinforcement) elicited by a cocaine prime or cocaine-paired stimuli. It remains unclear whether these effects are D1-receptor mediated. OBJECTIVES. The present study tested whether a D1 antagonist (SCH-23390) would reverse the attenuating effects of a D1 agonist (SKF-81297) on cocaine-seeking behavior and whether behavioral disruption is involved in these effects. METHODS. Rats trained to press a lever for cocaine reinforcement with light and tone cues paired with each infusion underwent daily extinction sessions during which responding had no scheduled consequences (i.e., neither cocaine nor the cocaine-paired stimulus complex was available). After responding diminished, the effects of the D1 antagonist on the dose-response functions of the D1 agonist for reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior by response-contingent cue presentations or cocaine priming were examined. A separate experiment assessed the effects of the agonist on the dose-response function of the antagonist for cue reinstatement. Stereotyped behavior and activity were also measured during each test session. RESULTS. The attenuating effects of SKF-81297 on cocaine-seeking behavior during cocaine-primed reinstatement were reversed by co-administration of SCH-23390. However, no evidence for reversal of the attenuation during cue reinstatement was found even though agonist-induced stereotypy and antagonist-induced hypoactivity were reversed by co-administration of the two drugs during the same test session. CONCLUSIONS. The findings suggest that the attenuating effects of D1-receptor drugs on cocaine-seeking behavior during cocaine reinstatement are mediated by dopamine D1 receptors; however, it remains unclear whether the effects of these drugs on cocaine-seeking behavior during cue reinstatement are D1-receptor mediated. Nevertheless, it is evident that the attenuation of cocaine-seeking behavior by these drugs is not simply due to behavioral disruption.


Alvaro, J. D., J. R. Taylor, et al. (2003). "Molecular and behavioral interactions between central melanocortins and cocaine." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304(1): 391-9.

            Behavioral and molecular studies have established a link between drugs of abuse and the central melanocortin system, particularly the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R). The present study expands this line of investigation to characterization of the neurochemical and behavioral interactions between MC4-R and the psychomotor stimulant, cocaine. The results demonstrate that repeated, but not acute, cocaine administration up-regulates MC4-R mRNA expression in the striatum and hippocampus, but not cerebral cortex. Pharmacological studies indicate that the up-regulation of MC4-R expression occurs via dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-dependent mechanisms. The D1/D2 antagonist haloperidol and the D2-selective antagonist eticlopride mimic the effect of cocaine on MC4-R expression. In addition, coadministration of a D1-selective antagonist, SCH 23390 [R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzaz epine], completely blocks the up-regulation of MC4 mRNA by cocaine, demonstrating that D1 receptor activation is necessary for this response. Moreover, the results demonstrate that cocaine treatment increases behavioral responses (grooming and locomotor activity) to infusions of a melanocortin agonist, indicating that up-regulation of MC4-R expression results in functional consequences. These data further support a role for the melanocortin-MC4-R neuropeptide system in the biochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine.


Anchordoquy, H. C., C. McGeary, et al. (2003). "Genotyping of three candidate genes after whole-genome preamplification of DNA collected from buccal cells." Behav Genet 33(1): 73-8.

            The amount of genomic DNA obtained from buccal cell methods may be suboptimal for large-scale genetics projects, because the quantity of DNA may be insufficient for the number of analyses proposed. Primer extension preamplification (PEP) methods that can amplify the entire genome 100-fold or more, offer a potential solution to this problem. We compared PEP buccal DNA with genomic buccal DNA from 315 individuals from 97 families of the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study for three loci: the dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, and serotonin transporter. A total of 1890 genomic and 1890 PEP alleles were assessed, and 1670 comparisons (88%) agreed after a single determination. Fifty-three individuals had one or more failed initial polymerase chain reactions (PCR), with 81 failed PCRs in total, accounting for 162 missing allele calls. The failed PCRs were repeated once, and 146 of the missing allele calls were recovered. Comparisons between genomic and PEP DNA allele calls showed 37 individuals had one or more discrepancies, for a total of 52 inconsistencies. Of these, the initial PEP result was found to be correct in 18 cases, the initial genomic result was found to be correct in 25 cases, and 9 could not be resolved. Overall, rates of true calls, missing data, and genotyping errors for genomic and PEP DNA samples were nearly identical: of the 1890 genotypes assessed, true calls were found in 1845 genomic and 1840 PEP samples, missing genotypes in 18 genomic and 16 PEP samples, and incorrect assignments in 18 genomic and 25 PEP samples. These results suggest that routine whole-genome preamplification of genomic DNA is an appropriate method for providing DNA to genotype these loci.


Andersen, M. L., M. Bignotto, et al. (2003). "Cocaine-induced genital reflexes during paradoxical sleep deprivation and recovery." Physiol Behav 78(2): 255-9.

            Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 96 h together with cocaine administration elicits genital reflexes (penile erection [PE] and ejaculation [EJ]) in rats. Our objective was to examine genital reflexes after periods of 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h of PSD and during a 4-day recovery period in acute cocaine-administered rats. After 24 h of PSD followed by cocaine administration, animals started to display PE and EJ, peaking in the 96th h of PSD, whereas PE and EJ were absent in control animals. The effects of more than 96 h of PSD decrease genital reflexes as observed after 120 and 144 h. Genital reflexes were present in the recovery periods but diminished gradually during the period evaluated. Even short periods of PSD probably cause supersensitivity of dopamine (DA) receptors and exacerbate the effects of cocaine on dopaminergic pathways to induce frequent PE and EJ.


Andersson, M., J. E. Westin, et al. (2003). "Time course of striatal DeltaFosB-like immunoreactivity and prodynorphin mRNA levels after discontinuation of chronic dopaminomimetic treatment." Eur J Neurosci 17(3): 661-6.

            DeltaFosB-like proteins are particularly stable transcription factors that accumulate in the brain in response to chronic perturbations. In this study we have compared the time-course of striatal FosB/DeltaFosB-like immunoreactivity and prodynorphin mRNA expression after discontinuation of chronic cocaine treatment to intact rats and chronic L-DOPA treatment to unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. The animals were killed between 3 h and 16 days after the last drug injection. In both treatment paradigms, the drug-induced FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity remained significantly elevated in the caudate putamen even at the longest withdrawal period examined. The concomitant upregulation of prodynorphin mRNA, a target of DeltaFosB, paralleled the time-course of DeltaFosB-like immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesion/L-DOPA model, but was more transient in animals treated with cocaine. These results suggest that DeltaFosB-like proteins have exceptional in vivo stability. In the dopamine-denervated striatum, these proteins may exert sustained effects on the expression of their target genes long after discontinuation of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy.


Andrews, Z. B. and D. R. Grattan (2003). "Opioid receptor subtypes involved in the regulation of prolactin secretion during pregnancy and lactation." J Neuroendocrinol 15(3): 227-36.

            Afferent endogenous opioid neuronal systems facilitate prolactin secretion in a number of physiological conditions including pregnancy and lactation, by decreasing tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) inhibitory tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the opioid receptor subtypes involved in regulating TIDA neuronal activity and therefore facilitating prolactin secretion during early pregnancy, late pregnancy and lactation in rats. Selective opioid receptor antagonists nor-binaltorphimine (kappa-receptor antagonist, 15 micro g/5 micro l), beta funaltrexamine (mu-receptor antagonist, 5 microg/5 microl) and naltrindole (delta-receptor antagonist, 5 microg/5 microl) or saline were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on day 8 of pregnancy during a nocturnal prolactin surge, on day 21 of pregnancy during the ante partum prolactin surge or on day 7 of lactation before the onset of a suckling stimulus. Serial blood samples were collected at regular time intervals, via chronic indwelling jugular cannulae, before and after drug administration and plasma prolactin was determined by radioimmunoassay. TIDA neuronal activity was measured using the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) : dopamine ratio in the median eminence 2 h 30 min after i.c.v. drug injection. In each experimental condition, plasma prolactin was significantly inhibited by both kappa- and mu-receptor antagonists, whereas the delta-receptor antagonist had no effect compared to saline-injected controls. Similarly, nor-binaltorphimine and beta funaltrexamine significantly increased the median eminence DOPAC : dopamine ratio during early and late pregnancy, and lactation whereas naltrindole had no effect compared to saline-injected controls. These data suggest that TIDA neuronal activity, and subsequent prolactin secretion, is regulated by endogenous opioid peptides acting at both kappa- and mu-opioid receptors during prolactin surges of early pregnancy, late pregnancy and lactation.


Anlauf, M., M. K. Schafer, et al. (2003). "Chemical coding of the human gastrointestinal nervous system: Cholinergic, VIPergic, and catecholaminergic phenotypes." J Comp Neurol 459(1): 90-111.

            The aim of this investigation was to identify the proportional neurochemical codes of enteric neurons and to determine the specific terminal fields of chemically defined nerve fibers in all parts of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For this purpose, antibodies against the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/2), the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), serotonin (5-HT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) were used. For in situ hybridization (35)S-labeled VMAT1, VMAT2, and VAChT riboprobes were used. In all regions of the human GI tract, 50-70% of the neurons were cholinergic, as judged by staining for VAChT. The human gut unlike the rodent gut exhibits a cholinergic innervation, which is characterized by an extensive overlap with VIPergic innervation. Neurons containing VMAT2 constituted 14-20% of all intrinsic neurons in the upper GI tract, and there was an equal number of TH-positive neurons. In contrast, DBH was absent from intrinsic neurons. Cholinergic and monoaminergic phenotypes proved to be completely distinct phenotypes. In conclusion, the chemical coding of human enteric neurons reveals some similarities with that of other mammalian species, but also significant differences. VIP is a cholinergic cotransmitter in the intrinsic innervation of the human gut. The substantial overlap between VMAT2 and TH in enteric neurons indicates that the intrinsic catecholaminergic innervation is a stable component of the human GI tract throughout life. The absence of DBH from intrinsic catecholaminergic neurons indicates that these neurons have a dopaminergic phenotype. J. Comp. Neurol. 459:90-111, 2003.


Arai, S., K. Morita, et al. (2003). "Chronic inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter in the brain participates in seizure sensitization to cocaine and local anesthetics." Brain Res 964(1): 83-90.

            The involvement of chronic inhibition of monoamine transporters (MAT) in the brain with respect to sensitization to cocaine- and local anesthetic-induced seizures was studied in mice. Repeated administration of subconvulsive doses of meprylcaine as well as cocaine, both of which inhibit MAT, but not lidocaine, which does not inhibit MAT, increased seizure activity and produced sensitization to other local anesthetics. The effects of five daily treatments of monoamine transporter inhibitors on lidocaine-induced convulsions were examined 2 or 3 days after the last dose of the inhibitors. Daily treatments of GBR 12935, a specific inhibitor of dopamine uptake, significantly increased the incidence and the intensity of lidocaine-induced convulsions at 20 mg/kg and decreased the threshold of the convulsions. Daily treatments of desipramine and maprotiline, selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitors, markedly increased the incidence and intensity of lidocaine-induced convulsions, and decreased the threshold in a dose-dependent manner at between 5 and 20 mg/kg. Daily treatments of citalopram, a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, at 10 and 20 mg/kg, produced no significant increase in the incidence or intensity of lidocaine-induced convulsions, but decreased the threshold of the convulsions. These results suggest that the chronic intermittent inhibition of monoamine uptake increases susceptibility to cocaine- and local anesthetic-induced seizures, and the norepinephrine transporter is an integral component of this sensitization.


Arbelle, S., J. Benjamin, et al. (2003). "Relation of shyness in grade school children to the genotype for the long form of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism." Am J Psychiatry 160(4): 671-6.

            OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that genetic factors are significant in predisposing individuals to shyness and social phobia. Toward further elucidating the genetic structure of shyness, the authors examined four functional polymorphisms that make biological sense for contributing to the development of this phenotype: serotonin transporter promoter region 44 base pair insertion/deletion (5-HTTLPR), dopamine D(4) receptor exon III repeat (DRD4), catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A promoter region repeat (MAO(A)). METHOD: The authors assessed shyness after recruitment of a nonclinical sample (N=118, unscreened second-grade children) using a composite scale derived from questionnaires administered to the children, parents, and teachers. DNA from buccal smears successfully obtained from 98 children was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction methods for the 5-HTTLPR, DRD4, COMT, and MAO(A) polymorphisms. RESULTS: Significant correlations were observed for parents', teachers', and children's ratings of shyness, and Cronbach's alpha reliability was high for all three scales. A significant association was observed between the long 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and shyness, both by the functional classification of Lesch as well as by consideration of all three genotypes. No significant association was observed for the DRD4, COMT, or MAO(A) polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: This study provisionally identifies a common genetic polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, that modestly (effect size=7%) contributed to greater shyness scores in a nonclinical group of second-grade students. These first findings may be relevant to previous reports that have shown an association between the 5-HTTLPR long form and obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism.


Archer, T. and A. Fredriksson (2003). "An antihypokinesic action of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors upon MPTP-induced behaviour deficits in mice." J Neural Transm 110(2): 183-200.

            The effects of co-administration of either the dopamine precursor, L-Dopa, or the directly-acting, mixed dopamine (DA) agonist, apomorphine, with the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanfacine, upon the motor activity of hypoactive L-Dopa-tolerant MPTP-treated C57 BL/6 mice were measured in four experiments. In each case, MPTP (2 x 40 mg/kg, s.c., separated by a 24-hr interval) was administered eight-to-ten weeks before behavioural testing. It was found that clonidine co-administered with L-Dopa (20 mg/kg) restored motor activity in a dose- and parameter-related manner: locomotion and total activity were restored by the 1 mg/kg dose, rearing behaviour by the 0.3 and 1 mg/kg doses. The restorative effects of clonidine (1 mg/kg), co-administered with L-Dopa, were antagonised completely by pretreatment with yohimbine (1 mg/kg), but not by prazosin (1 mg/kg). Guanfacine (1 mg/kg) co-administered with L-Dopa (20 mg/kg) restored locomotor, but not rearing, behaviour in L-Dopa-tolerant MPTP-treated mice. The antikinesic action of guanfacine was antagonised completely by yohimbine (1 mg/kg), but not prazosin (1 mg/kg). Clonidine (1 or 3 mg/kg) co-administered with apomorphine (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), directly-acting DA agonist, did not restore motor behaviour in the hypokinesic L-Dopa-tolerant MPTP-treated mice. Nor did apomorphine, by itself, affect the motor activity of these animals. Neurochemical analysis indicated marked DA, DOPAC and HVA depletions in the striatum, and to a much lesser extent in the frontal cortex, of MPTP-treated mice. The synergistic antiparkinsonian action of clonidine with L-Dopa, but not apomorphine, in hypokinetic MPTP mice for the restoration of responding to a suprathreshold dose of L-Dopa, to which "wearing-off" had been induced previously, is discussed.


Ashby, F. G., S. Noble, et al. (2003). "Category learning deficits in Parkinson's disease." Neuropsychology 17(1): 115-24.

            Sixteen patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 older controls (OCs), and 109 younger controls (YCs) were compared in 2 category-learning tasks. Participants attempted to assign colored geometric figures to 1 of 2 categories. In rule-based tasks, category membership was defined by an explicit rule that was easy to verbalize, whereas in information-integration tasks, there was no salient verbal rule and accuracy was maximized only if information from 3 stimulus components was integrated at some predecisional stage. The YCs performed the best on both tasks. The PD patients were highly impaired compared with the OCs, in the rule-based categorization task but were not different from the OCs in the information-integration task. These results support the hypothesis that learning in these 2 tasks is mediated by functionally separate systems.


Asif, A., R. A. Preston, et al. (2003). "Radiocontrast-induced Nephropathy." Am J Ther 10(2): 137-47.

            Radiocontrast administration remains the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. Clinically, radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (RIN) is defined as a sudden decline in renal function after radiocontrast administration. Typically, the serum creatinine level begins to increase at 24 to 72 hours after the administration of contrast, peaks at 3 to 5 days, and requires another 3 to 5 days to return to baseline. RIN increases the incidence of life-threatening complications such as sepsis, bleeding, and respiratory failure and increases the cost of medical care by extending the hospital stay. The increased mortality associated with acute renal failure encountered in this scenario calls for a heightened awareness of the diagnosis and prevention of RIN. Whereas individuals with healthy renal function are not generally considered to be at particular risk for RIN, patients with preexisting renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus are much more likely to experience acute renal failure after contrast administration. In the past, a variety of therapeutic interventions have been used to prevent or attenuate RIN, including saline hydration, diuretics, mannitol, calcium channel antagonists, theophylline, endothelin receptor antagonists, hemodialysis, and dopamine. More recently, studies demonstrate a positive impact of fenoldopam (dopamine-1 receptor, dopamine-1 agonist) and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in ameliorating RIN. This article discusses the pathophysiology, risk factors, and prevention of RIN.


Attanasio, R., M. Barausse, et al. (2003). "Raloxifene lowers IGF-I levels in acromegalic women." Eur J Endocrinol 148(4): 443-448.

            BACKGROUND: IGF-I suppression in acromegaly obtained by tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), prompted us to evaluate the effects of the administration of a newer SERM, raloxifene (RAL), devoid of estrogenic activity at uterine level, on GH/IGF-I levels in patients with this disease. PATIENTS: Thirteen post-menopausal acromegalic women (aged 55-84 Years) with active acromegaly entered a prospective open pilot study of RAL treatment at 60 mg/day. Nine of the patients, who were resistant to somatostatin analog and dopamine agonist treatment, were not undertaking therapy; the other four, who were partially sensitive to medical treatment, maintained treatment at the maximally effective dosages throughout the study. RESULTS: IGF-I levels fell significantly from 444 (median, interquartile 393-590) &mgr;g/l to 300 (216-608) &mgr;g/l (P=0.0192) after 1 Month of RAL administration and this fall remained stable up to the final evaluation at 5+/-1 Months from the start of RAL treatment (260 (187-410) &mgr;g/l). An IGF-I decrease greater than 30% of basal values was observed in 10 patients (mainly in patients with IGF-I levels lower than 600 &mgr;g/l) and normal values were reached in seven (54%). GH levels did not change (basal 6 (4.1-8) &mgr;g/l, final 5.5 (3.2-7.4) &mgr;g/l). The clinical picture improved in patients sensitive to RAL. RAL withdrawal was followed by the return of IGF-I levels to pretreatment values within 8 weeks in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: RAL decreases IGF-I levels in most acromegalic women with mild or intermediate disease (i.e. with values lower than 600 &mgr;g/l) and normalizes it in many. A prospective randomized study in patients resistant or partially sensitive to other medical treatments is warranted.


Auricchio, A., P. D. Acton, et al. (2003). "In vivo quantitative noninvasive imaging of gene transfer by single-photon emission computerized tomography." Hum Gene Ther 14(3): 255-61.

            Systems aimed at detecting gene expression noninvasively in vivo are desirable for evaluating the outcome of gene transfer in clinical trials. Several approaches have been exploited using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy ((31)P MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and detection of bioluminescent signals. An ideal system is based on transfer of a marker gene, the activity of which can be detected against a background from the target tissue without interfering with normal physiology or eliciting an immune response. The majority of approaches described to date use genes encoding a nonmammalian protein that can elicit immune responses or a transmembrane receptor as a marker gene whose ectopic expression may cause aberrant signaling in the target cell through binding to endogenous ligands. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is normally expressed at high levels, mainly in the dopaminergic neurons of the central nervous system. We previously synthesized a radioactive ligand, [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1, that binds with high affinity to the dopamine transporter, allowing for SPECT imaging of the striatum in normal control subjects and individuals affected with Parkinson's disease. Here we describe a strategy to monitor gene transfer based on adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated transduction of DAT in murine muscle followed by [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 imaging by SPECT of cells expressing the transgene. We show that quantitative, noninvasive imaging of gene transfer is successfully achieved in vivo, using a single-photon computed tomography camera. This system employs a reporter gene encoding a mammalian protein that is absent in most tissues, has no enzymatic activity, and does not activate intracellular pathways. This should be useful to monitor gene transfer in the settings of gene therapy.


Avshalumov, M. V., B. T. Chen, et al. (2003). "Glutamate-Dependent Inhibition of Dopamine Release in Striatum Is Mediated by a New Diffusible Messenger, H2O2." J Neurosci 23(7): 2744-50.

            How glutamate regulates dopamine (DA) release in striatum has been a controversial issue. Here, we resolve this by showing that glutamate, acting at AMPA receptors, inhibits DA release by a nonclassic mechanism mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Moreover, we show that GABA(A)-receptor activation opposes this process, thereby enhancing DA release. The influence of glutamate and GABA on DA release was assessed in striatal slices using carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Modulation by both transmitters was prevented by H(2)O(2)-metabolizing enzymes. In addition, the influence of GABA(A)-receptor activation was lost when AMPA receptors were blocked with GYKI-52466. Together, these data show that modulation of DA release by glutamate and GABA depends on H(2)O(2) generated downstream from AMPA receptors. This is the first evidence that endogenous glutamate can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species under physiological conditions. We also show that inhibition of DA release by H(2)O(2) is mediated by sulfonylurea-sensitive K(+) channels: tolbutamide blocked DA modulation by glutamate and by GABA. The absence of ionotropic glutamate or GABA receptors on DA terminals indicates that modulatory H(2)O(2) is generated in non-DA cells. Thus, in addition to its known excitatory actions in striatum, glutamate mediates inhibition by generating H(2)O(2) that must diffuse from postsynaptic sites to inhibit presynaptic DA release via K(+)-channel opening. These findings have significant implications not only for normal striatal function but also for understanding disease states that involve DA and oxidative stress, including disorders as diverse as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.


Azorin, J. M. (2003). "[Criteria defining antimanic drugs (psychopharmacological specificity and/or nonspecificity?)]." Encephale 29(Pt 1): 59-67.

            The question as to whether specific antimanic drugs differ in their action profile from nonspecific drugs is addressed in regard to symptomatic, nosographic, regulatory and physiopathological issues. Results from clinical studies have shown that mood stabilizers and typical neuroleptics differ as regards improvement of manic symptoms: the former appear to act more evenly on all symptoms of mania, showing a more total normalization of affect, ideation and behaviour whereas the latter tend to sedate patients or to cause a psychomotor retardation, leaving the core manic symptoms unaffected. This has been many times underlined, in particular for lithium, notwithstanding the fact that rating scales employed in clinical trials have often been charged to fall far short of being sensitive enough to pick up the qualitative changes in manic psychopathology. Antimanic drugs may also be more or less specific in their capacities to treat all facets of the manic episode (psychotic, depressive, irritable) whatever the bipolar subtype (bipolar I, II, rapid and non-rapid cycling, secondary bipolar disorder) or the disease stage (early and late episodes). In this respect divalproate seems to have a broader spectrum of efficacy than other available agents. Newer antipsychotics such as olanzapine are promising too. From a regulatory point of view, the current European requirements for a specific antimanic drug are more stringent than the US requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Efficacy must be demonstrated in short-term studies showing an effect in acute mania; moreover it has to be shown that efficacy is to be maintained during the episode. So far, three armed randomized controlled trials are required, in which the test product is compared both with placebo and with a standard treatment. A possible design is a comparison of test product, placebo and active control for 3 weeks followed by a two-arm phase for the remaining 9 weeks, comparing only test product and active control. In addition, a specific antimanic has to demonstrate that it does not cause switching to depression. As regards physiopathology, integrative models of bipolar disorder, ie kindling and behavioural sensitization, offer an exciting perspective on the specificity issue; agents active in these models initialize a cascade of intracellular signaling that leads to changes in the expression of immediate early genes as well as late effector genes in corticolimbic structures: the former may contribute to acute symptomatology whereas the latter give rise to neuroanatomical reorganization which could underlie more stable changes in mood and cognition. Due to their action on intracellular messaging systems, dopamine D(1) receptors, serotonin 5HT(1a) or 5HT(2a) receptors, especially in orbitofrontal circuit, antimanic agents may exhibit a more specific activity than other drugs. This specificity could concern a whole spectrum of bipolarity which might be characterized by impulsivity.


Bai, O., J. Chlan-Fourney, et al. (2003). "Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in rat hippocampus after treatment with antipsychotic drugs." J Neurosci Res 71(1): 127-31.

            Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs, though both effective, act on different neurotransmitter receptors and are dissimilar in some clinical effects and side effects. The typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol has been shown to cause a decrease in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays an important role in neuronal cell survival, differentiation, and neuronal connectivity. However, it is still unknown whether atypical antipsychotic drugs similarly regulate BDNF expression. We examined the effects of chronic (28 days) administration of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs on BDNF mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus using in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis revealed that the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol (1 mg/kg) down-regulated BDNF mRNA expression in both CA1 (P < 0.05) and dentate gyrus (P < 0.01) regions compared with vehicle control. In contrast, the atypical antipsychotic agents clozapine (10 mg/kg) and olanzapine (2.7 mg/kg) up-regulated BDNF mRNA expression in CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus regions of the rat hippocampus compared with their respective controls (P < 0.01). These findings demonstrate that the typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs differentially regulate BDNF mRNA expression in rat hippocampus.


Bairam, A. and F. Marchal (2003). "Carotid sinus nerve chemosensory response to dopamine and acetylcholine in catecholamine depleted cats." Respir Physiolo Neurobiol 134(1): 1-12.

            The aim of this study was to determine the role of endogenous dopamine (DA) and the combined effect of DA and acetylcholine (ACh) on the carotid sinus nerve chemosensory discharge (CSND). CSND was measured in vivo in 6 control cats and 6 cats pre-treated with reserpine and alpha-methyl-paratyrosine [catecholamine depleted group: CAD] during infusions of DA and DA+ACh. In normoxia, CSND was similar between CAD's and controls. DA induced CSND depression was transient in controls but sustained in CAD's. Addition of ACh increased CSND in both groups. In hypoxia (8% O(2) in N(2)), the dynamic CSND response was slowed by DA in CAD's but not controls. Addition of ACh increased this response in both groups. Neither DA nor DA+ACh altered the steady state hypoxic CSND in either group. It is concluded that endogenous DA is important in expressing the dynamic characteristics of both the response to exogenous DA and the response to hypoxia under constant DA infusion. The study also confirms the opposing effects of exogenous DA and ACh on the normoxic CSND.


Balla, A., H. Sershen, et al. (2003). "Subchronic continuous phencyclidine administration potentiates amphetamine-induced frontal cortex dopamine release." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(1): 34-44.

            Functional dopaminergic hyperactivity is a key feature of schizophrenia. Etiology of this dopaminergic hyperactivity, however, is unknown. We have recently demonstrated that subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) treatment in rodents induces striatal dopaminergic hyperactivity similar to that observed in schizophrenia. The present study investigates the ability of PCP to potentiate amphetamine-induced dopamine release in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. Prefrontal dopaminergic hyperactivity is postulated to underlie cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In contrast, the degree of NAc involvement is unknown and recent studies have suggested that PCP-induced hyperactivity in rodents may correlate with PFC, rather than NAc, dopamine levels. Rats were treated with 5-20 mg/kg/day PCP for 3-14 days by osmotic minipump. PFC and NAc dopamine release to amphetamine challenge (1 mg/kg) was monitored by in vivo microdialysis and HPLC-EC. Doses of 10 mg/kg/day and above produced serum PCP concentrations (50-150 ng/ml) most associated with PCP psychosis in humans. PCP-treated rats showed significant, dose-dependent enhancement in amphetamine-induced dopamine release in PFC but not NAc, along with significantly enhanced locomotor activity. Enhanced response was observed following 3-day, as well as 14-day, treatment and resolved within 4 days of PCP treatment withdrawal. These findings support the concept that endogenous NMDA receptor dysfunction could account for the pattern of dopaminergic dysfunction observed in schizophrenia, and suggest that even short duration abuse of PCP-like agents may greatly potentiate behavioral effects of psychostimulants in drug abuse situations. Finally, these studies provide a model system in which to evaluate effects of potential psychotherapeutic agents.


Balle, T., J. Perregaard, et al. (2003). "Synthesis and structure-affinity relationship investigations of 5-aminomethyl and 5-carbamoyl analogues of the antipsychotic sertindole. A new class of selective alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonists." Bioorg Med Chem 11(6): 1065-78.

            A new class of selective alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonists derived from the antipsychotic drug sertindole is described. The most potent and selective compound 1-(2-(4-[5-aminomethyl-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-1-piperidinyl)eth yl)-2-imidazolidinone (11) binds with 0.50 nM affinity for alpha(1) adrenergic receptors and with more than 44 times lower affinity for dopamine D(2),D(3), D(4) and serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. The molecular features providing high affinity for adrenergic alpha(1) receptors and high selectivity towards dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors are discussed.


Balle, T., J. Perregaard, et al. (2003). "Synthesis and structure-affinity relationship investigations of 5-heteroaryl-substituted analogues of the antipsychotic sertindole. A new class of highly selective alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonists." J Med Chem 46(2): 265-83.

            A new class of 5-heteroaryl-substituted 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-piperidinyl)-1H-indoles as highly selective and potentially CNS-active alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists is described. The compounds are derived from the antipsychotic sertindole. The structure-affinity relationships of the 5-heteroaryl substituents, and the substituents on the piperidine nitrogen atom were optimized with respect to affinity for alpha 1 adrenoceptors and selectivity in respect to dopamine (D(1-4)) and serotonin (5-HT(1A-1B) and 5-HT(2A,2C)) receptors. The most selective compound obtained, 3-[4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(1-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-1- piperidinyl]propionitrile (15c), has affinities of 0.99, 3.2, and 9.0 nM for the alpha(1a), alpha(1b), and alpha(1d) adrenoceptor subtypes, respectively, and a selectivity for adrenergic alpha(1a) receptors in respect to dopamine D2, D3, and D4 and serotonin 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) higher than 900, comparable to the selectivity of prazosin. In addition, the compound is more than 150-fold selective in respect to serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors. A new basic pharmacophore for alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists based on a previously reported pharmacophore model for dopamine D2 antagonist is suggested.


Balon, N., J. J. Risso, et al. (2003). "Striatal dopamine release and biphasic pattern of locomotor and motor activity under gas narcosis." Life Sci 72(24): 2731-40.

            Inert gas narcosis is a neurological syndrome appearing when humans or animals are exposed to hyperbaric inert gases (nitrogen, argon) composed by motor and cognitive impairments. Inert gas narcosis induces a decrease of the dopamine release at the striatum level, structure involved in the regulation of the extrapyramidal motricity. We have investigated, in freely moving rats exposed to different narcotic conditions, the relationship between the locomotor and motor activity and the striatal dopamine release, using respectively a computerized device that enables a quantitative analysis of this behavioural disturbance and voltammetry. The use of 3 MPa of nitrogen, 2 MPa of argon and 0.1 MPa of nitrous oxide, revealed after a transient phase of hyperactivity, a lower level of the locomotor and motor activity, in relation with the decrease of the striatal dopamine release. It is concluded that the striatal dopamine decrease could be related to the decrease of the locomotor and motor hyperactivity, but that other(s) neurotransmitter(s) could be primarily involved in the behavioural motor disturbances induced by narcotics. This biphasic effect could be of major importance for future pharmacological investigations, and motor categorization, on the basic mechanisms of inert gas at pressure.


Bao, S., V. T. Chan, et al. (2003). "Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(3): 1405-8.

            Temporal stimulus reinforcement sequences have been shown to determine the directions of synaptic plasticity and behavioral learning. Here, we examined whether they also control the direction of cortical reorganization. Pairing ventral tegmental area stimulation with a sound in a backward conditioning paradigm specifically reduced representations of the paired sound in the primary auditory cortex (AI). This temporal sequence-dependent bidirectional cortical plasticity modulated by dopamine release hypothetically serves to prevent the over-representation of frequently occurring stimuli resulting from their random pairing with unrelated rewards.


Barber, M., B. S. Kasturi, et al. (2003). "Diabetes-induced neuroendocrine changes in rats: role of brain monoamines, insulin and leptin." Brain Res 964(1): 128-35.

            Diabetes is characterized by hyperphagia, polydypsia and activation of the HPA axis. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes produces these effects are not clear. This study was conducted to examine the effects of diabetes on the neuroendocrine system and to see if treatment with insulin and/or leptin is capable of reversing these effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult male rats were subjected to the following treatments: vehicle, insulin (2 U/day, s.c.), leptin (100 microg/kg BW) or leptin+insulin every day for 2 weeks. Food intake, water intake, and body weight were monitored daily. We measured changes in monoamine concentrations in discrete nuclei of the hypothalamus at the end of treatment. Diabetes produced a marked increase in food intake and water intake and this effect was completely reversed by insulin treatment and partially reversed by leptin treatment (P<0.05). Diabetes caused an increase in norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus with a concurrent increase in serum corticosterone. Treatment with insulin and leptin completely reversed these effects. Induction of diabetes also increased the concentrations of NE, dopamine and serotonin in the arcuate nucleus and NE concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (P<0.05). Although insulin treatment was capable of reversing all these changes, leptin treatment was unable to decrease diabetes-induced increase in NE concentrations in the VMH. These data provide evidence that hypothalamic monoamines could mediate the neuroendocrine effects of diabetes and that insulin and leptin act as important signals in this process.


Bares, M., P. Kanovsky, et al. (2003). "Excessive daytime sleepiness and 'sleep attacks' induced by entacapone." Fundam Clin Pharmacol 17(1): 113-6.

            Three patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, all of whom developed excessive daytime sleepiness and 'sleep attacks' after the administration of entacapone, are described. This is another demonstration that inappropriate daytime sleep episodes are not exclusive to dopamine agonists.


Barrier, L., G. Page, et al. (2003). "Sulfatide and GM1 ganglioside modulate the high-affinity dopamine uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes: evidence for the involvement of their ionic charges." Neurochem Int 42(4): 305-13.

            The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the anionic glycolipids GM1 ganglioside and sulfatide on the high-affinity dopamine (DA) uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes.After 1h of incubation, GM1 stably bound to synaptosomes and modified the activity of the neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT). With 1.2 and 12 microM GM1, V(max) decreased by 13 and 23%, respectively, reflecting a slight reduction of the number of functional uptake sites and K(m) was lowered by 21 and 33%, thus showing an increase of the affinity. Treatment of synaptosomes with 1.2 microM of sulfatide, which possesses an anionic sulfated group, led to a similar decrease of V(max) (19%) than GM1, but to a significantly higher reduction of K(m) (35%). In fact, sulfatide associated to synaptosomes in a 3.5-fold higher extent than GM1. Conversely, when GM1 and sulfatide were replaced by GM1 alcohol and galactosylceramide, respectively, no modification of the DA uptake occurred, although these neutral glycolipids incorporated into the synaptosomes to the same extent as the related anionic compounds.Altogether, these results demonstrate the key role of negative charges linked to the oligosaccharide chains of glycolipids in the modulation of DA transport across the synaptosomal membrane.


Barrier, L., S. Barc, et al. (2003). "Evidence that acidosis alters the high-affinity dopamine uptake in rat striatal slices and synaptosomes by different mechanisms partially related to oxidative damage." Neurochem Int 42(1): 27-34.

            Several experimental studies have shown that acidosis impairs neurotransmitter uptake processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying acidosis-induced alterations of the high-affinity dopamine (DA) uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes and slices. Acidosis (pH 5.5) performed either by lactic acid or phosphoric acid induced a decrease in the high-affinity DA uptake in the two striatal models, slices being lesser affected than synaptosomes. Addition of the acid prior to uptake measurement led to a strong reduction of the DA uptake velocity. This early inhibitory effect was completely reversed when acid was removed from the medium by washings. Conversely, when slices and synaptosomes were pre-incubated for different times with each acid, DA uptake remained inhibited in spite of washings. This later inhibition was accompanied by the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and was partially prevented by the antioxidant Trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that acidosis, in a degree encountered during ischemia, alters the high-affinity DA uptake by at least two ways: an early and direct effect of H(+) ions on the DA transporters, and subsequently an inhibition partially mediated by free radical damage.


Bartholomeusz, C. F., G. Box, et al. (2003). "The modulatory effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor function on object working memory in humans." J Psychopharmacol 17(1): 9-15.

            The role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in modulating object working memory in humans is poorly understood. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of D1 and D2 receptor modulation on object working memory. Twelve healthy subjects underwent testing under three conditions (0.05 mg pergolide (D1/D2 receptor agonist), 2.5 mg bromocriptine (D2 receptor agonist) and placebo] in a double-blind, placebo-controlled repeated measures design. Subjects performed the object working memory N-back task pre-drug and 1.5 h and 3 h post-drug administration. Neither pergolide nor bromocriptine had an effect on object working memory performance. These findings suggest that object working memory may not be modulated by D1 and D2 receptors in humans.


Barzilai, A., D. Daily, et al. (2003). "The molecular mechanisms of dopamine toxicity." Adv Neurol 91: 73-82.


Bastia, E. and M. A. Schwarzschild (2003). "DARPP chocolate: a caffeinated morsel of striatal signaling." Sci STKE 2003(165): PE2.

            The psychomotor stimulant effects of caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, are mediated through its antagonism of extracellular adenosine receptors in the basal ganglia. In the absence of caffeine, adenosine stimulates inhibitory striatopallidal neurons that suppress motor activity by binding to A2A receptors, thereby activating a cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A signaling pathway. Bastia and Schwarzschild discuss recent research implicating DARRP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kilodaltons) as an attractive mediator of the sustained psychomotor stimulant effect seen with low doses of caffeine. They highlight the role of postsynaptic A2A receptor blockade, but leave open the possibility that antagonism of presynaptic or postsynaptic A1 receptors also contributes to DARPP-32-dependent psychomotor stimulation by caffeine.


Baufreton, J., M. Garret, et al. (2003). "D5 (not D1) dopamine receptors potentiate burst-firing in neurons of the subthalamic nucleus by modulating an L-type calcium conductance." J Neurosci 23(3): 816-25.

            Dopamine is a crucial factor in basal ganglia functioning. In current models of basal ganglia, dopamine is postulated to act on striatal neurons. However, it may also act on the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a key nucleus in the basal ganglia circuit. The data presented here were obtained in brain slices using whole-cell patch clamp. They reveal that D5 dopamine receptors strengthen electrical activity in the subset of subthalamic neurons endowed with burst-firing capacity, resulting in longer discharges of spontaneous or evoked bursts. To distinguish between D1 and D5 subtypes, the action of agonists in the D1/D5 receptor family was first investigated on rat subthalamic neurons. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR profiling showed that burst-competent neurons only expressed D5 receptors. Accordingly, receptors localized in postsynaptic membranes within the STN were labeled by a D5-specific antibody. Second, agonists in the D1/D5 family were tested in mouse brain slices. It was found that these agonists were active in D1 receptor knock-out mice in a similar way to wild-type mice or rats. This proved that D5 rather than D1 receptors were involved. Pharmacological tools (dihydropyridines, omega-conotoxins, and calciseptine) were used to identify the target of D5 receptors as an L-type channel. This was reached via G-protein and protein kinase A. The action of dopamine on D5 receptors therefore shapes neuronal activity. It contributes to normal information processing in basal ganglia outside striatum. This finding may be useful in drug therapy for various disorders involving changes in STN activity, such as Parkinson's disease and related disorders.


Bauter, M. R., B. J. Brockel, et al. (2003). "Glutamate and dopamine in nucleus accumbens core and shell: sequence learning versus performance." Neurotoxicology 24(2): 227-43.

            This study sought to determine whether neurochemical changes associated with chronic postweaning lead (Pb) exposure, namely, enhanced dopamine (DA) activity and/or blockade of NMDA function in nucleus accumbens (NAC), underlie the learning impairments also associated with this Pb regimen, and whether core or shell subregions of nucleus accumbens would be more important to such effects. If so, then mimicking these neurochemical changes in normal (control) rats should reproduce these Pb-induced learning impairments. For this purpose, the effects of DA (20-80 microg), the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 (1.0-2.5 microg) or DA+MK-801 (40+1.0, 80+2.5 microg) were infused in core or shell of nucleus accumbens in normal rats and effects on a multiple schedule of repeated learning (RL) and performance (P) evaluated. In core, MK-801 mimicked the effects of Pb exposure, selectively reducing RL accuracy with no corresponding changes in P accuracy, an effect derived from an increased frequency of perseverative errors. DA produced non-specific changes, reducing accuracy levels in RL and P components. Accuracy and rate effects of DA could be reversed by concurrent administration of the higher MK-801 dose. In shell, MK-801, primarily the lower dose, reduced accuracy in both the RL and P components, while DA did not produce any systematic effects. Collectively, these results point to a greater importance of core as compared to shell in the mediation of learning of spatial sequences, and suggest that inhibition of glutamatergic NMDA function may play a critical role in the selective learning impairments associated with chronic low level Pb exposure.


Beard, J., K. M. Erikson, et al. (2003). "Neonatal iron deficiency results in irreversible changes in dopamine function in rats." J Nutr 133(4): 1174-9.

            Iron deficiency in human infants and in young animal models produces changes in neural functioning that may be related to monoamine metabolism. This study employed both behavioral and biochemical approaches in a design using cross-fostering to examine alterations in dopamine (DA) function when iron deficiency occurs during the neonatal period. We measured brain Fe, dopamine transporters (DAT) and dopamine receptor density in rats made iron deficient, or not, from postnatal day (PND) 4 to PND 14 or 21. Some pups were then weaned to an iron-deficient diet and others to the control diet to examine the reversibility of these effects. Behaviors related to dopamine function were measured. Dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R), D(1)R and iron concentrations were approximately 70, 80 and 30% of control values, respectively, in the nucleus accumbens and striatum in iron-deficient rats at PND 14. The DAT density was also reduced to 50% of control density in the nucleus accumbens but was unchanged in the striatum. By PND 21, there was also a significant 50% lowering of DAT, D(1)R and D(2)R densities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Iron repletion at PND 21-49 normalized D(1)R, D(2)R, and DAT levels in the nucleus accumbens, PFC and ventral midbrain but not in the striatum. In summary, neonatal iron deficiency is associated with changes in DA biology that vary with duration of iron deficiency, and are not completely normalized despite replenishment of iron status. Changes in DA-related behaviors that were persistent after postweaning iron repletion suggest the existence of a critical neonatal developmental period that is expressed by alterations in DA functioning.


Behrens, S. and K. Sommerville (2003). "Non-oral drug delivery in Parkinson's disease: a summary from the symposium at the 7th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders." Expert Opin Pharmacother 4(4): 595-9.

            This symposium reviewed the issues of non-oral therapy in the late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). The accepted standard treatment of PD is oral levodopa or oral dopamine agonists. However, the long-term complications and limitations of this treatment might be improved by changing therapy from the present pulsatile stimulation to a more constant stimulation of central dopamine receptors. Stimulation of these receptors may be possible with non-oral drug delivery treatments. Many of these non-oral options have been evaluated during the last few decades to find a more continuous drug delivery. The non-oral treatment options include invasive measures such as intraduodenal levodopa, subcutaneous apomorphin and most recently, the non-invasive transdermal (patch) delivery system, with the novel dopamine agonist rotigotine (Aderis Pharmaceuticals Inc.). The benefits of the non-oral, more continuous dopaminergic treatment of PD needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials and long-term clinical practice, before they can be considered as potential replacements of the standard oral therapy.


Bello, N. T., K. L. Sweigart, et al. (2003). "Restricted feeding with scheduled sucrose access results in an upregulation of the rat dopamine transporter." Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284(5): R1260-8.

            Recent studies suggest that the mesoaccumbens dopamine system undergoes neurochemical alterations as a result of restricted feeding conditions with access to sugars. This effect appears to be similar to the neuroadaptation resulting from drugs of abuse and may underlay some pathological feeding behaviors. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms of these alterations, the present study used quantitative autoradiography and in situ hybridization to assess dopamine membrane transporter (DAT) protein density and mRNA expression in restricted-fed and free-fed adult male rats. The restricted feeding regimen consisted of daily limited access to either a normally preferred sucrose solution (0.3 M) or a less preferred chow in a scheduled (i.e., contingent) fashion for 7 days. Restricted-fed rats with the contingent sucrose access lost less body weight, ate more total food, and drank more fluid than free-fed, contingent food, or noncontingent controls. In addition, these animals had selectively higher DAT binding in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. This increase in protein binding also was accompanied by an increase in DAT mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. In contrast to the restricted-fed groups, no differential effect in DAT regulation was observed across free-fed groups. The observed alteration in behavior and DAT regulation suggest that neuroadaptation in the mesoaccumbens dopamine system develops in response to repeated feeding on palatable foods under dietary constraints. This supports the notion that similar cellular changes may be involved in restrictive eating disorders and bingeing.


Ben, J. (2003). "Prolactin Regulation by Heparin-Binding Growth Factors Expressed in Mouse Pituitary Cell Lines." Endocrine 20(1-2): 35-44.

            Prolactin (PRL) secretion is regulated by both inhibitory and stimulatory factors. Dopamine is the primary inhibitor, but multiple factors stimulate PRL gene expression and release. These can be divided into two categories: those that rapidly stimulate PRL release and those that induce the PRL gene followed by increased release. The pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) contains a PRL-releasing factor (PRF) that rapidly stimulates PRL release. From a mouse IL tumor, we established a nonmelanotroph cell line, mIL5, which secretes a factor that stimulated PRL gene expression and release in vitro. This PRF activity did not rapidly stimulate PRL release and bound to heparin. Our objective was to examine the regulation of PRL by heparin-binding proteins and characterize the PRF activity produced by mIL5 cells. PRL gene expression and release was determined using GH3 cells, stably transfected with a PRL promoter/luciferase reporter (GH(3)/luc). After screening mIL5 cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we found that they expressed two heparin-binding growth factors basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) which were considered strong candidates for PRL transcriptional regulatory activity. To determine whether the activity produced by mIL5 cells is attributed to FGF-2 or HB-EGF, three approaches were used: heparin-affinity chromatography, Western blotting, and immunoneutralization. The PRF activity in conditioned media eluted from heparin with 1 M NaCl whereas both FGF- 2 and HB-EGF eluted with >1 M NaCl. Neither growth factor was detectable in mIL5 cells by Western blotting. Antibodies directed against FGF-2 and HB-EGF, alone or together, did not abolish this activity from mIL5 cells. In conclusion, FGF-2 and HB-EGF are potent stimulators of PRL gene expression and release but do not account for most of the endogenous PRL gene activity in mIL5 cells. The distinct heparin-binding factor that stimulates PRL gene transcription remains to be identified.


Ben-Shlomo, A., I. Miklovsky, et al. (2003). "Leukemia inhibitory factor regulates prolactin secretion in prolactinoma and lactotroph cells." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(2): 858-63.

            Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and transgenic mice overexpressing pituitary LIF develop Cushing-like syndrome accompanied by reduced prolactin (PRL) expression. Effects of LIF were, therefore, tested on PRL expression in human prolactinomas and normal and tumorous rat lactotrophs. Normal human pituitary tissue expressed LIF, as well as the LIF receptor (LIFR) signaling subunits, gp130 and LIFR. Although all of 19 prolactinomas tested expressed gp130 and LIFR subunit mRNA and immunoreactive protein, only 3 of 19 prolactinomas expressed LIF mRNA. All of four prolactinomas had no detectable LIF immunoreactivity, in contrast to all other pituitary tumor types that expressed LIF. LIF (5 nM) treatment reduced PRL secretion in primary human prolactinoma cultures by up to 42% (P < 0.0005), an effect that was surprisingly blocked by sulpiride, a D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist. LIF (5 nM) also suppressed PRL levels in primary rat pituitary cultures by 70% (P < 0.005), and in rat MMQ pituitary tumor cells, and this effect was also reversed by sulpiride (200 micro M). D2R agonist suppression of PRL was not additive with LIF. GH levels in these cells were unchanged by LIF, consistent with a selective effect on PRL. Transfection of human long-form D2R into an LIF-resistant MMQ cell clone restored LIF responsiveness. These results show that even though human prolactinomas express gp130 and LIFR, and respond to exogenous LIF, albeit less than normal lactotrophs, they are largely devoid of LIF. These observations indicate a role for LIF in loss of autocrine PRL suppression contributing to unrestrained prolactinomas PRL secretion. Moreover, PRL suppression by LIF may be mediated by gp130 and D2R interaction.


Benavides, S., K. Nicol, et al. (2003). "Yersinia septic shock following an autologous transfusion in a pediatric patient." Transfus Apheresis Sci 28(1): 19-23.

            Although the literature on infections transmitted via transfused blood focuses on viruses, Yersinia enterocolitica can also cause severe infections in patients receiving transfusions. A 13-year-old patient developed severe sepsis after an autologous blood transfusion contaminated with Y. enterocolitica. The patient was an otherwise healthy female undergoing posterior spinal fusion for congenital scoliosis. Prior to surgery, the patient donated blood for perioperative and postoperative use. A few days before the donation, she had complained of abdominal pain and was experiencing mild diarrhea. The patient received four units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) during the surgery. Intraoperatively, the patient developed fever up to 103.6 degrees F, became hypotensive requiring epinephrine and dopamine, and developed metabolic acidosis with serum bicarbonate concentration dropping to 16 mmol/l. The surgery team believed the patient was experiencing malignant hyperthermia and attempted to cool patient during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit and treated for severe shock of unknown etiology. The patient further developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient received supportive care and was started on ampicillin/sulbactam on postoperative day (POD) one which was changed to clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin on POD two when blood cultures grew gram-negative bacilli. On POD three, cultures were identified as Y. enterocolitica and antibiotics were changed to tobramycin and cefotaxime based on susceptibility data. Sequelae of the shock included adult respiratory distress syndrome requiring intubation and a tracheostomy and multiple intracranial hemorrhagic infarcts with subsequent seizure disorder. Due to severe lower extremity ischemia, she required a bilateral below the knee amputation. The cultures of the snippets from the bags of blood transfused to the patient also grew Y. enterocolitica. This case illustrates the importance of considering transfusion related bacterial infections in patients receiving PRBCs. All patients in shock following any type of transfusion may require aggressive antibiotic therapy, until the diagnosis and etiology are known.


Benians, A., J. L. Leaney, et al. (2003). "The dynamics of formation and action of the ternary complex revealed in living cells using a G-protein-gated K+ channel as a biosensor." J Biol Chem 278(12): 10851-8.

            Traditionally the consequences of activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by an agonist are studied using biochemical assays. In this study we use live cells and take advantage of a G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir3.1+3.2A) that is activated by the direct binding of Gbetagamma subunit to the channel complex to report, in real-time, using the patch clamp technique the activity of the "ternary complex" of agonist/receptor/G-protein. This analysis is further facilitated by the use of pertussis toxin-resistant fluorescent and non-fluorescent Galpha(i/o) subunits and a series of HEK293 cell lines stably expressing both channel and receptors (including the adenosine A(1) receptor, the adrenergic alpha(2A) receptor, the dopamine D(2S) receptor, the M4 muscarinic receptor, and the dimeric GABA-B(1b/2) receptor). We systematically analyzed the contribution of the various inputs to the observed kinetic response of channel activation. Our studies indicate that the combination of agonist, GPCR, and G-protein isoform uniquely specify the behavior of these channels and thus support the importance of the whole ternary complex at a kinetic level.


Bennett, S. A. and D. C. Roberts (2003). "Analysis of protein expression in brain tissue by ELISA." Methods Mol Med 79: 283-95.


Benoit, S. C., J. A. McQuade, et al. (2003). "Altered feeding responses in mice with targeted disruption of the dopamine-3 receptor gene." Behav Neurosci 117(1): 46-54.

            Dopamine signaling has been implicated in the control of food intake and body weight. In particular, dopamine is important in the control of meal size and number and is thought to mediate the response to metabolic deprivation states. In the present experiments, the authors assessed the role of the dopamine-3 receptor (D3R) in the feeding responses to 2-deoxy-D-glucose, mercaptoacetate, and peripheral insulin. All 3 compounds increased food intake in wild-type mice, but the hyperphagic responses were blunted in D3R-/- mice. In other experiments, D3R-/- mice were hyperresponsive to the administration of amylin and leptin relative to wild-type mice. These results support the hypothesis that D3Rs chronically inhibit the effects of adiposity hormones, thereby contributing to a net anabolic state.


Berding, G., T. Brucke, et al. (2003). "[[(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy]." Nuklearmedizin 42(1): 31-8.

            AIMS: Definition of the regional pattern of dopamine transporter (DAT) dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and evaluation of a potential correlation between DAT binding and symptoms; elucidation of the role of DAT imaging in the differential diagnosis of PD and multiple system atrophy (MSA); assessment and comparison of serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in PD and MSA. METHODS: [(123)I]ss-CIT SPECT was performed in 14 patients with advanced PD, 10 with moderate MSA and 20 healthy persons. Specific to nonspecific tracer binding ratios (V(3)") were calculated via ROI analysis of uptake images at 4 h (SERT binding) and 24 h (DAT binding) p. i. RESULTS: In PD bilateral reduction of striatal DAT binding (63-70%) was seen. The caudate ipsilateral to the clinically predominantly affected side showed relatively the least impairment. Significant correlations (r = -0.54 to -0.64) between DAT binding and Hoehn and Yahr stage, UPDRS-scores and duration of disease were found. In MSA DAT binding was less reduced (40-48%) targeting the putamen contralateral to the side of clinical predominance. Significantly lower SERT binding was observed in PD midbrain and MSA hypothalamus compared to controls - and in MSA relative to PD mesial frontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: In advanced PD striatal DAT binding is markedly reduced with the least reduction in caudate ipsilateral to the clinically predominantly affected side. In moderate MSA with asymmetrical symptoms DAT dysfunction is predominant in the contralateral putamen, a pattern seen in early PD. The reduction of SERT in the midbrain area of PD patients suggests additional tegmental degeneration while in MSA the serotonergic system seems to be more generally affected.


Berenguer, P., C. Soulage, et al. (2003). "Behavioral and neurochemical effects induced by subchronic exposure to 40 ppm toluene in rats." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74(4): 997-1003.

            Chronic toluene inhalation at concentrations above occupational exposure limits (e.g., 100 ppm; NIOSH) has been repeatedly shown to induce neurotoxic effects. In contrast, although few clinical and experimental data are available on the effects of toluene exposure at concentrations below occupational exposure standards, some of these data may support adverse effects of long-term exposure to low toluene concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of 40 ppm inhaled toluene in a rat model of 16-week subchronic exposure, examining locomotor and rearing activities; adaptation/sensitization to narcosis produced by acute exposure to toluene at high concentration; and tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase activities, and dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) turnovers in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum. Our results mainly show that subchronic exposure to 40 ppm toluene significantly resulted in a sensitization to toluene-induced narcosis, a decrease in rearing activity, and alterations in DA and 5-HT transmissions. This demonstrates that subchronic toluene exposure at a low concentration may lead to adverse changes in neurobehavioral and neurochemical functioning, and further questions in a public health perspective the actual neurotoxic potential of toluene and other organic compounds, because deficits in functioning are generally viewed as precursors of more serious adverse effects.


Bertoldi, M. and C. Borri Voltattorni (2003). "Reaction and substrate specificity of recombinant pig kidney Dopa decarboxylase under aerobic and anaerobic conditions." Biochim Biophys Acta 1647(1-2): 42-7.

            Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) catalyzes as main reaction the stereospecific CO(2) abstraction from L-Dopa and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), generating the corresponding aromatic amines, dopamine and serotonin, respectively. Side reactions with turnover time of minutes are also catalyzed by the enzyme. In particular, DDC exhibits half-transaminase activity toward D-aromatic amino acids and oxidative deaminase activity toward aromatic amines. The latter reaction could represent a new activity for this class of enzymes. Studies on the effect exerted by O(2) on reaction specificity of DDC revealed that under anaerobic conditions decarboxylation of L-aromatic amino acids takes place with a k(cat) approximately half of that measured in the presence of O(2), and is accompanied by a decarboxylation-dependent transamination, whereas oxidative deamination of aromatic amines is replaced by half-transamination. Half-transamination of D-aromatic amino acids is unaffected by the presence or absence of O(2). Some structural elements relevant for the control of reaction and substrate specificity of DDC have been identified by means of limited tryptic digestion and site-directed mutagenesis studies. All together, the data indicate that the chemical nature of the substrate, the presence of O(2), the integrity of a mobile loop, the absence of perturbation in the coenzyme-binding cleft and pH are important requirements for the achievement of a closed conformational state where the highest level of reaction specificity is reached.


Bertorello, A. M., Y. Komarova, et al. (2003). "Analysis of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Motion and Incorporation into the Plasma Membrane in Response to G Protein-coupled Receptor Signals in Living Cells." Mol Biol Cell 14(3): 1149-57.

            Dopamine (DA) increases Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in lung alveolar epithelial cells. This effect is associated with an increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules within the plasma membrane (). Analysis of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase motion was performed in real-time in alveolar cells stably expressing Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules carrying a fluorescent tag (green fluorescent protein) in the alpha-subunit. The data demonstrate a distinct (random walk) pattern of basal movement of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-containing vesicles in nontreated cells. DA increased the directional movement (by 3.5 fold) of the vesicles and an increase in their velocity (by 25%) that consequently promoted the incorporation of vesicles into the plasma membrane. The movement of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-containing vesicles and incorporation into the plasma membrane were microtubule dependent, and disruption of this network perturbed vesicle motion toward the plasma membrane and prevented the increase in the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity induced by DA. Thus, recruitment of new Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules into the plasma membrane appears to be a major mechanism by which dopamine increases total cell Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.


Bezard, E., C. E. Gross, et al. (2003). "Presymptomatic compensation in Parkinson's disease is not dopamine-mediated." Trends Neurosci 26(4): 215-21.

            The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) appear only after substantial degeneration of the dopaminergic neuron system (e.g. an 80% depletion of striatal dopamine) - that is, there is a substantive presymptomatic period of the disease. It is widely believed that dopamine-related compensatory mechanisms are responsible for delaying the appearance of symptoms. Recent advances in understanding the presymptomatic phase of PD have increased our understanding of these dopamine-related compensatory mechanisms and have highlighted the role of non-dopamine-mediated mechanisms both within and outside the basal ganglia. This increased knowledge of plasticity within cortical-basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry as dopaminergic neuron degeneration progresses has implications for understanding plasticity in neural circuits generally and, more specifically, for developing novel therapeutics or presymptomatic diagnostics for PD.


Bhatt, R., O. Youngren, et al. (2003). "Dopamine infusion into the third ventricle increases gene expression of hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary prolactin and luteinizing hormone beta subunit in the turkey." Gen Comp Endocrinol 130(1): 41-7.

            Turkey prolactin (PRL) secretion is controlled by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons residing in the infundibular nuclear complex (INF) of the hypothalamus. The VIPergic activity is modulated by dopamine (DA) via stimulatory D(1) DA receptors. DA (10nmol/min for 40min) was infused into the third ventricle of laying turkey hens to study its effect on circulating PRL, hypothalamic VIP and pituitary PRL and LHbeta subunit mRNA levels. Plasma PRL was significantly elevated after 20min of DA infusion and remained elevated 30min after cessation of infusion. Hypothalamic VIP mRNA content was significantly greater in the INF of DA-infused birds than it was in the INF of vehicle-infused control birds. No increase in VIP mRNA due to DA infusion was noted in the preoptic area. Pituitary PRL and LHbeta subunit mRNAs were increased in DA-infused hens as compared to vehicle-infused controls but the rate of increase was more in PRL than LHbeta subunit. This study demonstrates that exogenous DA activates hypothalamic VIP gene expression and this increased expression is limited exclusively to the avian INF. The increased VIP mRNA in the INF is correlated with increased levels of circulating PRL and PRL and LHbeta mRNAs in the anterior pituitary.


Bianchi, P., M. H. Seguelas, et al. (2003). "Activation of Pro-Apoptotic Cascade by Dopamine in Renal Epithelial Cells is Fully Dependent on Hydrogen Peroxide Generation by Monoamine Oxidases." J Am Soc Nephrol 14(4): 855-62.

            ABSTRACT. Dopamine plays a critical role in regulation of different renal functions, including glomerular filtration, renin secretion, and sodium excretion. Recent studies have shown that some of the dopamine effects in the proximal tubule may involve hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation by the catecholamine-degrading enzyme monoamine oxidases (MAO). The present study is an investigation of the potential role of H(2)O(2) generated by MAO during dopamine degradation in apoptosis of proximal tubule cells. Dopamine concentrations between 50 and 200 micro M induced apoptosis of rat proximal tubule and monoamine oxidase B-transfected HEK 293 cells (+73% compared with untreated cells) but not in wild-type HEK 293 cell lacking monoamine oxidases. Apoptosis of proximal tubule cells was preceded by an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 proteins, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. All these events required dopamine internalization into the cells, its metabolism by MAO, and H(2)O(2) production, as they were prevented by the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, the irreversible MAO inhibitor pargyline, or the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. These results show that, in renal proximal tubule cells, dopamine induces oxidative stress, activation of pro-apoptotic cascade, and cell apoptosis exclusively by mechanisms involving H(2)O(2) production by monoamine oxidases. E-mail: parini@toulouse.inserm.fr


Billings, L. M. and J. F. Marshall (2003). "D2 antagonist-induced c-fos in an identified subpopulation of globus pallidus neurons by a direct intrapallidal action." Brain Res 964(2): 237-43.

            Much research now supports the view that the dopaminergic innervation of the globus pallidus external segment (GP) influences basal ganglia information processing via pallidal dopamine (DA) D2, D3, and possibly D1 receptors. Systemic DA agonists, or systemic or intrapallidal dopamine D2-class antagonist administration, can induce immediate early gene expression (IEG) in the rat GP. In view of the distinct chemical phenotypes and axonal projections of the GP neurons, it is important to characterize the population(s) of pallidal neurons responding to local DA manipulations. Parvalbumin (PV) immunostaining was used to identify one of the two principal GP neuron populations. Awake, behaving rats received intrapallidal infusions of the dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride (50 or 100 ng), the D1-class antagonist SCH-23390 (100 ng), the D2-class agonist quinpirole (500 ng), the GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin (0.25, 0.5 or 1 microg) or bicuculline (20 ng), the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (15 ng) or vehicle. Intrapallidal GABA manipulations were used to assess the likelihood that the effects of the DAergic drugs on Fos induction occurred secondarily to altering intrapallidal GABA release. Using Fos and PV double immunolabeling procedures, we found that several treatments induced GP Fos, but that intrapallidal sulpiride induced Fos almost exclusively in PV-lacking pallidal neurons. No other intrapallidal drug-induced Fos showed similar population specificity. These results support evidence suggesting that GP DA can play a unique and critical role in modulating pallidal neuron function, and that the cessation of pallidal dopamine transmission can activate gene expression within the pallidal neuron subpopulation that maintains extensive axonal projections to caudate-putamen.


Bissantz, C., P. Bernard, et al. (2003). "Protein-based virtual screening of chemical databases. II. Are homology models of G-Protein Coupled Receptors suitable targets?" Proteins 50(1): 5-25.

            The aim of the current study is to investigate whether homology models of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that are based on bovine rhodopsin are reliable enough to be used for virtual screening of chemical databases. Starting from the recently described 2.8 A-resolution X-ray structure of bovine rhodopsin, homology models of an "antagonist-bound" form of three human GPCRs (dopamine D3 receptor, muscarinic M1 receptor, vasopressin V1a receptor) were constructed. The homology models were used to screen three-dimensional databases using three different docking programs (Dock, FlexX, Gold) in combination with seven scoring functions (ChemScore, Dock, FlexX, Fresno, Gold, Pmf, Score). Rhodopsin-based homology models turned out to be suitable, indeed, for virtual screening since known antagonists seeded in the test databases could be distinguished from randomly chosen molecules. However, such models are not accurate enough for retrieving known agonists. To generate receptor models better suited for agonist screening, we developed a new knowledge- and pharmacophore-based modeling procedure that might partly simulate the conformational changes occurring in the active site during receptor activation. Receptor coordinates generated by this new procedure are now suitable for agonist screening. We thus propose two alternative strategies for the virtual screening of GPCR ligands, relying on a different set of receptor coordinates (antagonist-bound and agonist-bound states).


Blandini, F., R. Fancellu, et al. (2003). "Selective stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors of the D1- or D2-class causes opposite changes of fos expression in the rat cerebral cortex." Eur J Neurosci 17(4): 763-70.

            It has been suggested that activation of striatal neurons expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors elicits opposite changes in the net output of the basal ganglia circuitry and, consequently, in the functional interactions of the circuit with the cerebral cortex. In particular, it has been recently reported that striatal D1 receptors may regulate cortex function. To further address this issue, we mapped cerebral expression of Fos protein following intrastriatal stimulation of D1- or D2-class receptors in freely moving animals. Using permanent cannulas implanted in the right striatum, Sprague-Dawley rats received intrastriatal microinfusions of SKF 38393 (D1 agonist) or quinpirole (D2 agonist) or saline (controls), combined with systemic administration of D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or D2 antagonist eticlopride or saline. Animals treated with SKF 38393 showed dose-dependent, massive Fos increases in the motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual and limbic regions of the cerebral cortex, ipsilaterally to the injected striatum. Consistent Fos expression was also found in the injected striatum and, bilaterally, in the nucleus accumbens shell. These increases were effectively counteracted by systemic SCH 23390. Conversely, quinpirole did not induce significant cortical or striatal expression of Fos, which was instead observed after the systemic administration of eticlopride. Fos was not detected in any of the other basal ganglia nuclei, regardless of the dopamine agonists or antagonists used. Our results confirm that striatal D1 dopamine receptors play a central role in the modulation of cortical activity, thus providing additional information on the functional interaction between basal ganglia circuitry and cerebral cortex.


Blessing, H., M. Bareiss, et al. (2003). "Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition protects against 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) toxicity in primary mesencephalic cultures: new insights into levodopa toxicity." Neurochem Int 42(2): 139-51.

            Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has protective effects on levodopa (L-DOPA), but not D-DOPA toxicity towards dopamine (DA) neurons in rat primary mesencephalic cultures [Mol. Pharmacol. 57 (2000) 589]. Here, we extend our recent studies to elucidate the mechanisms of these protective effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of all main L-DOPA/DA metabolites on survival of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons in primary rat mesencephalic cultures. 3-O-Methyldopa, homovanillic acid, dihydroxyphenyl acetate and 3-methoxytyramine had no effects at concentrations up to 300 micro M after 24h, whereas DA was more toxic than L-DOPA with toxicity at concentrations of >or=1 micro M. The coenzyme of COMT, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), and its demethylated product S-adenosylhomocystein caused no relevant alteration of THir neuron survival or L-DOPA toxicity. In contrast, inhibition of SAM synthesis by selenomethionine showed time- and dose-dependent increase of THir neuron survival, but did not affect L-DOPA toxicity. L-DOPA-induced lipid peroxidation in mesencephalic cultures was not modified by the COMT inhibitor Ro 41-0960 (1 micro M). Increased contamination of the cultures with glial cells attenuated L- and D-DOPA toxicity, but caused significant enhancement of protection by COMT inhibitors against L-DOPA toxicity only. Investigations of L-DOPA uptake in rat striatal cultures using HPLC revealed a significant reduction of extracellular L-DOPA concentrations by Ro 41-0960. Our data confirm that L-DOPA toxicity towards DA neurons is mediated by an autooxidative process, which is attenuated by glial cells. In addition, we demonstrate a second mechanism of L-DOPA toxicity in vitro mediated by a COMT- and glia-dependent pathway, which is blocked by COMT inhibitors, most likely due to enhanced glial uptake of L-DOPA.


Bolos, J. (2003). "Current strategies for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs." Mini Rev Med Chem 3(3): 241-55.

            While classical neuroleptics are characterized by dopamine D(2) antagonism, this is also considered to be the cause of their neurological side effects. In recent years, novel antipsychotic drugs with improved efficacy, devoid of extrapyramidal effects are being developed. The mechanisms of action of these new atypical antipsychotics can be classified into three general groups: a) binding to D(2) together with non-dopaminergic receptors, b) interaction with dopamine receptor subtypes other than D(2) and c) selective binding to non-dopaminergic systems, such as glutamatergic, sigma, neurotensin, and cannabinoid.


Bordet, R., D. Devos, et al. (2003). "Study of Circadian Melatonin Secretion Pattern at Different Stages of Parkinson's Disease." Clin Neuropharmacol 26(2): 65-72.

            To explore changes in melatonin secretion patterns and biologic rhythms in Parkinson's disease patients with or without levodopa-related motor complications (LDRMCs), the authors investigated, in an observational study, circadian rhythms of central temperature, motor activity, plasma cortisol, and melatonin in three groups: de novo untreated patients (group I), patients treated with levodopa + dopamine agonist and without LDRMCs (group II), and patients treated with levodopa + dopamine agonist and with LDRMCs (group III). There were no differences among the three groups for the rhythm of temperature, motor activity, or plasma cortisol. There was a significant (p < 0.05) phase advance in plasma melatonin secretion in patients receiving a dopaminergic treatment compared with untreated patients. The daytime area under the curve (AUC) was increased significantly in group III, and the nighttime AUC-to-daytime AUC ratio of melatonin secretion decreased significantly in group III, suggesting that the nychthemeral pattern of melatonin secretion was changed in patients with LDRMCs. Comparison of the three groups suggests a slight but insignificant phase advance and amplitude decrease of circadian melatonin secretion related to both evolution and treatment of Parkinson's disease. Despite the lack of a global desynchronization in other circadian biologic rhythms, the circadian secretion pattern of melatonin is modified in patients with LDRMCs.


Borglum, A. D., G. Kirov, et al. (2003). "Possible parent-of-origin effect of Dopa decarboxylase in susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder." Am J Med Genet 117B(1): 18-22.

            Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) catalyses the synthesis of both dopamine and serotonin as well as trace amines suggested to possess neuromodulating capabilities. We have previously reported evidence suggesting an association between DDC and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) [Borglum et al., 1999]. To further investigate the possible role of DDC in BPAD, we analyzed a 1- and a 4-bp deletion variant-both of putative functional significance-in two new samples: a case-control sample with 140 cases and 204 controls, and 100 case-parents trios. We also tested for association in subjects with familial disease in both the new and the previously investigated samples. The previously reported association was not replicated in either of the new samples. However, a preponderance of the 1-bp deletion was increased by analysis of the familial cases separately for all case-control samples investigated, indicating a possible association with familial disease (combined analysis, P = 0.02). In the trio sample, a preferential paternal transmission of the 4-bp deletion was observed (P = 0.006). DDC is located next to the imprinted gene GRB10, which is expressed specifically from the paternal allele in fetal brains. Increased transmission of paternal DDC alleles has also been suggested in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We suggest that DDC might confer susceptibility to BPAD predominantly when paternally transmitted.


Bortolozzi, A., R. Duffard, et al. (2003). "Asymmetrical development of the monoamine systems in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated rats." Neurotoxicology 24(1): 149-57.

            The purpose of this study was to determine whether the regional brain biogenic amine levels in adult rats were altered by pre- and post-natal exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pregnant rats were daily orally exposed to 70 mg/kg per day of 2,4-D from gestation day (GD) 16 to post-partum day (PPD) 23. After weaning, the pups were assigned to one of two subgroups: T1 fed with untreated diet up to post-natal day (PND) 90 and T2 (maintained with 2,4-D diet up to PND 90). In addition, we wanted to know the effect of 2,4-D on lateralization in the monoamine systems of the basal ganglia of these adult rats and whether there was any correlation with the behavioral developmental pattern previously reported by us. In this study the content of noradrenaline (NA) was significantly increased in substantia nigra (SN) while it decreased in cerebellum in male and female rats of T2 group. The decreased dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovallinic acid (HVA) contents in cerebellum, midbrain, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and prefrontal cortex (PFc) showed an alteration in the mesocorticolimbic system. However, an increase of DA in SN and of DOPAC and HVA in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both sexes and of DA and DOPAC (only in females) in striatum was detected. The contents of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) were significantly increased in both sexes in PFc, striatum (St), midbrain, SN and cerebellum. Variations of any monoamine levels in NAc and VTA were determined. T1 rats were irreversibly altered: a diminution in DA and/or DOPAC levels in PFc, midbrain, VTA and cerebellum was determined. Indolamines of these rats were increased in both sexes in PFc and St. There was also a large increase in 5-HT levels in midbrain of male rats. Although no changes in the dopaminergic system with respect to their control values in any side of these brain structures were observed, DA and DOPAC levels were found to be decreased in the right side with respect to the left side in striata and accumbens nuclei in T2 female rats supporting the behavioral rotation previously registered by us in these rats. In addition, the increased 5-HT content detected in both the right and left striata observed in this study could be the answer to the behaviors observed and to the early alterations in dopamine in basal ganglia by 2,4-D in neonatal exposed rats, mediated by a serotonergic modulation on the dopaminergic system.


Boutet-Robinet, E. A., F. Finana, et al. (2003). "Endogenous RGS proteins facilitate dopamine D(2S) receptor coupling to G(alphao) proteins and Ca2+ responses in CHO-K1 cells." FEBS Lett 533(1-3): 67-71.

            The role of RGS proteins on dopaminergic D2S receptor (D2SR) signalling was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells, using recombinant RGS protein- and PTX-insensitive G alphao proteins. Dopamine-mediated [35S]GTPgammaS binding was attenuated by more than 60% in CHO-K1 D2SR cells coexpressing a RGS protein- and PTX-insensitive G(alphao)Gly184Ser:Cys351Ile protein versus cells coexpressing a similar amount of PTX-insensitive G alphaoCys351Ile protein. Dopamine-agonist-mediated Ca2+ responses were dependent on the coexpression with a G alphao Cys351Ile protein and were fully abolished upon coexpression with a G alphaoGly184Ser:Cys351Ile protein. These results suggest that interactions between the G alphao protein and RGS proteins are involved in efficient D2SR signalling.


Bradley, A. L., S. Izenwasser, et al. (2003). "Synthesis of dopamine transporter selective 3-[2-(diarylmethoxyethylidene)]-8-alkylaryl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13(4): 629-32.

            A series of 3-[2-(diarylmethoxyethylidene)]-8-alkylaryl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes was synthesized and the binding affinities of the compounds were determined at the dopamine and serotonin transporters. The 8-phenylpropyl analogues 8a (K(i)=4.1 nM) and 8b (K(i)=3.7 nM) were the most potent compounds of the series with binding affinities 3 times greater than GBR-12909. In addition, 8a (SERT/DAT=327) was over 300-fold more selective for the dopamine transporter than the serotonin transporter.


Brandstadter, D. and W. H. Oertel (2003). "Depression in Parkinson's disease." Adv Neurol 91: 371-81.


Bressan, R. A., K. Erlandsson, et al. (2003). "Optimizing Limbic Selective D2/D3 Receptor Occupancy by Risperidone: A [123I]-Epidepride SPET Study." J Clin Psychopharmacol 23(1): 5-14.

            Selective action at limbic cortical dopamine D2-like receptors is a putative mechanism of atypical antipsychotic efficacy with few extrapyramidal side effects. Although risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for D receptors, low-dose risperidone treatment is effective without inducing extrapyramidal symptoms. The objective was to test the hypothesis that treatment with low-dose risperidone results in 'limbic selective' D /D receptor blockade Dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPET) sequences were obtained over 5 hours after injection of [ I]-epidepride ( approximately 150 MBq), using a high-resolution triple-headed brain scanner (Marconi Prism 3000XP). Kinetic modelling was performed using the simplified reference region model to obtain binding potential values. Estimates of receptor occupancy were made relative to a normal volunteer control group (n = 5). Six patients treated with low-dose risperidone (mean = 2.6 mg) showed moderate levels of D /D occupancy in striatum (49.9%), but higher levels of D /D occupancy in thalamus (70.8%) and temporal cortex (75.2%). Occupancy values in striatum were significantly different from thalamus (F (1,4) = 26.3, p < 0.01) and from temporal cortex (F (1,4) = 53.4, p < 0.01). This is the first study to evaluate striatal and extrastriatal occupancy of risperidone. Low dose treatment with risperidone achieves a similar selectivity of limbic cortical over striatal D /D receptor blockade to that of atypical antipsychotics with lower D /D affinity such as clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. This finding is consistent with the relevance of 'limbic selective' D /D receptor occupancy to the therapeutic efficacy of atypical antipsychotic drugs.(2) (2) (3) (2) (3) (2) (3) (2) (3) (2) (3) (2) (3)


Bronte-Stewart, H. (2003). "Parkinson's Disease: Surgical Options." Curr Treat Options Neurol 5(2): 131-147.

            Surgical therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been a treatment option for over 100 years. Advances in the knowledge of basal ganglia physiology and in techniques of stereotactic neurosurgery and neuroimaging have allowed more accurate placement of lesions or "brain pacemakers" in the sensorimotor regions of target nuclei. This, in turn, has led to improved efficacy with fewer complications than in the past. Currently, bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) is the preferred option (and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration) for the surgical treatment of PD. The most important predictors for outcome for DBS for PD are patient selection and electrode location. Patients should have a documented preoperative improvement from dopaminergic medication of at least 30% in the patient's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor disability scores. A levodopa challenge may be needed to document the best "on" state. Dementia or active cognitive decline must be excluded. Active psychiatric disease should be treated preoperatively. Patients should be motivated, with good support systems, and committed to the postoperative management of DBS therapy. Deep brain stimulation should be considered when the patient begins to experience dyskinesia and on-off fluctuations despite optimal medical therapy. Deep brain stimulation is not a good option at the final stages of the disease because of the increased incidence of dementia and severe comorbidity. The DBS electrode should be placed in the sensorimotor region of the GPi or STN. Subthalamic nucleus and GPi DBS can improve all motor aspects of PD, as well as predictable "on" time, without dyskinesia or fluctuations. On average, STN DBS results in a greater reduction of dopaminergic medication compared with GPi DBS. Because of the smaller size of the target region, the pulse generator battery life is longer with STN then with GPi DBS. Deep brain stimulation programming is a skill that is readily learned and may be required of all neurologists in the future. Emerging surgical therapies are restorative, and they aim to replace or regenerate degenerating dopaminergic neurons. These include embryonic mesencephalic tissue transplantation, human embryonic stem cell transplantation, and gene-derived methods of intracerebral implantation of growth factors and dopamine- producing cell lines. It will be important to determine whether DBS, if performed before the onset of motor response complications to medical therapy, may prevent this stage of disease altogether or delay it for a significant period of time. The same question applies to the future with restorative therapy.


Brown, S. W., R. T. Meyers, et al. (2003). "Catecholamines in a macrophage cell line." J Neuroimmunol 135(1-2): 47-55.

            This study provides the first evidence for catecholamine synthesis and release in the RAW264.7 cell line, an important macrophage model. Although catecholamines were low in unstimulated cells, activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and increased extracellular norepinephrine and intracellular dopamine within 48 h. The catecholamine synthesis inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (alpha-mpt) decreased extracellular norepinephrine levels, suggesting release and rapid turnover of newly synthesized norepinephrine. High concentrations of dopamine or norepinephrine (>/=100 microM) decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of macrophages. These anti-proliferative effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid. Pre-incubation with a glutathione synthesis inhibitor (L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine [L-BSO]) increased sensitivity to catecholamine-stimulated apoptosis, suggesting that glutathione protects macrophages from both endogenous and exogenous catecholamines.


Bubar, M. J., L. R. McMahon, et al. (2003). "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance cocaine-induced locomotor activity and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens." Neuropharmacology 44(3): 342-353.

            The role for serotonin (5-HT) in mediating the behavioral effects of cocaine may be related in part to the ability of 5-HT to modulate the function of the dopamine (DA) mesoaccumbens pathways. In the present study, the ability of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, IP) and fluvoxamine (10 and 20 mg/kg, IP) to alter cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP)-induced hyperactivity and DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was analyzed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic administration of either fluoxetine or fluvoxamine enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner; fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, IP) also enhanced cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP)-induced DA efflux in the NAc. To test the hypothesis that the NAc serves as the locus of action underlying these effects following systemic cocaine administration, fluoxetine (1 and 3 &mgr;g/0.2 &mgr;l/side) or fluvoxamine (1 and 3 &mgr;g/0.2 &mgr;l/side) was microinfused into the NAc shell prior to systemic administration of cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP). Intra-NAc shell infusion of 3 &mgr;g of fluoxetine or fluvoxamine enhanced cocaine-induced hyperactivity, while infusion of fluoxetine (1 &mgr;M) through the microdialysis probe implanted into the NAc shell enhanced cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP)-induced DA efflux in the NAc. Thus, the ability of systemic injection of SSRIs to enhance cocaine-evoked hyperactivity and DA efflux in the NAc is mediated in part by local actions of the SSRIs in the NAc.


Buhmann, C., A. Bussopulos, et al. (2003). "Dopaminergic response in Parkinsonian phenotype of Machado-Joseph disease." Mov Disord 18(2): 219-21.

            We report on a patient with genetically proven Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD) presenting with signs indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease (PD), including levodopa response and typical levodopa-induced motor fluctuations. Only after 10 years of prolonged benefit from levodopa and different dopamine agonists (DA), the patient developed cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs. Preferential D3-receptor-stimulating dopamine agonists especially showed a benefit at the time, when D2 receptor binding was reduced in IBZM SPECT. This is the first report of a meaningful response to DA in MJD.


Buhmann, C., V. Glauche, et al. (2003). "Pharmacologically modulated fMRI--cortical responsiveness to levodopa in drug-naive hemiparkinsonian patients." Brain 126(Pt 2): 451-61.

            According to the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit model, dopamine depletion in the nigrostriatal system leads to hypoactivation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson's disease. This functional cortical deafferentation and its reversibility by levodopa (L-dopa) treatment has been established in previous studies for SMA but remains controversial for M1. We used functional MRI (fMRI) and a simple finger opposition task to correlate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes with motor performance, assessed separately for each hand between fMRI scanning sessions. Eight drug-naive patients with an akinetic idiopathic hemiparkinsonian syndrome (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-1.5) and 10 healthy controls were studied. Patients performed a simple, auditory-paced random finger- opposition task every 3 s before and repeatedly every 20 min after intake of 300 mg of fast-release L-dopa. M1 contralateral to the affected hand and SMA, predominantly of the contralateral side, showed a BOLD signal increase after L-dopa intake. Furthermore, comparing BOLD responses of M1 and SMA between the patients and controls revealed that these areas were hypoactive before L-dopa treatment. Signal changes in M1 and SMA were highly correlated with motor performance, which increased after L-dopa intake. This result is not confounded by a performance effect because the motor task employed during scanning was identical throughout all sessions. In contrast to previous imaging studies in which cortical reorganization in Parkinson's disease was thought to have caused M1 hyperactivation, our data are in accordance with the hypothesis that, in de novo idiopathic hemiparkinsonian syndrome, motor cortex hypoactivation in contralateral M1 and bilateral SMA is caused by a decreased input from the subcortical motor loop, which is reversible by L-dopa.


Bullmore, E., J. Suckling, et al. (2003). "Practice and difficulty evoke anatomically and pharmacologically dissociable brain activation dynamics." Cereb Cortex 13(2): 144-54.

            Brain activation is adaptive to task difficulty and practice. We used functional MRI to map brain systems activated by an object-location learning task in 24 healthy elderly volunteers each scanned following placebo and two of four active drugs studied. We distinguished a fronto-striatal system adaptive to difficulty from a posterior system adaptive to practice. Fronto-striatal response to increased cognitive load was significantly attenuated by scopolamine, sulpiride and methylphenidate; practice effects were not modulated by these drugs but were enhanced by diazepam. We also found enhancement by methylphenidate, and attenuation by sulpiride, of load response in premotor, cingulate and parietal regions comprising a spatial attention network. Difficulty and practice evoke anatomically and pharmacologically dissociable brain activation dynamics, which are probably mediated by different neurotransmitter systems in humans.


Bustamante, D., M. Goiny, et al. (2003). "Nicotinamide prevents the long-term effects of perinatal asphyxia on basal ganglia monoamine systems in the rat." Exp Brain Res 148(2): 227-32.

            Asphyxia during birth can cause gross brain damage, but also subtle perturbations expressed as biochemical or motor deficits with late onset in life. Thus, it has been shown that brain dopamine levels can be increased or decreased depending upon the severity of the insult, and the region where the levels are determined. In this study, perinatal asphyxia was evoked by immersing pup-containing uterus horns removed by hysterectomy in a water bath at 37 degrees C for various periods of time from 0 to 20 min. After the insult, the pups were delivered, given to surrogate mothers, treated with nicotinamide, further observed and finally, 4 weeks later, killed for monoamine biochemistry of tissue samples taken from substantia nigra, neostriatum and nucleus accumbens. The main effect of perinatal asphyxia was a decrease in dopamine and metabolite levels in nucleus accumbens, and a paradoxical increase in the substantia nigra. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg i.p., once a day for 3 days, beginning 24 h after the perinatal asphyctic insult) prevented the effect of asphyxia in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, striatal dopamine levels were increased by nicotinamide in asphyctic animals. No apparent changes were observed in substantia nigra. A prominent unexpected effect of perinatal asphyxia alone was on the levels of the metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which were increased in substantia nigra and decreased in both neostriatum and accumbens. However, nicotinamide increased 5-HIAA levels in all regions, which appeared to be related to the extent of the asphyctic insult. These results suggest that nicotinamide is a useful treatment against the long-term consequences produced by perinatal asphyxia on brain monoamine systems, and that there is a therapeutic window following the insult, providing a therapeutic opportunity to protect the brain.


Buznikov, G. A., L. A. Nikitina, et al. (2003). "Localization of serotonin and its possible role in early embryos of Tritonia diomedea(Mollusca: Nudibranchia)." Cell Tissue Res 311(2): 259-66.

            A classical neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) was detected immunochemically using laser scanning microscopy at the early stages of Tritonia diomedeadevelopment. At the one- to eight-cell stages, immunolabeling suggested the presence of 5-HT in the cytoplasm close to the animal pole. At the morula and blastula stages, a group of micromeres at the animal pole showed immunoreactivity. At the gastrula stage no immunoreactive cells were detected, but they arose again at the early veliger stage. Antagonists of 5-HT(2) receptors, ritanserin and cyproheptadine, as well as lipophilic derivatives of dopamine blocked cleavage divisions or distorted their normal pattern. These effects were prevented by 5-HT and its highly lipophilic derivates, serotoninamides of polyenoic fatty acids, but not by the hydrophilic (quaternary) analog of 5-HT, 5-HTQ. The results confirm our earlier suggestion that endogenous 5-HT in pre-nervous embryos acts as a regulator of cleavage divisions in nudibranch molluscs.


Bymaster, F. P., D. L. McKinzie, et al. (2003). "Use of M1-M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice as novel tools to delineate the physiological roles of the muscarinic cholinergic system." Neurochem Res 28(3-4): 437-42.

            In this review we report recent findings on the physiological role of the five known muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) as shown by gene targeting technology. Using knockout mice for each mAChRs subtype, the role of mAChRs subtypes in a number of physiological functions was confirmed and new activities were discovered. The M1 mAChRs modulate neurotransmitter signaling in cortex and hippocampus. The M3 mAChRs are involved in exocrine gland secretion, smooth muscle contractility, pupil dilation, food intake, and weight gain. The role of the M5 mAChRs involves modulation of central dopamine function and the tone of cerebral blood vessels. mAChRs of the M2 subtype mediate muscarinic agonist-induced bradycardia, tremor, hypothermia, and autoinhibition of release in several brain regions. M4 mAChRs modulate dopamine activity in motor tracts and act as inhibitory autoreceptors in striatum. Thus, as elucidated by gene targeting technology, mAChRs have widespread and manifold functions in the periphery and brain.


Bywood, P. T. and S. M. Johnson (2003). "Mitochondrial complex inhibitors preferentially damage substantia nigra dopamine neurons in rat brain slices." Exp Neurol 179(1): 47-59.

            Using a rat brain slice preparation, we investigated the role of energy impairment on the selective loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Brain slices (400 microm) were incubated at 35 degrees C for 2 h in the presence or absence of mitochondrial complex inhibitors, rotenone, MPP+, 3-nitropropionic acid, and antimycin A. Slices were also incubated in rotenone with excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists, MK-801 and CNQX, to determine whether rotenone-induced damage was mediated by EAAs. The slices were then fixed, recut into 30-microm sections, and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to identify catecholamine neurons and to quantify loss of TH-labeled dendrites after treatment. Quantitative comparison was made between SN dopamine neurons, in which rotenone-induced dendrite loss was severe, and hypothalamic A11 dopamine neurons, which were spared. Adjacent sections that were immunolabeled for calbindin or stained with cresyl violet also revealed a striking dendritic degeneration of SN neurons in rotenone-exposed slices, whereas noncatecholamine neurons, such as those in the perifornical nucleus (PeF), were more resistant. Preferential damage to SN dopamine neurons was also evident with other mitochondrial complex inhibitors, MPP+ and antimycin A. EAA receptor antagonists provided partial protection to SN neurons in slices incubated with rotenone (3 microM). The particular vulnerability of SN dopamine neurons in the slice is consistent with the vulnerability of SN in Parkinson's disease. The selective effect of mitochondrial complex inhibition in SN dopamine neurons implies a fundamental deficit in the capacity of these neurons to defend against toxic insult.


Cai, Y., M. Sun, et al. (2003). "Antioxidant Activity of Betalains from Plants of the Amaranthaceae." J Agric Food Chem 51(8): 2288-2294.

            Antioxidant activity of betalain pigments (seven pure compounds and four combined fractions) from plants of the family Amaranthaceae was evaluated using the modified DPPH(*) (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method. All tested betalains exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Their EC(50) values ranged from 3.4 to 8.4 &mgr;M. Gomphrenin type betacyanins (mean = 3.7 &mgr;M) and betaxanthins (mean = 4.2 &mgr;M) demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity, 3-4-fold stronger than ascorbic acid (13.9 &mgr;M) and also stronger than rutin (6.1 &mgr;M) and catechin (7.2 &mgr;M). Antioxidant activity of the tested betalains decreased in the following order: simple gomphrenins > acylated gomphrenins > dopamine-betaxanthin > (S)-tryptophan-betaxanthin > 3-methoxytyramine-betaxanthin > betanin/isobetanin > celosianins > iresinins > amaranthine/isoamaranthine. This study also investigated and discussed the relationship between the chemical structure and the activity of the betalains. The free radical scavenging activity of the betalains usually increased with the numbers of hydroxyl/imino groups and, moreover, depended on the position of hydroxyl groups and glycosylation of aglycones in the betalain molecules.


Calderon Gonzalez, R. and R. F. Calderon Sepulveda (2003). "[Gilles de la tourette syndrome: clinical spectrum and management]." Rev Neurol 36(7): 679-88.

            OBJECTIVE. To present the current concepts of the clinical phenomenology and natural history of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), differential diagnosis with other involuntary movements, its pathogenesis and current management. DEVELOPMENT. GTS is a disorder characterized by a spectrum of both motor and sonic tics, and a spectrum of behavioral disorders. There is not a biological marker that confirms or refutes the diagnosis of GTS, so this diagnosis remains purely clinical. It has been found to be present in 1 to 3% of school population. An specific cause for GTS is unknown, though most cases appear to occur on an hereditary polygenetic basis. Observations that drugs increasing dopamine neurotransmission, including levodopa and the dopamine receptor agonist pergolide lessen tics, have called into question the dopamine receptor supersensibility hypothesis. The hypothesis proposing basal ganglia and frontostriatal pathways involvement in the pathophysiology of the disorder is the most likely. Frequently, disruption due to tics is overshadowed by comorbid conditions, like obsessive compulsive behaviors, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, other behavioral disorders and learning disabilities, so the management should be targeted to them. CONCLUSION. The knowledge about the basic mechanisms and the integral definition of the clinical spectrum of tics and neurobehavioral manifestations, and its natural history in a patient with GTS, allow us to establish a more rational approach for management and prognosis


Callaway, J. K., A. J. Lawrence, et al. (2003). "AM-36, a novel neuroprotective agent, profoundly reduces reactive oxygen species formation and dopamine release in the striatum of conscious rats after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion." Neuropharmacology 44(6): 787-800.

            Elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been demonstrated during ischemia and reperfusion. Dopamine (DA) autooxidation may contribute to increased ROS generation. The novel neuroprotective agent AM-36 has antioxidant and Na(+) channel blocking activity and reduces neuronal damage in both cortex and striatum after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Here we sought in vivo evidence of the ability of AM-36 to inhibit intrastriatal ROS generation and DA release after ischemia. Salicylate hydroxylation coupled with in vivo microdialysis in the striatum of conscious Long Evans rats was performed during MCA occlusion by perivascular microinjection of endothelin-1 (ET-1). AM-36 (6 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min after MCA occlusion. Dialysates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the salicylate hydroxylation product, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3 DHBA) and for DA and metabolites. MCA occlusion resulted in a marked increase in 2,3 DHBA and a secondary increase in all analytes, 180-300 min later. Increased DA release coincided with 2,3 DHBA formation. AM-36 significantly reduced ischemia induced increases in 2,3 DHBA and DA, and infarct volume in the striatum. Significant improvements in a battery of behavioural tests was also found in AM-36 treated rats. This study has demonstrated profound inhibition of ROS generation by a novel compound with antioxidant activity, administered post-ischemia in conscious rats.


Calon, F., M. Morissette, et al. (2003). "Changes of GABA receptors and dopamine turnover in the postmortem brains of parkinsonians with levodopa-induced motor complications." Mov Disord 18(3): 241-53.

            Brain samples from 14 Parkinson's disease patients, 10 of whom developed motor complications (dyskinesias and/or wearing-off) on dopaminomimetic therapy, and 11 controls were analyzed. Striatal 3beta-(4-(125)I-iodophenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid isopropyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-121) -specific binding to dopamine transporter and concentration of dopamine were markedly decreased, but no association between level of denervation and development of motor complications was observed. The homovanillic acid/dopamine ratio of concentrations was higher in putamen of patients with wearing-off compared to those without. Striatal (35)S-labeled t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([(35)S]TBPS) and [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding to GABA(A) receptors were unchanged in patients with Parkinson's disease, whereas [(125)I]CGP 64213 -specific binding to GABA(B) receptors was decreased in the putamen and external segment of the globus pallidus of parkinsonian patients compared with controls. [(3)H]Flunitrazepam binding was increased in the putamen of patients with wearing-off compared to those without. [(35)S]TBPS-specific binding was increased in the ventral internal globus pallidus of dyskinetic subjects. These data suggest altered dopamine metabolism and increased GABA(A) receptors in the putamen related to the pathophysiology of wearing-off. The present results also suggest that an up-regulation of GABA(A) receptors in the internal globus pallidus is linked to the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society


Calverley, P., E. T. Keating, et al. (2003). "Conclusion. Lessons from the novel D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, Viozan: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and drug development implications." Respir Med 97 Suppl A: S71-4.

            The development of novel drugs for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses significant challenges. The mechanisms through which the chronic symptoms of COPD arise are poorly understood, making identification of potential therapeutic targets and in vivo evaluation of potential therapies extremely difficult. Despite these challenges, a unique approach of combined D2 dopamine, beta2-adrenoceptor agonism was identified as a valid potential target for the treatment of key COPD symptoms, the therapeutic potential of which was investigated in a series of preclinical evaluations. Subsequent clinical assessment has amassed a wealth of data from over 4000 patients, providing valuable insights into COPD, clinical trial design and the value of patient self-assessment tools.


Cammarota, M., L. R. Bevilaqua, et al. (2003). "Inhibition of mRNA and protein synthesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus blocks reinstallment of an extinguished conditioned fear response." J Neurosci 23(3): 737-41.

            Memories are extinguished by the repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus to which it has been associated. It is believed that extinction establishes a new hierarchy of responses rather than an actual forgetting of the original response, which can usually reappear spontaneously after interruption of the extinction process. In this study, our aim was to analyze how profound extinction can be. Rats were trained in a one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance paradigm and then were exposed to several extinction sessions in which they were allowed to freely explore the apparatus for 30 sec after having stepped down. Extinction was complete enough so that there was no spontaneous recovery, and test session performance could not be enhanced by pharmacological agents with well known facilitative actions on retrieval. After being submitted to a new training session, control animals reacquired the avoidance response; however, animals failed to do so after receiving bilateral intra-CA1 infusions of either the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin or the mRNA synthesis blocker 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole 15 min before the retraining session. Our results indicate that extinction can be carried to a point at which reinstallment of the conditioned response requires, like the original learning, de novo gene expression and protein synthesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus.


Cannizzaro, C., R. Monastero, et al. (2003). "[3H]-DA release evoked by low pH medium and internal H+ accumulation in rat hypothalamic synaptosomes: involvement of calcium ions." Neurochem Int 43(1): 9-17.

            The pH fluctuations have been often interpreted as an insufficient regulation or as a consequence of the onset of pathological events, such as ischemia, in which a significant decrease in pH levels occurs. Neurotransmitter release appears to be affected by pH drop significantly. In this study, we investigated the effect of an extracellular and an intracellular acidification on tritiated dopamine release ([3H]-DA release), from superfused rat hypothalamic synaptosomes. When compared to basal release, extracellular acidification, due to a reduction in the external pH of the nominally carbonic-free superfusion media, provoked a significant increase in [3H]-DA release that showed a sensitiveness to calcium omission. Intraterminal acidification, obtained blocking the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA) and 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride (DMA), induced a significant increase in [3H]-DA outflow which occurred in a calcium-dependent manner (80% inhibition in absence of calcium from superfusion media). To further promote an intraterminal acidification through a H(+) inner accumulation, the proton ionophore nigericin was used. At every dose employed (10 microM), this compound induced a significant increase in [3H]-DA outflow, compared to basal release. Nigericin-evoked [3H]-DA release showed a 50% decrease when calcium was omitted from superfusion media. When BAPTA-AM, a chelator of intracellular calcium, was added, nigericin-evoked [3H]-DA was completely abolished. These data indicate that [3H]-DA release can be induced by extracellular acidification due to a lowering of external pH and by an intraterminal acidification due to an internal proton accumulation. The mechanism that can trigger this exocytotic process appears to depend on calcium presence, and in particular, on an increased intraterminal calcium availability.


Cano-Cebrian, M. J., T. Zornoza-Sabina, et al. (2003). "Local acamprosate modulates dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens through NMDA receptors: an in vivo microdialysis study." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 367(2): 119-25.

            The effects of acamprosate on the in vivo dopamine extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens and the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in these effects were investigated. Microdialysis in freely moving rats was used to assess dopamine levels before and during simultaneous perfusion of acamprosate and/or different agonists or antagonists of NMDA receptors. Perfusion with acamprosate at concentrations of 0.5 and 5 mM provoked a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The lowest concentration of acamprosate assayed (0.05 mM) had no effect on dopamine levels. Infusion of NMDA (25 and 500 micro M) and the glutamate uptake blocker, L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxilic acid (PDC) (0.5 mM) into the NAc caused a significant increase in DA, whereas acamprosate (0.05 mM) co-infusion with these compounds blocked or attenuated the NMDA and PDC-induced increases in DA levels. Co-infusion of the selective antagonist of NMDA receptors, DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) (400 micro M) with acamprosate (0.5 mM), did not reduce the increase of DA levels induced by acamprosate. These results demonstrate that acamprosate is able to modulate DA extracellular levels in NAc via NMDA receptors and suggest that acamprosate acts as an antagonist of NMDA receptors.


Cantan, R., N. Milesi-Defrance, et al. (2003). "[Bilateral pneumothorax and tamponade after acupuncture]." Presse Med 32(7): 311-2.

            INTRODUCTION: The "target" of acupuncture is usually the muscle, but it occasionally approaches other anatomical structures such as the pleura, which may subsequently suffer damage. OBSERVATION: During a session of acupuncture, a 25-year-old woman had a malaise with shock and neurological disorders. The initial examinations revealed a bilateral pneumothorax associated with pericardial and peritoneal effusions. Symptomatic reanimation combining dopamine, left pleural draining and pericardial puncture led to rapid haemodynamic improvement. The etiological exploration, having eliminated an underlying pathology, concluded in the diagnosis of tamponade and bilateral pneumothorax following a session of acupuncture. COMMENTS: Our patient presented the association of two traumatic complications of acupuncture: cardiac tamponade due to haemopericardium and bilateral pneumothorax. Although these complications are rare, they must be known.


Caputi, L., C. P. Bengtson, et al. (2003). "D-tubocurarine reduces GABA responses in rat substantia nigra dopamine neurons." Synapse 47(3): 236-9.


Carboni, E. (2003). "Microdialysis coupled with electrochemical detection. A way to investigate brain monoamine role in freely moving animals." Methods Mol Med 79: 415-32.


Carmine, A., M. G. Chheda, et al. (2003). "Two NOTCH4 polymorphisms and their relation to schizophrenia susceptibility and different personality traits." Psychiatr Genet 13(1): 23-8.

            BACKGROUND Recently, linkage disequilibrium mapping of the major histocompatibility complex region on the short arm of human chromosome 6 suggested that the NOTCH4 locus is highly associated with schizophrenia.OBJECTIVES AND METHODS We analysed two polymorphisms in this gene in Swedish schizophrenic patients ( =74) and control subjects ( =135). The NOTCH4 variants were also analysed in schizophrenic patients with regard to subdiagnosis, age at first hospitalization, abuse/dependence of alcohol, solvents, or drugs, previous suicide attempts, extrapyramidal symptoms, treatment with anticholinergic drugs, and response to anti-psychotic drug treatment. Control subjects were scrutinized with regard to personality, another partially heritable trait suggested being of importance in schizophrenia. In addition, two intermediate endophenotypes suggested being of importance in schizophrenia, dopamine D receptor density in striatum and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid, respectively, were investigated with regard to the two NOTCH4 variants.(2)RESULTS There was no significant association between the patients and the controls for the two investigated polymorphisms neither for the parameters analysed in the schizophrenia material. The NOTCH4 SNP2 variant, an A-->G substitution, was associated with the Karolinska Scales of Personality Irritability scale. The NOTCH4 (CTG) variant was associated with the revised NEO personality inventory Extraversion and Activity (E4) scales. However, after correction for multiple testing, no difference remained significant. The results for the endophenotypes and the polymorphisms were non-significant.(n)CONCLUSIONS The present study does not support that the investigated NOTCH4 variants have a major influence on susceptibility to schizophrenia or related neurobiological traits.


Carneiro, C., M. S. Jiao, et al. (2003). "p27 deficiency desensitizes Rb-/- cells to signals that trigger apoptosis during pituitary tumor development." Oncogene 22(3): 361-9.

            Low p27 expression in many human cancers is a prognostic indicator for poor outcome. While analysing the mechanism by which p27 deficiency contributed to tumor development in the Rb+/- mouse model, we identified a role for p27 as a proapoptotic tumor suppressor. We examined the cell cycle and apoptotic response of these pituitary tumor cells to the dopamine analog bromocriptine as well as the expression of Arf and other cell cycle and apoptotic regulators in these tumors. We also examined the expression of Arf and its function in mouse embryo fibroblasts either singly or doubly deficient for Rb and p27. From these studies, we concluded that the absence of p27 disabled the trigger for an Arf-dependent apoptotic response in Rb-/- tumor cells. This suggests a novel mechanism by which the loss of p27 may impact on tumor development.


Carr, L., A. Tucker, et al. (2003). "In vivo administration of L-dopa or dopamine decreases the number of splenic IFNgamma-producing cells." J Neuroimmunol 137(1-2): 87-93.

            Although dopamine receptors are present on peripheral immune system cells, relatively little is known about the functional role that dopamine may play in immune responses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic treatment with L-dopa and dopamine on murine lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production/release. In vivo treatment with L-dopa resulted in an increase in the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes to ConA. Spleen cell supernatant concentrations of IL-4 and IFNgamma were not significantly altered following treatment with L-dopa for 5 days. However, the number of IFNgamma-, but not IL-4-producing cells was significantly inhibited by L-dopa. This effect was blocked by co-treatment with a dopamine antagonist. The effect on IFNgamma was replicated by infusion of dopamine. The results suggest that dopamine may have a direct role in regulating immune responses through down-regulation of IFNgamma.


Carreno-Muller, E., A. J. Herrera, et al. (2003). "Thrombin induces in vivo degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurones along with the activation of microglia." J Neurochem 84(5): 1201-14.

            Seven days after the injection of different concentrations of thrombin into the nigrostriatal pathway, a strong macrophage/microglial reaction was observed in the substantia nigra (SN), indicated by immunostaining, using OX-42 and OX-6 antibodies, and by the induction of iNOS, IL-1alpha, Il-1beta and TNF-alpha. Moreover, selective damage to dopaminergic neurones was produced after thrombin injection, evidenced by loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA-expressing cell bodies, and the unaltered transcription of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA in the SN and striatum. These thrombin effects could be produced by its ability to induce the activation of microglia described in in vitro studies, and are in agreement with the effects described for other proinflammatory compounds. Thrombin effects are produced by its biological activity since they almost disappeared when thrombin was heat-inactivated or injected along with its inhibitor alpha-NAPAP. Thrombin is a multi-functional serine protease rapidly produced from prothrombin at the sites of tissue injury, and also upon breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, which strongly suggests it could easily enter into the CNS. These results could have special importance in some degenerative processes of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.


Cassidy, E. M., E. Tomkins, et al. (2003). "Differing central amine receptor sensitivity in different migraine subtypes? A neuroendocrine study using buspirone." Pain 101(3): 283-90.

            Despite the importance of the 5HT1A receptor in regulating central serotonergic tone, there is a dearth of research examining its role in migraine. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that there would be altered neuroendocrine responses to a 5HT1A agonist challenge in different migraine subtypes. Prolactin (PRL) responses to the 5HT1A receptor agonist drug buspirone were compared in 30 female subjects with migraine (ten migraine with aura, MA; ten migraine without aura, MO and ten chronic/transformed migraine, CM), and ten healthy controls matched for age, gender and menstrual status. None of the subjects were taking psychotropic medication or migraine prophylactic treatment and those with formal psychiatric disorder were excluded. Endocrine responses were determined by measuring differences between baseline PRL and maximum increases post-buspirone (deltaPRL). There was no difference in baseline PRL between groups. MA subjects did not differ in their PRL responses to buspirone compared to healthy controls. The MO group had a four-fold increase in mean deltaPRL responses compared to healthy controls. Mean deltaPRL was also increased in the CM group compared to controls, but the difference was less exaggerated. This study indicates that there is supersensitive central amine receptor function in MO and CM, but not in MA. These findings support the hypothesis that central 5HT function differs among the migraine subtypes. The results also suggest that migrainous 'transformation' may be associated with adaptive changes in central 5HT receptor sensitivity. The relative contribution of 'state' and 'trait' receptor function to these findings as well as the possible role of dopamine receptors is discussed.


Celli, B., D. Halpin, et al. (2003). "Symptoms are an important outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clinical trials: results of a 3-month comparative study using the Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS)." Respir Med 97 Suppl A: S35-43.

            The need to manage the key symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (breathlessness, cough and sputum) is an important treatment objective. Viozan (sibenadet HCl, AR-C68397AA) is a novel dual D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, which combines conventional bronchodilatory activity with the sensory nerve modulation afforded by dopamine agonism. The efficacy of this agent in relieving patient symptoms has been determined in a series of large-scale clinical studies; the results of a 3-month, placebo-controlled multi-centre study are reported. Effect on patient symptoms was determined using a novel patient-reported assessment instrument, the Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS). Patients with smoking-related COPD were required to complete a 2-week baseline period before being randomized to one of three treatment groups; sibenadet (500 microg three times daily) plus placebo (twice daily); salmeterol (50 microg twice daily) plus placebo (three times daily); placebo (twice daily) plus a second placebo (three times daily). All treatments were delivered via pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) for 12 weeks. From enrolment, patients were required to complete daily diary cards to record symptoms of breathlessness, cough and sputum, medication use and adverse events. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the mean BCSS total score measured over the baseline period and the mean BCSS total score in the final 4 weeks of the treatment period. Secondary measures included assessment of lung function, rescue medication use, exacerbations, health-related quality of life, opinion of efficacy and safety. Although an initial reduction in BCSS total score (indicating symptom improvement) was seen with sibenadet therapy, this effect was not maintained for the study duration. Salmeterol therapy, however, resulted in a sustained reduction in BCSS total score. No notable benefit over placebo was seen in lung function, exacerbations or health-related quality of life with either active treatment. While the results of this study failed to demonstrate sustained efficacy with sibenadet therapy, they do indicate the value of symptom assessment in the clinical evaluation of new drugs for the treatment of COPD.


Cha, M. Y., I. Y. Lee, et al. (2003). "QSAR studies on piperazinylalkylisoxazole analogues selectively acting on dopamine d(3) receptor by HQSAR and CoMFA." Bioorg Med Chem 11(7): 1293-8.

            QSAR studies for piperazinylalkylisoxazole analogues were conducted by hologram QSAR (HQSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) to explain the binding affinities of 264 ligands acting on dopamine D(3) receptor. The HQSAR was assessed by r(2) value of 0.917 and cross validated q(2) value of 0.841. In the CoMFA, r(2) is 0.919 and cross validated q(2) is 0.727. The results provide the tools for predicting the affinity of related compounds and guiding the design of new ligands.


Chaiseha, Y., O. Youngren, et al. (2003). "Expression of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary during the turkey reproductive cycle: colocalization with vasoactive intestinal peptide." Neuroendocrinology 77(2): 105-18.

            The regulation of avian prolactin (PRL) secretion and PRL gene expression is influenced by hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), the PRL-releasing factor in avian species. Recent evidence indicates that D(1) and D(2) dopamine (DA) receptors play a pivotal role in VIP and PRL secretion. The differential expression of DA receptors located on hypothalamic VIP neurons and anterior pituitary cells may affect the degree of prolactinemia observed during the turkey reproductive cycle. The relative expression of D(1D) and D(2) DA receptor subtype mRNA was quantitated using in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH). D(1D) and D(2) DA receptor mRNA was found expressed throughout the hypothalamus and pituitary. The expression of D(1D) DA receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus was found to be 6.8-fold greater than that of D(2) DA receptor mRNA. Higher D(1D) DA receptor mRNA content was found in the anterior hypothalamus (3.6-fold), the ventromedial nucleus (2.0-fold), the infundibular nuclear complex (INF; 1.9-fold), and the medial preoptic nucleus (1.5-fold) of laying hens as compared to that of reproductively quiescent non-photostimulated hens. The levels seen in incubating hyperprolactinemic hens were essentially the same as in laying hens, except for the INF where levels were 52% higher. During the photorefractory stage (hypoprolactinemia), the D(1D) DA receptor mRNA was at its lowest level in all areas tested. No differences were observed in hypothalamic D(2) DA receptor mRNA abundance throughout the reproductive cycle, except for an increase in D(2) DA receptor mRNA within the INF of photorefractory hens. Also, a marked reduction in D(2) DA receptor mRNA was observed in the pituitary of incubating hens. Pituitary D(1D) DA receptor levels did not change when birds entered the incubating phase. Double ISH revealed that D(1D) and D(2) DA receptor mRNAs were co-expressed within neurons expressing VIP mRNA, predominantly within the lateral hypothalamus and INF. D(1D) DA receptor mRNA was more highly expressed than D(2) DA receptor mRNA. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the expression of stimulatory D(1) DA receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus increases in hyperprolactinemic incubating hens, whereas inhibitory D(2) DA receptor mRNA increases in the pituitary of hypoprolactinemic photorefractory hens.


Chang, S. C., M. J. Lin, et al. (2003). "Administration of triiodothyronine and dopamine to broiler chicks increases growth, feed conversion and visceral organ mass." Poult Sci 82(2): 285-93.

            The influences of triiodothyronine (T3) or dopamine (DA) administration on growth, feed conversion, and visceral weights in broiler chicks between the ages of 6 and 12 d posthatch were investigated. In Trial 1, six chicks at age 6 d were randomly administered one of the following treatments: 0.37, 0.74, 1.48, and 2.96 micromol T3/kg BW or 0.07, 0.14, 0.28, and 0.56 micromol DA/kg BW. Both T3 and DA were administered via intraperitoneal injections between the end of sternum and the ends of os pubis, with 0.9% saline as the excepient. In addition, two groups of six birds each were either not injected or injected with excepient only, as controls. Four replications were carried out with a total of 264 chicks. Heart weight as a percentage of feed-deprived body weight (FDBW) of the chicks injected with 2.96 micromol T3/kg BW was heavier than that of controls. Other variables measured were not significantly different between treatments. In trial 2, six chicks at age 6 d were randomly administered, one of the following treatments: 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, and 4.48 micromol T3/kg diet or 0.40, 0.80, 1.60, and 3.20 micromol DA/kg diet as well as a nonsupplemented control. Four replications were carried out with 216 chicks. The results in Trial 2 showed that the effects of T3 (X, micromol/kg diet) on body weight gain (Y1, g) and feed consumption (Y2, g) were linear (Y1 = 310 - 21.5X, R2 = 0.868, P < 0.001 and Y2 = 398 - 22.3X, R2 = 0.765, P < 0.001, respectively). The feed conversion ratio, the weight of liver, the weights of various intestinal segments, the lengths of the duodenum, jejunum and the ileum, as well as weight per centimeter jejunal length, gizzard weight as percentage of FDBW, and the duodenal length per kilogram FDBW all had linear responses (P < 0.05) to the level of dietary supplementation of T3. The effect of dietary supplementation of T3 on the heart weight was quadratic (Y16 = 2.58 + 0.89X - 0.17 X2, R2 = 0.526, P < 0.01). Similarly, the weights of pancreas and gizzard, the heart weight as a percentage of FDBW and the pancreas weight as a percentage of FDBW all had second-order curve responses. Dietary DA supplementation exerted no effect on the variables measured except that the regression of the heart weight as a percentage of FDBW on dietary DA supplementation (X1, micromol/kg diet) existed, namely, Z1 = 0.64 + 0.24 X1 - 0.23 X1(2) + 0.05 X1(3) (R2 = 0.868, P < 0.05).


Chao, C. C., Y. L. Ma, et al. (2003). "Integrin alphav and NCAM mediate the effects of GDNF on DA neuron survival, outgrowth, DA turnover and motor activity in rats." Neurobiol Aging 24(1): 105-16.

            Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a specific neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, but the mechanism underlying the neurotrophic action of GDNF is not well known. The cell adhesion molecules integrin and Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and fasciculation. In the present study, we found that subchronic GDNF administration to the pars compacta of substantia nigra in rats increased the expression of integrin alphav and NCAM. Immunostaining results demonstrated the wide distribution of integrin alphav and NCAM in all mesencephalic neurons. The results also demonstrated the co-expression of TH with integrin alphav and NCAM in the same neurons of mesencephalic culture. Further, GDNF significantly increased integrin alphav expression in single TH-positive neurons. Function-blocking anti-integrin alphav and anti-NCAM antibodies antagonized the effects of GDNF on DA neuron survival, outgrowth, DA turnover, and locomotor activity in rats. These results demonstrate that integrin alphav and NCAM mediate the effects of GDNF on DA neuron survival and outgrowth during development and on DA turnover and motor function during adulthood.


Chaube, R. and K. P. Joy (2003). "In Vitro Effects of Catecholamines and Catecholestrogens on Brain Tyrosine Hydroxylase Activity and Kinetics in the Female Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis." J Neuroendocrinol 15(3): 273-9.

            Effects of catecholamines and catecholestrogens on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and kinetics were investigated in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of female Heteropneustes fossilis in gonad quiescent (resting) and recrudescent (preparatory) phases. Dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline and the catecholestrogen, 2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta inhibited TH activity in a concentration-dependent manner in both resting and preparatory phases, with a higher effect in the resting phase. Two- methoxyestradiol-17beta did not alter TH activity in any season. The catecholamines inhibited TH in a competitive manner increasing apparent Km values significantly without altering the apparent Vmax. Two-hydroxyestradiol-17beta inhibited significantly the enzyme in a noncompetitive manner and decreased apparent Vmax without altering apparent Km values. The apparent Ki is higher for dopamine than noradrenaline or adrenaline. The apparent Ki for 2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta is not significantly different from that of noradrenaline. The present results suggest an interaction between oestradiol-17beta (E2) and catecholamine metabolism at the level of tyrosine hydroxylation and E2 effects on catecholamines may be mediated through its 2-hydroxylation.


Cheer, J. F., D. A. Kendall, et al. (2003). "Differential cannabinoid-induced electrophysiological effects in rat ventral tegmentum." Neuropharmacology 44(5): 633-641.

            Cannabinoids are known to exert mainly excitatory effects on dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We have utilized an in vivo multiple-single unit electrophysiological approach to assess different neuronal contributions that may ultimately lead to excitation in this area. Baseline neuron recordings, using low impedance microwires, showed a variety of waveforms with a wide range of durations (0.8-3.2 ms). In the first experiment systemic injection of the potent cannabinoid agonist HU210 (100 &mgr;g/kg, i.p.) led predominantly to an increase in firing rate (~214%, compared to pre-drug) in slowly firing cells with broad action potentials, possibly driven by a majority of presumed dopaminergic neurons (n = 31). However, the firing rate of some units was either unaffected (<25%, n = 9) or even decreased (~67%, n = 9) following cannabinoid injection concomitantly with excitation. Apomorphine (75 &mgr;g/kg, i.p.) injected following HU210 produced a marked inhibition of both responses (~76%) in 39 out of 49 cells. The second group of animals was treated with the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (1 mg/kg, i.p.), which had no effect when injected alone but prevented all HU210-evoked changes in firing rate suggesting that cannabinoid receptors mediated the observed responses (n = 39). Taken together, the present results suggest that the observed actions of cannabinoids may involve complex neurotransmitter interactions leading to differential effects on dopamine release. These heterogeneous neuronal responses are likely to underly the behavioural discrepancies reported in animal models of cannabinoid reinforcement.


Chefer, V. I., I. Zakharova, et al. (2003). "Enhanced Responsiveness to Novelty and Cocaine Is Associated with Decreased Basal Dopamine Uptake and Release in the Nucleus Accumbens: Quantitative Microdialysis in Rats under Transient Conditions." J Neurosci 23(7): 3076-84.

            Male rats were screened for their response to a novel environment and designated as high responders (HRs) or low responders (LRs). They then received daily injections of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Basal and cocaine-evoked extracellular dopamine (DA(ext)) levels as well as basal DA uptake rate and cocaine-evoked inhibition of uptake in the nucleus accumbens were determined on abstinence day 3 using quantitative microdialysis under transient conditions. The kinetics of uptake, dopamine transporter (DAT) expression, and [(3)H](-)-2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate ([(3)H]WIN35428) binding were also examined. The locomotor activating effects of cocaine and the magnitude of behavioral sensitization were greater in HRs. Saline-treated HRs had lower basal uptake than LRs. DA uptake after cocaine challenge was also lower in these animals. Although basal DA(ext) did not differ, cocaine-evoked DA(ext) was greater in HRs. The K(m) and V(max) of DA uptake were higher in naive HRs than LRs, as were the K(d) and B(max) of [(3)H]WIN35428 binding. DAT protein expression did not differ. Previous cocaine exposure decreased basal DA uptake. It increased cocaine-evoked DA(ext) and decreased the cocaine-induced inhibition of uptake, especially in HRs, indicating greater DA release during cocaine challenge in this phenotype. We hypothesize that lower basal uptake in HRs results from a decrease in DAT binding affinity that is compensated for, in part, by an increased number of plasma membrane binding sites. Basal uptake, but not DA(ext), was lower in HRs, indicating lower basal DA release in HRs. The finding that cocaine-evoked DA(ext) is higher in naive and cocaine-exposed HRs suggests that the greater responsiveness of DA neurons in HRs may underlie the enhanced behavioral responses that characterize this phenotype.


Chen, G., D. Zhang, et al. (2003). "Human gastrointestinal sulfotransferases: identification and distribution small star, filled." Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 187(3): 186-97.

            Sulfotransferases (STs) catalyze the sulfation of many structurally diverse molecules. Enzymatic assays and Western blots have been used to identify and characterize STs in the human gastrointestinal tract. Sulfation activities for 2-naphthol, dopamine, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from 23 donors were measured in cytosol prepared from stomach, duodenum, segments of small intestine, and colon and were compared to levels in human liver cytosol. Stomach and colon had low 2-naphthol and dopamine sulfation activities and almost no estradiol and DHEA sulfation activity. For all four substrates, small intestine has higher activities than both stomach and colon. Human small intestine 2-naphthol sulfation specific activity is approximately half that of human liver. Human small intestine dopamine sulfation activity is three times as high as that of human liver. While estrogen sulfation activity is about the same for both human intestine and human liver, human liver DHEA sulfation activity is about five times as high as that of human small intestine. The distribution of ST activities along the length of the small intestine was very different among different donors. Some donors had higher activity in the proximal segments of the small intestine, whereas other donors had higher activity in the distal segments of the small intestine. Our results also demonstrated high variation of small intestine sulfation activities compared with human liver activities among different donors. The Western blot results agreed with the enzymatic assay results. These results suggest that xenobiotics may regulate human small intestinal STs.


Chen, F., A. H. Rezvani, et al. (2003). "Autoradiographic quantification of neurochemical markers of serotonin, dopamine and opioid systems in rat brain mesolimbic regions following chronic St John's wort treatment." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 367(2): 126-33.

            Effects of chronic treatment with St John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) on neurochemical markers of serotonin, dopamine and opioid systems in mesolimbic regions of the fawn-hooded rat were investigated by quantitative autoradiography. After 10 days' treatment, SJW significantly increased [(3)H]citalopram binding to 5-HT transporters in multiple mesolimbic regions. In contrast, SJW resulted in a region-specific alteration of [(3)H]mazindol binding to dopamine transporters, such as increased binding of [(3)H]mazindol in the olfactory tubercle and decreased binding in the ventral tegmental area. In addition, SJW also resulted in differential modulation of the binding properties of 5-HT(1A)-, 5-HT(2A)- and mu-opioid receptors in a region-specific manner. The ability of SJW to affect 5-HT, dopamine and opioid systems in mesolimbic regions in the CNS, either by a direct or by indirect (adaptation) mechanism, may help to explain the efficacy of SJW in the treatment of depression clinically and in some of the behavioural effects observed in experimental rodents.


Cheng, H. W., P. Singleton, et al. (2003). "Social stress in laying hens: differential effect of stress on plasma dopamine concentrations and adrenal function in genetically selected chickens." Poult Sci 82(2): 192-8.

            Genetic selection for high or low group productivity and survivability (HGPS, LGPS) has created two phenotypically distinct chicken lines. Each line has unique characteristics in behavioral and physiological adaptability to multiple-bird cage system. The present study was designed to examine whether these differences reflect genetic variation in the control of plasma dopamine (DA) concentrations and adrenal function in response to social stress. Chickens from the HGPS and LGPS lines were randomly assigned to single- or 10-bird cages at 17 wk of age. The 10-bird cages were the same as those used in the development of the two lines. Differences in regulation of DA concentrations and adrenal function in response to different social environments were measured between the two lines when the study was conducted at 24 wk of age. In the 10-bird cages, the HGPS line had lower levels of DA (P < 0.05) and heavier adrenal glands (AG, P < 0.05) than those of the LGPS line, but concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) from the two lines were not significantly different. In the single-bird cages, DA levels in both lines were greater than in that of their siblings in the 10-bird cages, but a greater increase was found in the LGPS line (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, 405% vs. 293%). Likewise, both lines had lower concentrations of CORT (P < 0.05) in the single- vs. 10-bird cages, but the AG were less heavy in the LGPS line but not in HGPS line in the single-bird cages (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the two strains reacted differently in terms of their stress hormone levels in the two different environments. These differences could contribute to the behavioral and physiological differences existing between the two lines.


Cheon, K. A., Y. H. Ryu, et al. (2003). "Dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia assessed with [(123)I]IPT SPET in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30(2): 306-11.

            Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder in childhood that is known to be associated with dopamine dysregulation. In this study, we investigated dopamine transporter (DAT) density in children with ADHD using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane ([(123)I]IPT) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and postulated that an alteration in DAT density in the basal ganglia is responsible for dopaminergic dysfunction in children with ADHD. Nine drug-naive children with ADHD and six normal children were included in the study. We performed brain SPET 2 h after the intravenous administration of [(123)I]IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPET data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. We then investigated the correlation between the severity scores of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD assessed with ADHD rating scale-IV and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. Drug-naive children with ADHD showed a significantly increased specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia compared with normal children. However, no significant correlation was found between the severity scores of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD and the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. Our findings support the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in children with ADHD.


Chi, D. S., M. Qui, et al. (2003). "Regulation of nitric oxide production from macrophages by lipopolysaccharide and catecholamines." Nitric Oxide 8(2): 127-32.

            Catecholamines are elaborated in stress responses to mediate vasoconstriction, and elevate systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure. They are elaborated in disorders such as sepsis, cocaine abuse, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to determine whether catecholamines affect nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a vasodilator and counteracts the harmful effects of catecholamines. RAW264.7 macrophage cells were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+/-epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine at 5x10(-6)M concentrations for 24h. Supernatants were harvested for measuring NO by spectrophotometry using the Greiss reagent and cells were harvested for detecting inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by Western blot. NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages was increased significantly by addition of LPS (0.5-10ng/ml) in a dose-dependent fashion. The NO production induced by LPS was further enhanced by epinephrine and norepinephrine, and to a lesser extent by dopamine. These increases in NO correlated with expression of iNOS protein in these cells. The enhancing effect of iNOS synthesis by epinephrine and norepinephrine on LPS-induced macrophages was down regulated by beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol, and dexamethasone. The results suggest that catecholamines have a synergic effect on LPS in induction of iNOS synthesis and NO production, and this may mediate some of the vascular effects of infection. These data support a novel role for catecholamines in disorders such as septic shock and cocaine use, and indicate that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and glucocorticoids may be used therapeutically for modulation of the catecholamine-NO axis in disease states.


Chiodini, I. and A. Liuzzi (2003). "PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas in pregnancy." J Endocrinol Invest 26(1): 96-9.

            Dopamine-agonists have significantly increased the number of pregnancies in women with micro- and macro-prolactinomas, as ovulation can be restored in the great majority of these patients. Thus, the main questions regard the possible consequences of high estrogen levels on tumor volume and the possible effects of D2-agonists on fetal development. While the risk of tumor increase is low in patients with prolactin secreting micro-adenoma (MIP), in PRL secreting macro-adenoma (MAP) patients the possibility of tumor growth is enhanced and influenced by previous treatment. Moreover, while it is well known that the exposition for only the first 4 weeks to bromocriptine (BRC) therapy does not affect the outcome of pregnancy, data on the use of BRC during the whole gestation are limited to just over 100 cases. Female pregnant patients with MIP, therefore, must be reassured and medical therapy suspended, with successive clinical follow-up. In the case of pregnant MAP subjects, the best approach from pre-pregnancy debulking, dopamine-agonist therapy interruption and BRC therapy continuation must be agreed on with the patient, and a careful follow-up instituted.


Chong, S. A., E. C. Tan, et al. (2003). "Polymorphisms of dopamine receptors and tardive dyskinesia among Chinese patients with schizophrenia." Am J Med Genet 116(1 Suppl): 51-4.

            The putative role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (TD) makes the genes coding for dopamine receptors the appropriate candidates for study. We investigate the association of the polymorphism of the Ser311Cys and Ser9Gly of the dopamine D2 (DRD2) and D3 receptor (DRD3) genes respectively with TD in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. In a case-control study, 117 Chinese patients with TD were compared to 200 patients without TD. Patients were diagnosed to have schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria. Dyskinesia was assessed by the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), whereas extrapyramidal side-effects (EPSE) were assessed by the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale. Genotype groups were comparable in age, gender, duration of illness, daily neuroleptic and benzodiazepine dose as well as the mean scores for EPSE. We failed to find an association between the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene with TD but found an increased risk of developing TD among those with D3 serine/serine genotype. Our results did not indicate that the D2 genotype has a role in the pathophysiology of TD in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The association of TD with the serine/serine genotype of the DRD3 may be an epiphenomenon of patients with a subtype of schizophrenia who had more exposure to neuroleptics.


Chou, Y. T., M. T. Lin, et al. (2003). "Hypothermia attenuates cerebral dopamine overloading and gliosis in rats with heatstroke." Neurosci Lett 336(1): 5-8.

            The present study attempted to ascertain whether hypothermia attenuated the heat stroke-induced dopamine overload and gliosis in rat brain. Urethane-anesthetized rats were exposed to water blanket temperature (T(blanket)) of 42 degrees C until mean arterial pressure (MAP) began to decrease from their peak levels, which was arbitrarily defined as the onset of heat stroke. Extracellular concentrations of dopamine in brain were assessed by microdialysis methods. Hypothermia was accomplished by decreasing T(blanket) from 42 to 16 degrees C. The animals exposed to T(blanket) of 26 degrees C served as the normothermic controls. The values of MAP in heat stroke rats without hypothermia were all significantly lower than those in normothermic controls. However, the extracellular levels of dopamine and the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-reactive cells in brain were greater. Hypothermia immediately after the onset of heat stroke reduced the heat stroke-induced circulatory shock as well as dopamine overload and gliosis in brain. The data demonstrate that hypothermia attenuates both dopamine overload and gliosis in rat brain associated with heatstroke.


Chrapusta, S. J., M. F. Egan, et al. (2003). "Neonatal ventral hippocampal damage modifies serum corticosterone and dopamine release responses to acute footshock in adult Sprague-Dawley rats." Synapse 47(4): 270-7.

            Rats with excitotoxic neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) manifest in early adulthood a variety of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities mimicking those seen in patients with schizophrenia. Some of these aberrations implicate malfunction of the midbrain dopamine systems. We studied NVHL effects on dopamine release in the rat frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and striatum during acute stress caused by inescapable continuous footshock (0.45 mA). Serum total corticosterone and prolactin levels were used as peripheral indices of stress. As an indirect index of dopamine release, tissue 3-methoxytyramine levels attained in vivo 10 min after monoamine oxidase inhibition was assayed in rats sacrificed by instantaneous microwave fixation of the brain tissue. Nonshocked NVHL rats showed significantly less nucleus accumbens' 3-methoxytyramine accumulation than their sham counterparts. Frontal cortical 3-methoxytyramine levels rose similarly after 20-min footshock in both groups of rats, but while it normalized after 60-min footshock in the sham rats, it did not decrease in the NVHL rats. Nucleus accumbens' 3-methoxytyramine was significantly elevated after either 20-min or 60-min footshock in both groups, whereas striatal 3-methoxytyramine was significantly elevated in the NVHL rats only. Serum corticosterone showed similar elevations in the sham and NVHL rats, but the patterns differed in that there was no attenuation after 60-min footshock in the latter. The lesion did not affect serum prolactin response. These data indicate that neonatal ventral hippocampal damage enhances and prolongs certain neural and neuroendocrine responses to acute physical stressor(s), and thus may affect adaptation and enhance detrimental effects of stress.


Ciano, P. D. and B. J. Everitt (2003). "The GABA(B) Receptor Agonist Baclofen Attenuates Cocaine- and Heroin-Seeking Behavior by Rats." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(3): 510-8.

            Conditioned stimuli paired with drugs of abuse can acquire motivational properties, and are capable of inducing drug-seeking behavior and relapse to cocaine use. Converging evidence implicates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, through interactions with limbic afferents to the nucleus accumbens, in behavior controlled by conditioned stimuli. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to decrease break points in rats responding for cocaine under progressive ratio schedules and also to attenuate activation of limbic cortical areas in human cocaine addicts. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of baclofen on drug-associated cue-controlled cocaine- or heroin-seeking behavior by rats. Under the second-order schedule of reinforcement used in the present study, cocaine or heroin were available after a fixed time interval, while high rates of responding during the interdrug intervals were maintained by the response-contingent presentations of drug-associated conditioned reinforcers. Baclofen decreased stimulus-maintained responding for either heroin or cocaine, but decreased only cocaine intake under an FR1 schedule. These results therefore support preliminary clinical findings and suggest that drugs with GABA(B) receptor agonist properties may aid abstinence in human drug addicts by decreasing the propensity to cue-induced drug-seeking and relapse.Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) 28, 510-518. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300088


Clarke, C. E. (2003). "Dopamine agonist monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease." Hosp Med 64(1): 8-11.

            While levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease is still considered the gold standard, motor complications are significant disadvantages of treatment. Monotherapy with dopamine agonists may present an alternative approach with a reduced likelihood of developing dyskinesias. Further studies are required before a definitive judgment can be made.


Cobb, W. S. and E. D. Abercrombie (2003). "Differential regulation of somatodendritic and nerve terminal dopamine release by serotonergic innervation of substantia nigra." J Neurochem 84(3): 576-84.

            Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons release dopamine from dendrites in substantia nigra and axon terminals in striatum. The cellular mechanisms for somatodendritic and axonal dopamine release are similar, but somatodendritic and nerve terminal dopamine release may not always occur in parallel. The current studies used in vivo microdialysis to simultaneously measure changes in dendritic and nerve terminal dopamine efflux in substantia nigra and ipsilateral striatum respectively, following intranigral application of various drugs by reverse dialysis through the nigral probe. The serotonin releasers (+/-)-fenfluramine (100 micro m) and (+)-fenfluramine (100 micro m) significantly increased dendritic dopamine efflux without affecting extracellular dopamine in striatum. The non-selective serotonin receptor agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (100 micro m) elicited a similar pattern of dopamine release in substantia nigra and striatum. NMDA (33 micro m) produced an increase in nigral dopamine of a similar magnitude to mCPP or either fenfluramine drug. However, NMDA also induced a concurrent increase in striatal dopamine. The D2 agonist quinpirole (100 micro m) had a parallel inhibitory effect on dopamine release from dendritic and terminal sites as well. Taken together, these data suggest that serotonergic afferents to substantia nigra may evoke dendritic dopamine release through a mechanism that is uncoupled from the impulse-dependent control of nerve terminal dopamine release.


Cohen, A. D., J. L. Tillerson, et al. (2003). "Neuroprotective effects of prior limb use in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats: possible role of GDNF." J Neurochem 85(2): 299-305.

            Unilateral administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) causes a loss of dopamine (DA) in the ipsilateral striatum and contralateral motor deficits. However, if a cast is placed on the ipsilateral limb during the first 7 days following 6-OHDA infusion, forcing the animal to use its contralateral limb, both the behavioral and neurochemical deficits are reduced. Here, we examine the effect of forced reliance on a forelimb during the 7 days prior to ipsilateral infusion of 6-OHDA on the deficits characteristic of this lesion model. Casted animals displayed no behavioral asymmetries as measured 14-28 days postlesion and a marked attenuation in the loss of striatal DA and its metabolites at 30 days. In addition, animals receiving a unilateral cast alone had an increase in glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protein in the striatum corresponding to the overused limb. GDNF increased within 1 day after the onset of casting, peaked at 3 days, and returned to baseline within 7 days. These results suggest that preinjury forced limb-use can prevent the behavioral and neurochemical deficits to the subsequent administration of 6-OHDA and that this may be due in part to neuroprotective effects of GDNF.


Cohen, J. E., C. U. Onyike, et al. (2003). "Pharmacological Characterization of an Adenylyl CyclaseCoupled 5-HT Receptor in Aplysia: Comparison With Mammalian 5-HT Receptors." J Neurophysiol 89(3): 1440-55.

            We attempted to identify compounds that are effective in blocking the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor(s) that activate adenylyl cyclase (AC) in Aplysia CNS. We call this class of receptor 5-HT(apAC). Eight of the 14 antagonists tested were effective against 5-HT(apAC) in CNS membranes with the following rank order of potency: methiothepin > metergoline approximately fluphenazine > clozapine > cyproheptadine approximately risperidone approximately ritanserin > NAN-190. GR-113808, olanzapine, Ro-04-6790, RS-102221, SB-204070, and spiperone were inactive. Methiothepin completely blocked 5-HT stimulation of AC with a K(b) of 18 nM. Comparison of the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT(apAC) receptor with those of mammalian 5-HT receptor subtypes suggested it most closely resembles the 5-HT(6) receptor. AC stimulation in Aplysia sensory neuron (SN) membranes was also blocked by methiothepin. Methiothepin substantially inhibited two effects of 5-HT on SN firing properties that are mediated by a cAMP-dependent reduction in S-K(+) current: spike broadening in tetraethylammonium/nifedipine and increased excitability. Consistent with cyproheptadine blocking 5-HT stimulation of AC, cyproheptadine also blocked the 5-HT-induced increase in SN excitability. Methiothepin was less effective in blocking AC-mediated modulatory effects of 5-HT in electrophysiological experiments on SNs than in blocking AC stimulation in CNS or SN membranes. This reduction in potency appears to be due to effects of the high ionic strength of physiological saline on the binding of this antagonist to the receptor. Methiothepin also antagonized AC-coupled dopamine receptors but not AC-coupled small cardioactive peptide receptors. In conjunction with other pharmacological probes, this antagonist should be useful in analyzing the role of 5-HT in various forms of neuromodulation in Aplysia.


Contini, M. and E. Raviola (2003). "GABAergic synapses made by a retinal dopaminergic neuron." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(3): 1358-63.

            In the retina, dopaminergic amacrine (interplexiform) cells establish multiple synapses on the perikarya of AII amacrines, the neurons that distribute rod signals to on- and off-cone bipolars. We used triple-label immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy to identify the receptors contained within the postsynaptic active zone of these synapses in both mouse and rat retinas. We found that at the interface between the dendrites of the dopaminergic neurons and the AII amacrine cell perikarya clusters of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are situated in register with aggregates of presynaptic organelles immunoreactive for GABA, the GABA vesicular transporter, and the vesicular monoamine transporter-2. D1 and D23 dopamine receptors, on the other hand, do not form clusters on the surface of the perikarya of AII amacrine cells. We suggest that the synapses between retinal dopaminergic neurons and AII amacrine cells are GABAergic and that both GABA and dopamine are released by the presynaptic endings. GABA acts on the ionotropic receptors clustered at the postsynaptic active zone, whereas dopamine diffuses to more distant, slower-acting metabotropic receptors.


Corona-Morales, A. A., A. Castell, et al. (2003). "Fullerene C60 and ascorbic acid protect cultured chromaffin cells against levodopa toxicity." J Neurosci Res 71(1): 121-6.

            Adrenal chromaffin cell (ACC) transplants, alone or combined with levodopa treatment, were used in attempted therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). In a previous study, we demonstrated that levodopa caused chromaffin cell death either by necrosis or by apoptosis in cell culture. Here we report the beneficial effect of a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C(60) (a novel molecule with potent antioxidant properties) and of ascorbic acid when applied to chromaffin cell cultures exposed to levodopa. Both antioxidants remarkably increase the ACC survival and prevent cell death, including apoptosis. Although ACC transplants are not currently considered as an option for PD treatment, these observations should help in exploring the possibilities of preventing the neurotoxicity generated by levodopa and in envisaging new strategies for PD treatment by combining the clinical use of levodopa and potent antioxidants. Chemical properties of fullerene related to biological uses are discussed.


Corsi, C., A. Pinna, et al. (2003). "Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism increases striatal glutamate outflow in dopamine-denervated rats." Eur J Pharmacol 464(1): 33-8.

            The objective of the work was to study, by in vivo microdialysis, the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5- c]pyrimidine (SCH 58261) on glutamate outflow in the striata of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-infused rats. Two vertical microdialysis probes were implanted bilaterally in both the denervated striatum and in the intact striatum. Glutamate concentrations in the dialysate were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Infusion of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH 58261 (50 nM), through the microdialysis fiber, significantly increased glutamate outflow from the denervated striatum while it decreased glutamate outflow from the intact striatum. The opposite effects of SCH 58261 on glutamate outflow in the intact and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned striatum might be attributed to blockade of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptors located on either striatal indirect output pathways or glutamatergic terminals. These results may be relevant to our understanding of the mechanism of action of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists in Parkinson's disease.


Costa, A., A. Peppe, et al. (2003). "Dopaminergic modulation of visual-spatial working memory in Parkinson's disease." Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 15(2): 55-66.

            Visual-spatial working memory (WM) impairment is frequently associated with the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a group of PD patients in visual-spatial and visual-object WM tasks and to investigate the effect of administering the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (experiment 1) or the dopamine precursor L-dopa (experiment 2) on the performance of tests assessing these functions. To study WM processes, the PD patients and age-matched normal controls were given an n-back task paradigm. In both experiments, the PD patients were submitted to two evaluations: one after a 12-hour therapy washout and the other 15 min after a subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine (average 0.04 mg/kg) or 20/30 min after L-dopa intake (200 mg p.o.). The apomorphine infusion had a worsening effect on reaction times in both visual-spatial and visual-object WM tasks, but it did not influence performance accuracy. Instead, L-dopa administration had a ameliorative effect on accuracy and reaction times in both visual-spatial and visual-object tasks. These results highlight the role of dopamine in the modulation of the WM function in PD patients.


Cramer, R. D. (2003). "Topomer CoMFA: a design methodology for rapid lead optimization." J Med Chem 46(3): 374-88.

            To provide an objective QSAR methodology that might accelerate lead optimization, the CoMFA and topomer technologies have been merged, with surprisingly good results. A series of input structures are each broken into two or more fragments at central acyclic single bonds, while removing any core fragment structurally common to the entire series. Standard topomer 3D models are automatically constructed for each fragment, and a set of steric and electrostatic fields ("CoMFA column") is generated for each set of topomers. Application of "topomer CoMFA" to 15 3D-QSAR analyses taken from the literature (847 structures) were all successful, with an average q(2) of 0.520 (literature average q(2) = 0.636) and an average standard deviation of true prediction (SDEP) of 0.688 (literature average SDEP = 0.553) for 133 structures. Topomer CoMFA results are particularly promising as queries into virtual libraries already composed of topomer structures, to directly seek structures having increased potency. Accordingly, in 13 of the 15 such "topomer CoMFA searches" attempted, combinations of commercially offered fragments were retrieved that were predicted to be more potent than any structure described in the original publication (average predicted potency increase = 20 x), showing in principle how optimization could occur.


Crawford, C. A., M. T. Williams, et al. (2003). "Methamphetamine exposure during the preweanling period causes prolonged changes in dorsal striatal protein kinase A activity, dopamine D2-like binding sites, and dopamine content." Synapse 48(3): 131-7.

            Exposure to methamphetamine (METH) during the preweanling period produces few, if any, neurotoxic effects (using criteria established in adult rats), yet it has substantial long-term effects on a variety of behavioral measures (e.g., locomotor activity, acoustic startle response, and spatial learning). The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term changes in dopaminergic functioning brought about by early METH exposure. Rats were injected with METH (10 mg/kg) or saline four times daily on postnatal days (PD) 11-20 and housed undisturbed until PD 90, at which time they were killed and their dorsal striata (i.e., caudate-putamen) were removed and frozen for assay. The ability of early METH exposure to alter protein kinase A (PKA) activity and dopamine (DA) D(2)-like binding sites, as well as DA and DOPAC content, were assessed. Results showed that METH exposure on PD 11-20 caused long-term reductions in all of the dopaminergic markers assayed. METH-induced reductions in DA content and D(2)-like receptors were observed. Some sex differences were apparent, as the METH-induced decreases in PKA activity and DOPAC content were more evident in male rats. In conclusion, preweanling METH exposure caused changes in DA markers that were still detectable at PD 90; however the magnitude of many of these effects (e.g., the reductions in DA and DOPAC levels) was substantially less than typically reported for rats treated with METH in adulthood. The ability of METH to cause long-term reductions in PKA activity may partially account for some of behavioral deficits exhibited by rats exposed to METH prior to weaning. Synapse 48:131-137, 2003.


Crevoisier, C., A. Monreal, et al. (2003). "Comparative single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of levodopa and 3-O-methyldopa following a new dual-release and a conventional slow-release formulation of levodopa and benserazide in healthy volunteers." Eur Neurol 49(1): 39-44.

            The objective was to assess the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of levodopa and 3-O-methyldopa following administration of a new dual-release and conventional slow-release formulation of levodopa/benserazide in the dose ratio of 4:1. In an open-label, two-way cross-over study, 20 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive first either Madopar DR or Madopar HBS for 8 days. Then they crossed over to the other formulation. A first dose of 200 mg levodopa and 50 mg benserazide ('250' mg) was given on day 1, '125' mg t.i.d. on the subsequent 6 days (days 2-7), followed by '250' mg on day 8. The two treatment periods of 8 days were separated by a wash-out period of at least 7 days. Blood samples were taken at specific times over a 12-hour period (day 1) or a 36-hour period (day 8). Plasma concentrations of levodopa and 3-O-methyldopa were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The pharmacokinetics of levodopa after a single-dose administration (day 1) of Madopar DR and Madopar HBS were significantly different as reflected by the respective mean values of maximum plasma concentration (C(max) 1.99 vs. 0.82 mg x l-1), time to reach maximum concentration (t(max) 0.7 vs. 2.6 h) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0- infinity ) 4.52 vs. 3.18 mg x h x l-1). The respective values after multiple doses (day 8) were: C(max) 1.98 vs. 0.93 mg x l-1, t(max) 0.7 vs. 2.3 h and AUC(0-infinity ) 4.84 vs. 3.96 mg x h x l-1. The relative bioavailability (Madopar DR vs. Madopar HBS) was 1.73 on day 1 and 1.32 on day 8. Bioequivalence could not be demonstrated for log-transformed data of AUC and C(max) within a predefined range of 80-125 and 70-143%, respectively. In conclusion, the observed differences in C(max), t(max) and AUC are consistent with a faster rate and higher extent of levodopa absorption after administration of Madopar DR. Statistical evaluation of these kinetic data showed that Madopar DR is not bioequivalent to Madopar HBS.


Crews, F. T., M. W. Miller, et al. (2003). "Neural stem cells and alcohol." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(2): 324-35.

            This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the 2002 Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting in San Francisco, California. The aim of this symposium was to review research on the effects of ethanol on neural stems cells and neurogenesis. Ethanol is known to alter neurogenesis during development; however, recent studies indicate that the brain forms new neurons from stem cells throughout life. Furthermore, stem cells can be transplanted into the brain, creating exciting new possibilities to study brain function. The symposium covered these research areas. Dr. Michael W. Miller reviewed knowledge on the effects of ethanol on stem cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Dr. Wu Ma described studies in culture indicating that (1) neural stem cells express functional muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR), (2) mAchR-mediated proliferation involves Ca signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and (3) phosphoinositol-3 kinase is a downstream effector for mAchR-mediated cell proliferation via activation of Akt. Drs. Kim Nixon and Fulton T. Crews followed with in vivo studies on ethanol's effects on adult neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Dr. W. Michael Zawada described studies directed at dopamine neuron cell transplants into mammalian central nervous system. These studies clearly establish that ethanol has significant effects on stem cells.


Crocker, S. J., P. Liston, et al. (2003). "Attenuation of MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and behavioural impairment in NSE-XIAP transgenic mice." Neurobiol Dis 12(2): 150-61.

            X-linked IAP protein is a potent inhibitor of cell death. Here, we describe a novel transgenic mouse in which the human XIAP gene is expressed under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter (NSE-xiap). We demonstrate that nigrostriatal dopamine neurons of NSE-xiap mice were resistant to the damaging effects of the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP. MPTP-induced reduction of striatal dopamine metabolism was also attenuated in NSE-xiap mice. Furthermore, NSE-xiap mice treated with MPTP did not exhibit deficits in exploratory behaviour in an open-field test. Taken together, these findings suggest that strategies to enhance neuronal expression of XIAP may provide therapeutic benefit for the treatment of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.


Csoknya, M., J. Barna, et al. (2003). "Reorganization of monoaminergic systems in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, following brain extirpation." J Exp Zoolog Part A Comp Exp Biol 296(1): 18-29.

            The present study describes the major aspects of how monoaminergic (serotonin, dopamine) systems change in the course of regeneration of the brain in the earthworm (Eisenia fetida), investigated by immunocytochemistry, HPLC assay, and ligand binding. Following brain extirpation, the total regeneration time is about 80 days at 10 degrees C. On the 3rd postoperative day serotonin, and on the 11th postoperative day tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons can be observed in the wound tissue. Thereafter the number of the immunoreactive cells increases gradually, and by the 76th-80th postoperative days all serotonin- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive neurons can be found in their final positions, similarly to those observed in the intact brain. Labeled neurons located in the dorsal part of the regenerated brain appear earlier than the cells in lateral and ventral positions. Both serotonin- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons of the newly formed brain seem to originate from undifferentiated neuroblasts situated within and around the ventral ganglia and the pleura. Dopaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive) elements may additionally derive from the proliferation of neurons localized in the subesophageal ganglion and the pharyngeal nerve plexus. Following brain extirpation, both serotonin and dopamine levels, assayed by HPLC, first increase in the subesophageal ganglion; by the 25th day of regeneration, the monoamine content decreases in it and increases in the brain. Hence it is suggested that monoamines are at least partly transported from this ganglion to the regenerating brain. At the same time, (3)H-LSD binding can be detected in the regenerating brain from the 3rd postoperative day, showing a continuous increase until the 80th postoperative day, suggesting a guiding role of postsynaptic elements in the monoaminergic reinnervation of the newly formed brain.


Cucchi, M. L., P. Frattini, et al. (2003). "Catecholamines increase in the urine of non-segmental vitiligo especially during its active phase." Pigment Cell Res 16(2): 111-6.

            Neural factors appear to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. To investigate the possible correlation between vitiligo and peripheral monoaminergic system activity, we used high-pressure liquid chromatography and electrochemical detector methods to evaluate the basal urine excretion values of catecholamines [norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine and dopamine (DA)], their relative metabolites [3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), normetanephrine (NMN), metanephrine (MN), vanilmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid], as well as 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in 35 healthy subjects and in 70 patients, suffering from non-segmental vitiligo at different stages of the disease. Levels of NE, DA, NMN, MN, MHPG, VMA and 5-HIAA were found to be significantly higher in patients than in controls. The patients with progressive vitiligo (n = 56) presented increased urinary excretion values for all parameters (in particular, NE levels) than other patients. Interestingly, in patients at its more recent vitiligo onset (<1 yr), NE values were different to those of subjects affected from 1 to 5 yr and from 6 to 10 yr. This result was confirmed by the significant negative relationship detected between NE excretion values and disease duration. In both vitiligo and control groups, significant correlations were found between monoamines as well as between these monoamines and their metabolites. The increase in catecholamine turnover, mainly occurring at the onset of the disease, is probably due to the stress associated with the appearance of lesions. Moreover, considering that these compounds readily produce toxic free-radicals and that vitiliginous subjects have a defective free radical defence mechanism, they may also contribute to the disappearance of melanocytes in the early phases of vitiligo.


Culver, K. E. and H. Szechtman (2003). "Clorgyline-induced switch from locomotion to mouthing in sensitization to the dopamine D(2)/D(3 )agonist quinpirole in rats: role of sigma and imidazoline I(2) receptors." Psychopharmacology (Berl).

            RATIONALE. The monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) clorgyline, blocks locomotor sensitization to the D(2)/D(3) dopamine agonist quinpirole and sensitizes self-directed mouthing behavior in rats by a mechanism independent of MAO inhibition. Clorgyline has a high affinity for imidazoline I(2) and sigma receptors, which could account for its effects on quinpirole sensitization. OBJECTIVES. To examine whether the effect of clorgyline on quinpirole sensitization is attributed to stimulation of either I(2) or sigma receptors. METHODS. In one experiment, rats received injections of the I(2) receptor agonist 2-BFI (0.2 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle, 90 min prior to each injection of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, SC, x 8, twice weekly) or saline. A similar protocol was used to examine the effects of the MAOI Ro 41-1049 (10 mg/kg, SC) on quinpirole sensitization. Unlike clorgyline, Ro 41-1049 has no affinity for sigma or I(2) sites. An initial experiment demonstrated that intermittent injections of clorgyline (1 mg/kg, SC) are as effective as a continuous clorgyline administration (1 mg/kg per day via osmotic mini-pump) on quinpirole sensitization. RESULTS. Like clorgyline, Ro 41-1049, but not 2-BFI, blocked the development of quinpirole-induced locomotor sensitization and induced instead sensitization of self-directed mouthing. CONCLUSIONS. Because Ro 41-1049 produced the same effects as clorgyline, and 2-BFI had no effects on quinpirole sensitization, it is unlikely that clorgyline exerts its effects via an action at sigma or I(2) receptors. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that clorgyline and Ro 41-1049 affect the behavioral response to quinpirole via the MAOI-displaceable quinpirole binding (MQB) site, and the hypothesis that the MQB site selects what motor output becomes sensitized to repeated injections of quinpirole.


Cutler, A. J. (2003). "Sexual dysfunction and antipsychotic treatment." Psychoneuroendocrinology 28 Suppl 1: 69-82.

            Human sexual function is complex and affected in many different ways by schizophrenia and the antipsychotic drugs used in its treatment. The evaluation of the effects of antipsychotics on sexual function in patients with schizophrenia is also complex because the deleterious effects of conventional antipsychotics are superimposed on the effects of the disease itself. Although not extensively researched, sexual dysfunction seems to be frequent in patients with schizophrenia, especially in men. Sexual dysfunction appears, in significant part, to be a direct consequence of dopamine antagonism, combined with indirect effects due to increased serum prolactin concentration. Atypical antipsychotics have a number of potential advantages over standard agents with regard to their impact on sexual function. Clinical reports indicate that atypical antipsychotics are associated with a lower incidence of sexual adverse events than conventional antipsychotics and that there may also be important differences between them in this regard. For example, dose-related increases in prolactin concentrations occur with risperidone whereas olanzapine is associated with mild and transient increases in long-term treatment. Treatment with clozapine does not result in prolactin elevation and, like olanzapine, only transient increases occur with ziprasidone therapy, but the risk of agranulocytosis with clozapine restricts its use. Quetiapine has no more effect on serum prolactin than placebo across its full dose range. Together with its low frequency of reproductive or hormonal side effects and a low incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, the tolerability profile of quetiapine may be particularly beneficial for many patients. Sexual dysfunction can be an important source of distress to patients and adversely affects compliance, and is one of the factors that must be taken into account when selecting treatment.


D'Aquila, P. S., F. Panin, et al. (2003). "Dopamine D1 receptor agonists induce penile erections in rats." Eur J Pharmacol 460(1): 71-4.

            The dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine has been recently introduced in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. While it is well established that dopamine D2-like receptors play a crucial role in this effect, conflicting result are reported in the literature as for the role of dopamine D1-like receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of systemic administration of dopamine D1-like receptor agonists on penile erection in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with three different, and not structurally related, dopamine D1-like receptor agonists: the partial agonists SKF38393 ((+) 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine) and CY 208-243 ((-)-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-exahydro-7-methylindole [4,3-ab]fenantridine), and the full agonist A 77636 ((-)-(1R,3S)-3-Adamantyl-1-(aminomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-5,6-dihydroxy-1H-2-be nzopyran hydrochloride). All three compounds dose-dependently increased the number of penile erections, with the full agonist A77636 showing a more pronounced effect with respect to the other two. Moreover, the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 ((R)-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydorxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benz azepine) dose-dependently antagonised A77636 effect. These results show that systemic administration of dopamine D1-like receptor agonists induce penile erection in rats. This observation suggests that dopamine D1-like receptor agonists might be considered as a possible alternative to apomorphine in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, thus avoiding the typical side effects related to the stimulation of dopamine D2-like receptors such as nausea.


D'Aquila, P. S., A. T. Peana, et al. (2003). "Reversal of antidepressant-induced dopaminergic behavioural supersensitivity after long-term chronic imipramine withdrawal." Eur J Pharmacol 458(1-2): 129-34.

            Chronic antidepressant treatments enhance dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system. We suggested that this potentiation might underlie both the antidepressant therapeutic effect and the antidepressant-induced switch from depression to mania, which in turn, might be involved in the development of rapid cycling in bipolar patients. In this study, we investigated the changes occurring in the sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system up to 40 days after antidepressant withdrawal. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 3 weeks with imipramine (20 mg/kg) and tested for motor activity 24 h, 12, 33 and 40 days after treatment withdrawal. Ambulatory activity and rearing counts were recorded after challenge with the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole (0.15 mg/kg). Imipramine increased the motor response to quinpirole, 24 h after treatment discontinuation. No relevant differences between the groups were found after 12 and 33 days. After 40 days, a decreased level of rearing was observed in the group treated with imipramine. These results show a reversal of the imipramine-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity after 40 days of chronic imipramine withdrawal and suggest that the mood-switches observed in bipolar patients following antidepressant treatment and subsequent withdrawal, i.e. mania followed by rebound depression, might depend upon parallel changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system sensitivity.


D'Astous, M., M. Morissette, et al. (2003). "Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) such as 17beta-estradiol prevents MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in mice." Synapse 47(1): 10-4.

            Previous work from our laboratory has shown prevention of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced striatal dopamine (DA) depletion in mice by 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, and raloxifene. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid, was shown to have neuroprotective activities in various paradigms of neuronal death but its effect in vivo in mice on MPTP toxicity has not been reported. We investigated the effects of 17beta-estradiol (2 microg/day) and DHEA (3 mg/day) for 5 days before and after an acute treatment of four MPTP (10 mg/kg) injections in male C57Bl/6 mice. Striatal DA concentrations and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured by HPLC. MPTP mice that received 17beta-estradiol or DHEA had striatal DA, DOPAC, and HVA concentrations comparable to intact animals and higher than striatal DA, DOPAC, and HVA levels in saline-MPTP-treated mice. MPTP treatment led to an increase of striatal DA turnover (assessed with the HVA/DA ratio); DHEA and 17beta-estradiol prevented this increase. 17beta-Estradiol did not affect striatal DA and metabolites concentrations in intact mice in this paradigm. Furthermore, in the substantia nigra DHEA and 17beta-estradiol prevented the MPTP-induced dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA decreases measured by in situ hybridization. Therefore, DHEA such as 17beta-estradiol is active in preventing the catecholamine-depleting effect of MPTP and our results suggest that this involves neuroprotection of DA neurons.


Da Cunha, C., S. Wietzikoski, et al. (2003). "Evidence for the substantia nigra pars compacta as an essential component of a memory system independent of the hippocampal memory system." Neurobiol Learn Mem 79(3): 236-242.

            The aim of the present study was to test if the nigrostriatal pathway is an essential component for a water maze cued task learning and if it works independently of the hippocampal memory system. This hypothesis was tested using an animal model of Parkinson's disease in which male Wistar rats were lesioned in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) by the intranigral infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), thus causing a partial depletion of striatal dopamine. SNc-lesioned and sham-operated animals were implanted bilaterally with guide cannulae above the dorsal hippocampus in order to be tested after the administration of 0.4&mgr;l 2% lidocaine or saline into this structure. The animals were tested in a spatial or in a cued version of the water maze, memory tasks previously reported to model hippocampal-dependent spatial/relational and striatal-dependent S-R learning, respectively. Hippocampal inactivation, but not SNc lesion, impaired learning and memory in the spatial version of the water maze. An opposite situation was observed with the cued version. No significant interaction was observed between the SNc lesion and hippocampal inactivation conditions affecting scores in the spatial or in the cued version of the water maze. These results suggest that the nigrostriatal pathway is an essential part of the memory system that processes S-R learning and that it works independently of the hippocampal memory system that processes spatial/relational memories.


Dackis, C. A., K. G. Lynch, et al. (2003). "Modafinil and cocaine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled drug interaction study." Drug Alcohol Depend 70(1): 29-37.

            Modafinil is a novel compound that is approved for the treatment of narcolepsy. It is now being studied as a potential treatment for cocaine dependence. Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are associated with poor clinical outcome and are likely to be reversed by modafinil. In addition, the neurotransmitter actions of modafinil are opposite to cocaine-induced neuroadaptations affecting dopamine and glutamate reward circuits. Since cocaine-dependent subjects might use cocaine during a clinical trial with modafinil, this study tested the safety of intravenous cocaine (30 mg) in combination with modafinil. Each of seven subjects received a baseline (open-label) cocaine infusion. Three subsequent cocaine infusions were administered after subjects received 4 days of low dose modafinil (200 mg/day), high dose modafinil (400 mg/day), or placebo in randomized double-blind sequences. One subject received placebo prior to all infusions. Our results indicate that co-administering modafinil and a single dose of intravenous cocaine is not associated with medical risk in terms of blood pressure, pulse, temperature, or electrocardiogram measures. Furthermore, pretreatment with modafinil did not intensify cocaine euphoria or cocaine-induced craving. In fact, cocaine euphoria was significantly blunted (P=0.02) in one of our subjective measures.


Dada, L. A. and J. I. Sznajder (2003). "Mechanisms of pulmonary edema clearance during acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: Role of the Na,K-ATPase." Crit Care Med 31(4): S248-52.

            Pulmonary edema is the hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome. It occurs when the permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier is increased, causing alveolar flooding and impaired gas exchange. The mechanisms of alveolar fluid resorption are different from those of alveolar edema formation. Alveolar fluid resorption into the vessels is brought about mainly by active transport of sodium ions (Na+) out of the alveolar spaces with water following the osmotic gradient. Na+ transport across the alveolar epithelium, and thus alveolar fluid resorption, is regulated by apical Na+ channels, the basolateral sodium potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase), and possibly chloride channels. The Na,K-ATPase has been localized to the alveolar epithelium and the importance of its role in contributing to lung edema clearance has been demonstrated. In models of lung injury, several reports have shown that catecholamines such as isoproterenol and dopamine up-regulate Na+ channels and the Na,K-ATPase giving rise to increased alveolar fluid resorption. Although recombinant gene technology is not yet a therapeutic option for the treatment of pulmonary edema, several experimental studies have reported that overexpression of Na,K-ATPase genes causes increased fluid resorption during hyperoxic lung injury. There is significant evidence that fluid clearance is impaired in patients with lung injury. Therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing the ability of alveolar epithelium to resorb the edema should lead to benefits for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Dani, J. A. (2003). "Roles of dopamine signaling in nicotine addiction." Mol Psychiatry 8(3): 255-6.

            Molecular Psychiatry (2003) 8, 255-256. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001284


Datla, K. P., H. E. Murray, et al. (2003). "Differences in dopaminergic neuroprotective effects of estrogen during estrous cycle." Neuroreport 14(1): 47-50.

            Previous studies suggest that estrogen treatment protects nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, but have not examined whether the changes in estrogen levels during estrous cycle can influence the susceptibility of these neurons to neurotoxins. Here we show that the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was greater in animals lesioned at diestrus (low estrogen) using 6-hydroxydopamine or buffered iron chloride, when compared with animals lesioned at proestrus (high estrogen). Lesioning at diestrus with 6-hydroxydopamine reduced the striatal dopamine content, whereas the dopamine content was preserved in animals lesioned at proestrus. The density of the dopamine transporter, upon which 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity is dependant, was lower when circulating estrogen was high. These results thus support a neuroprotectory role for estrogen.


David, H. N. and J. H. Abraini (2003). "Blockade of the locomotor stimulant effects of amphetamine by group I, group II, and group III metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands in the rat nucleus accumbens: possible interactions with dopamine receptors." Neuropharmacology 44(6): 717-27.

            Previous investigations have shown that mGlu receptors would be involved in the amphetamine-induced motor response. However, data are somewhat controversial across studies where methodological protocols vary. The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of mGlu receptors in the NAcc in the locomotor-activating properties of amphetamine in rats well habituated to their experimental environment, a condition known to modulate the motor response to amphetamine. Focal infusion of the group I mGlu receptor antagonist S-4-CPG, which has no effect on basal motor activity, virtually suppressed the locomotor response to amphetamine, while infusion of the group II mGlu receptor antagonist LY 341495 or the group III mGlu receptor agonist AP4, at the minimal dose that produces locomotor activation, reduced it by approximately a half. These effects were blocked by the group I mGlu receptor agonist DHPG, the group II mGlu receptor agonist APDC, and the group III mGlu receptor antagonist MPPG, respectively. These data confirm that mGlu receptors in the NAcc contribute to the psychostimulant motor effect of amphetamine. Results are discussed from the view of recent neuropharmacological studies that have defined the effects of these mGlu receptor ligands on basal motor activity and DA receptor agonists-induced locomotor responses in rats exposed to similar experimental procedures (Eur J Neuroscience 13 (2001) 2157; Neuropharmacology 41 (2001) 454; Eur J Neuroscience 13 (2001) 869). It is suggested that the contribution of mGlu receptors to the amphetamine-induced motor response may result mainly from their functional, either direct or indirect, interactions with D1-like receptors in the NAcc.


David, D. J., C. E. Renard, et al. (2003). "Antidepressant-like effects in various mice strains in the forced swimming test." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166(4): 373-82.

            RATIONALE. Strain differences in mice have been reported in response to drugs in the mouse forced swimming test (FST), even if few antidepressants were examined. OBJECTIVES. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of genetic factors, using five antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, citalopram, paroxetine and bupropion) in the mouse FST, in outbred strains (Swiss, NMRI) and inbred strains (DBA/2, C57BL/6J Rj). Moreover, whole brain levels of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) in vehicle treated animals, which were or were not subjected to the FST, were measured by HPLC analysis in an attempt to explain behavioural differences. METHODS. For each antidepressant, a dose range (1-16 mg/kg) was tested in the locomotor apparatus and only non-psychostimulant doses were then tested in the FST in order to detect antidepressant-like activity. RESULTS. No baseline differences among Swiss, NMRI, DBA/2 and C57BL/6J Rj strains were observed in our experiments, allowing the comparison of different antidepressants in each strain. Imipramine (16 mg/kg), desipramine, citalopram (4-16 mg/kg) and paroxetine (8 and 16 mg/kg) treatment decreased the immobility time in the Swiss strain and the size of the effect reached more than 20% for each of these antidepressants. C57BL/6J Rj was the only strain sensitive to bupropion (2 and 4 mg/kg). In the NMRI strain, only paroxetine treatment decreased the immobility time (16 mg/kg). CONCLUSION. Our study showed that drug sensitivity is genotype dependent. FST results have shown that Swiss mice are the most sensitive strain to detect 5-HT and/or NA treatment. The use of DBA/2 inbred mice may be limited, as an absence of antidepressant-like response was observed in the FST. The lack of sensitivity to antidepressant treatment in DBA/2 strains could be due to high DA, NA and 5-HT whole brain concentrations.


Davids, E., K. Zhang, et al. (2003). "Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder." Brain Res Brain Res Rev 42(1): 1-21.

            Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves clinically heterogeneous dysfunctions of sustained attention, with behavioral overactivity and impulsivity, of juvenile onset. Experimental models, in addition to mimicking syndromal features, should resemble the clinical condition in pathophysiology, and predict potential new treatments. One of the most extensively evaluated animal models of ADHD is the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Other models include additional genetic variants (dopamine transporter gene knock-out mouse, coloboma mouse, Naples hyperexcitable rat, acallosal mouse, hyposexual rat, and population-extreme rodents), neonatal lesioning of dopamine neurons with 6-hydroxydopamine, and exposure to other neurotoxins or hippocampal irradiation. None is fully comparable to clinical ADHD. The pathophysiology involved varies, including both deficient and excessive dopaminergic functioning, and probable involvement of other monoamine neurotransmitters. Improved models as well as further testing of their ability to predict treatment responses are required.


Davidson, B. C. (2003). "Eicosanoid precursor polyenoic fatty acids modulate synaptic levels of dopamine in ex-vivo slices of rat brain striatum." In Vivo 17(1): 83-8.

            BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence indicates that polyunsaturated fatty acids are important in normal brain structure and function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat brain striatal slices incubated with tritiated dopamine were electrically stimulated twice. During the first only buffer was perfused. During the second period buffer, fatty acid plus indomethacin, or fatty acid plus nordihydroguaiaretic acid were perfused. The ratio of the two stimulations indicated changes in released tritium. RESULTS: The only fatty acids to induce significant changes in tritium were the eicosanoid-precursors, dihomo-gamma-linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. DISCUSSION: There were no differences between the effects of the fatty acid alone or fatty acid in the presence of indomethacin, indicating little involvement of the cyclooxygenase pathway. Fatty acid in the presence of nordihydroguaiaretic acid reversed the low synaptic tritium concentrations, indicating that the lipoxygenase pathway may be active in dopaminergic metabolism in striatum.


Davila, N. G., L. J. Blakemore, et al. (2003). "Dopamine Modulates Synaptic Transmission Between Rat Olfactory Bulb Neurons in Culture." J Neurophysiol.

            The glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) contains synaptic connections between olfactory sensory neurons and OB neurons as well as connections among OB neurons. A subpopulation of external tufted cells and periglomerular cells (juxtaglomerular neurons) expresses dopamine, and recent reports suggest that dopamine can inhibit olfactory sensory neuron activation of OB neurons. In this study, whole-cell electrophysiological and primary culture techniques were employed to characterize the neuromodulatory properties of dopamine on glutamatergic transmission between rat OB mitral/tufted (M/T) cells and interneurons. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, in a subpopulation of cultured neurons. D2 receptor immunoreactivity was also observed in cultured M/T cells. Dopamine reduced spontaneous excitatory synaptic events recorded in interneurons. Although the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 and the D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine mesylate mimicked this effect, evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) recorded from monosynaptically coupled neuron pairs were attenuated by dopamine and bromocriptine but not by SKF38393. Neither glutamate-evoked currents nor the membrane resistance of the postsynaptic interneuron were affected by dopamine. However, evoked calcium channel currents in the presynaptic M/T cell were diminished during the application of either dopamine or bromocriptine, but not SKF38393. Dopamine suppressed calcium channel currents even after nifedipine blockade of L-type channels, suggesting that inhibition of the dihydropyridine-resistant high-voltage activated calcium channels implicated in transmitter release may mediate dopamine's effects on spontaneous and evoked synaptic transmission. Together, these data suggest that dopamine inhibits excitatory neurotransmission between M/T cells and interneurons via a presynaptic mechanism.


Dawson, L. A., H. Q. Nguyen, et al. (2003). "Potentiation of amphetamine-induced changes in dopamine and 5-HT by a 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist." Brain Res Bull 59(6): 513-21.

            Although recent data has shown that 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists' can enhance basal cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex and hippocampus, the distribution of this receptor within terminal regions of the dopaminergic system suggests a possible role for this receptor in the modulation of dopamine (DA). Therefore, the role of the 5-HT(6) receptor was examined in the rat striatum in the presence and absence of the DA transport inhibitor/releaser, amphetamine. Amphetamine (0.3mg/kg s.c.) induced a selective increase in extracellular DA reaching a maximum of 311.3+/-73.5% of preinjection levels. Administration of SB-271046 (1 and 10mg/kg s.c.) followed by amphetamine produced an augmentation of amphetamine-induced changes in both DA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), reaching maximum levels of 510.1+/-110.5% and 271+/-93.4% of preinjection values, respectively. Similarly, local infusion of amphetamine (100 nM) resulted in an increase in striatal DA levels reaching a maximum of 365.7+/-73.3% of preinfusion values. However, combination treatment with SB-271046 (1mg/kg s.c.) and amphetamine produced no augmentation of amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular levels of DA or in any other neurotransmitter measured. Taken together these data indicate that the 5-HT(6) receptor is not playing a role in the tonic modulation of NA, DA, 5-HT or glutamate neurotransmission in the striatum. However, when dopaminergic neurotransmission is enhanced the 5-HT(6) receptor appears to have a modulatory influence on not only DA but also 5-HT systems. This is the first direct neurochemical evidence that the 5-HT(6) receptor may have modulatory influences on both DA and 5-HT systems in the rat striatum.


De Erausquin, G. A. (2003). "[Mechanism of molecular action of neuroleptics]." Vertex XIV(51): 36-44.

            The discovery of the neurotransmitter function of dopamine in the central nervous system opened the most successful chapter in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis. It is a generally accepted fact that the antipyschotic action of neuroleptics depends upon blockade of D2 receptors, in part because all of currently used neuroleptics share that action, and in part because for all typical neuroleptics there is a tight correlation between D2 receptor affinity and clinical potency. The differencial effect of atypical neuroleptics has been correlated with the ratio of affinities of for the D2 and the 5HT2A receptors. Alternatively, it has been proposed that the lack of motor side effects is due to fast dissociation of the ligand from the D2 receptor. Regardless of the receptor interaction involved, it is evident that ligand-receptor interactions, occuring over miliseconds, cannot fully account for clinical effects observed over weeks or months. Chronic neuroleptic treatment causes structural and morpholog ical changes in striatum, accumbens and prefrontal and limbic cortex that distinguish between typical and atypical drugs, and thar are correlated with sustained changes in the expression of transcription factors, immediate early genes, second messengers and neuropeptides.


de Erausquin, G. A., K. Hyrc, et al. (2003). "Nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors leads to transcription of p53 and cell death in dopaminergic neurons." Mol Pharmacol 63(4): 784-90.

            We describe a new molecular mechanism of cell death by excitotoxicity mediated through nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF kappa B) in rat embryonic cultures of dopaminergic neurons. Treatment of mesencephalic cultures with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) resulted in a number of changes that occurred selectively in dopaminergic neurons, including persistent elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) monitored with Fura-2, and a significant increase in intramitochondrial oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123, probably associated with transient increase of mitochondrial permeability, cytochrome c release, nuclear translocation of NF kappa B, and transcriptional activation of the oncogene p53. Interruption of any of these steps by specific antagonists prevented neurite pruning and programmed cell death. In contrast, cell death was not prevented by caspase antagonists and only partly prevented by nitric-oxide synthase inhibitors. This signal transduction pathway might be a contributing mechanism in ongoing neuronal death in Parkinson disease.


de Haan, L., M. van Bruggen, et al. (2003). "Subjective experience and D2 receptor occupancy in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia treated with low-dose olanzapine or haloperidol: a randomized, double-blind study." Am J Psychiatry 160(2): 303-9.

            OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the hypothesis that a dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy level between 60% and 70% in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia would result in optimal subjective experience. In addition, they sought preliminary evidence on whether subjective experience is better with low-dose olanzapine than with low-dose haloperidol. METHOD: Subjects (N=24) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with either olanzapine, 7.5 mg/day, or haloperidol, 2.5 mg/day. Subjective experience, psychopathology, and extrapyramidal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at endpoint. After 6 weeks, D(2) receptor occupancy was assessed with [(123)I]iodobenzamide single photon emission computed tomography. RESULTS: The two study groups were similar at baseline. After 6 weeks, patients receiving olanzapine had a significantly lower mean dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy (51.0%, range=36%-67%) than those given haloperidol (65.5%, range=45%-75%). Receptor occupancy between 60% and 70% was associated with optimal subjective experience, and subjective experience improved significantly in the haloperidol group. CONCLUSIONS: A level of D(2) receptor occupancy between 60% and 70% is optimal for subjective experience of patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. Substantial interindividual variation in D(2) receptor occupancy was seen at fixed low-dose levels of olanzapine and haloperidol. Olanzapine, 7.5 mg/day, showed no superior subjective response over haloperidol, 2.5 mg/day. Olanzapine may need to be dosed higher than 7.5 mg/day for most patients with recent-onset schizophrenia, and haloperidol needs to be individually titrated in the very low dose range to reach optimal occupancy.


De la Fuente, M., A. Hernanz, et al. (2003). "Characterization of monoaminergic systems in brain regions of prematurely ageing mice." Neurochem Int 43(2): 165-72.

            We have previously shown that differences in life span among members of Swiss mouse populations appear to be related to their exploration of a T-maze, with a slow exploration ("slow mice") being linked to increased levels of emotionality/anxiety, an impaired immune function and a shorter life span. Thus, we proposed the slow mice as prematurely ageing mice (PAM). We have now compared the monoaminergic systems of the PAM and of the non-prematurely ageing mice (NPAM), in discrete brain regions. PAM had decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels in all the brain regions analysed, whereas the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG)/NA ratios were not significantly modified. PAM also showed decreased serotonine (5-HT) levels in hypothalamus, striatum and midbrain, as well as increased 5-hydroxyindol-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratios in hypothalamus and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) content was lower in PAM in most regions, whereas the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA and homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA ratios were either increased or unchanged depending on the region analysed. In most cases, the differences between PAM and NPAM involved both sexes. One exception was the hypothalamus where the differences only affected the male mice. The neurochemical alterations found in PAM resemble some changes reported for aged animals and are related with their behavioural features.


De La Fuente-Fernandez, R., A. S. Lim, et al. (2003). "Age and severity of nigrostriatal damage at onset of Parkinson's disease." Synapse 47(2): 152-8.

            The clinical evolution of Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to be partly dependent on the age of onset. For example, motor complications associated with chronic dopaminomimetic treatment occur more often in younger patients. However, few attempts have been made to characterize the functional pathological differences underlying this age effect. We investigated the relationship between age and severity of nigrostriatal damage at onset of PD. Twenty patients with early PD (symptom duration <or=5 years) with onset before age 50 (n = 10) and with onset after age 50 (n = 10) were studied. The two groups were compared with respect to severity of nigrostriatal damage as evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-dopa ([(18)F]-dopa), (+/-)-alpha-[(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([(11)C]DTBZ), and d-threo-[(11)C]methylphenidate ([(11)C]MP). We found no significant differences between younger- and older-onset PD patients with regard to any of the three presynaptic markers. For putamen, the P-values corresponding to the different PET measurements ranged from P = 0.34 ([(18)F]-dopa) to P = 0.79 ([(11)C]DTBZ). However, after adjusting for treatment and PD duration, regression analysis showed that [(18)F]-dopa uptake correlated positively with age of onset (r = 0.59; P = 0.010). No correlation was found between [(11)C]DTBZ and [(11)C]MP binding potentials and age of onset (P = 0.26 and P = 0.90, respectively). These data suggest that age-of-onset-dependent differences in clinical evolution are not likely to reflect early differences in nigrostriatal pathology in PD. Age-related differences in [(18)F]-dopa uptake may be related to changes in dopamine turnover.


De Luca, A., M. Rizzardi, et al. (2003). "Association of dopamine D4 receptor ( DRD4) exon III repeat polymorphism with temperament in 3-year-old infants." Neurogenetics.

            The long forms of the dopamine D4 receptor ( DRD4) exon III repeat polymorphism ( L-DRD4) have been linked in some studies to the adult personality trait of novelty seeking (NS), as well as to infant personality traits related to interest and activity. The current investigation extends the results of our previous longitudinal study on 1- to 5-month-old neonates assessed by the Early and Revised Infancy Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ/RITQ), in which we found a significant correlation between the DRD4 polymorphism and the adaptability trait at 1 month of age. In this study, we examined the relationship between children's behavior at 3 years of age, measured with the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS), and DRD4 exon III repeat polymorphism. We found a significant association between the behavioral dimension of intensity of reaction and DRD4 genotypes. Current data failed to confirm the association with the adaptability trait. None of the extraversion and/or exploratory behavior measures was related to the L-DRD4 allele, as expected. In contrast, children with 4/7 genotypes showed worse response to new stimuli compared with 4/4 genotypes. This study corroborates only in part previous results on the link between the DRD4 gene and human temperament.


de Paulis, T. (2003). "Sumanirole Pharmacia." Curr Opin Investig Drugs 4(1): 77-82.

            Sumanirole is a dopamine D2 agonist under development by Pharmacia Corp (formerly Pharmacia & Upjohn) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The compound is currently undergoing phase II trials in Japan and phase III clinical trials in the US.


De Paulis, T. (2003). "The discovery of epidepride and its analogs as high-affinity radioligands for imaging extrastriatal dopamine d(2) receptors in human brain." Curr Pharm Des 9(8): 673-96.

            [(123)I]Epidepride, [(18)F]fallypride, and [(76)Br]isoremoxipride (FLB-457) and their corresponding [(11)C]labeled derivatives belong to a class of high-affinity radioligands for SPECT or PET imaging of dopamine D(2) receptors in the human brain. In contrast to previously used imaging agents, these ligands are capable of identifying extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors. The design of these substituted benzamides derive its origin from the atypical antipsychotic agent, remoxipride. Starting in the late 1970's, halogenated analogs of (S)-sulpiride were evaluated in binding assays and behavioral studies, leading to the discovery of remoxipride. Remoxipride was 10 times weaker than sulpiride in vitro but 50 times more potent in vivo. Search for a putative active metabolite of remoxipride led to the discovery of raclopride and eticlopride, the former becoming a useful radioligand as tritium or carbon-11 labeled form for receptor binding and PET studies, respectively. In the US, the mono-iodine analog of raclopride, [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), was found to have moderate putamen-to-cerebellum ratio in rat and human brain. Continued search for metabolites of remoxipride led to the discovery of its 3,6-dihydroxy derivative, NCQ-344, with an extremely potent in vivo activity in the rat. SAR studies of the metabolites of remoxipride led to the discovery of the 3-methoxy isomer, isoremoxipride (FLB-457) and its corresponding 6-hydroxy analog, FLB-463, both having affinities for the dopamine D(2) receptor in the 20-30 pM range. Later, the 5-[(123)I]iodo analog of FLB-463, [(123)I]ioxipride ([(123)I]NCQ-298), became a potential SPECT imaging agent. In the mean time, the deshydroxy analog of IBZM, [(125)I]iodopride, showed binding potential in the rat similar to [(125)I]IBZM. Epidepride was designed by combining the structure of isoremoxipride with that of iodopride. In 1988, epidepride was independently prepared and radiolabeled in three separate laboratories in Stockholm, Berkeley, and Nashville. Evaluation of seven [(125)I]iodine substituted analogs of raclopride, including IBZM, revealed the unusual high striatum-to-cerebellum ratio of 234 of [(125)I]epidepride in the rat. Subsequent SPECT images with [(123)I]epidepride demonstrated its ability to identify extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in the human brain. Exploration of the structure of epidepride confirmed its exceptional properties, to be exceeded only by its N-allyl homolog, [(125)I]nalepride. The design by others of a series of potent 5-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl) substituted analogs of epidepride for PET imaging, lead to the discovery of [(18)F]fallypride. By elucidating the role of lipophilicity in the substituted benzamides, the excellent imaging characteristics of [(11)C]/[(123)I]epidepride, [(11)C]/[(76)Br]isoremoxipride and [(18)F]fallypride, could not only be explained but predicted with remarkable accuracy. By using the inverse product of the receptor affinity (K(D)), and the apparent partition constant of the radioligand (P((7.4))), estimates of maximal binding potential of any radioligand for imaging of any neurotransmitter receptor or transporter site seem possible.


Dean, B., R. Bradbury, et al. (2003). "Cannabis-sensitive dopaminergic markers in postmortem central nervous system: changes in schizophrenia." Biol Psychiatry 53(7): 585-92.

            This study investigated if changes in pre-synaptic markers on dopaminergic neurons (dopamine transporter [DAT], tyrosine hydroxylase [TH]) were present in the caudate from subjects with schizophrenia who had Delta(9)(-)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their blood at autopsy. These changes were posited because animal studies show that treatment with THC decreases dopamine uptake and TH in the striatum.Studies utilized caudate, obtained postmortem, from 14 schizophrenic and 14 control subjects. [(3)H]mazindol binding to caudate, measured using autoradiography, was taken as a measure of DAT; TH levels were estimated using an antihuman TH antibody and Western blotting.There was decreased [(3)H]mazindol binding to DAT in the caudate from the schizophrenic subjects with no detectable blood THC levels (THC(-)) compared with THC(-) control subjects (mean +/- SEM: 240 +/- 19 vs. 296 +/- 14 fmol/mg estimated tissue equivalents, p =.01). There were no significant differences between levels of DAT in the caudate from schizophrenic and control subjects that had THC in their blood. Tyrosine hyroxylase was not different in any diagnostic cohort.Our data suggests that DAT is decreased in the caudate from THC(-) subjects with schizophrenia, a change that may be reversed by ingesting THC from cannabis.


Decker, M. J., G. E. Hue, et al. (2003). "Episodic neonatal hypoxia evokes executive dysfunction and regionally specific alterations in markers of dopamine signaling." Neuroscience 117(2): 417-25.

            Perinatal ischemic-anoxic and prolonged anoxic insults lead to impaired dopaminergic signaling and are hypothesized to contribute, at least in part, to the pathogenesis of disorders of minimal brain dysfunction such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We hypothesized that subtle intermittent hypoxic insults, occurring during a period of critical brain development, are also pathogenic to dopaminergic signaling, thereby contributing to behavioral and executive dysfunction. Between postnatal days 7 and 11, rat pups were exposed to either 20-s bursts of isocapnic hypoxic gas, compressed air, or were left undisturbed with the dam. On postnatal days 23 pups were instrumented with electroencephalographic/electromyographic electrodes and sleep-wake architecture was characterized. Locomotor activity was assessed between postnatal days 35 and 38, learning, and working memory evaluated between postnatal days 53 and 64. Rats were killed on postnatal day 80 and tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter, dopamine transporter, and dopamine D1 receptors were quantified in the prefrontal cortex, primary sensorimotor cortex, and precommissural striatum by Western blot analyses. Post-hypoxic pups spent less time awake and more time in rapid-eye-movement sleep during the lights-on phase of the circadian cycle, were hyperlocomotive, and expressed impaired working memory. Striatal expression of vesicular monoamine transporter and D1 receptor proteins were increased in post-hypoxic rats, consistent with depressed dopaminergic signaling. These observations lead to the intriguing hypothesis that intermittent hypoxia occurring during a period of critical brain development evokes behavioral and neurochemical alterations that are long lasting, and consistent with disorders of minimal brain dysfunction.


Degen, S. B., E. J. Geven, et al. (2003). "Apomorphine-susceptible and apomorphine-unsusceptible Wistar rats differ in their recovery from stress-induced ulcers." Life Sci 72(10): 1117-24.

            The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of restraint-in-water-stress on gastric ulcerations in two fundamentally different types of animals: the apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) and apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rats. APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS do not only differ in their susceptibility to the dopamine agonist apomorphine, but also in stress-induced release of mesolimbic dopamine and corticosterone. All three factors are known to either predict or be involved in gastric ulceration. The results showed that immediately after the stressor the ulcerations in APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats were not line-specific. On the contrary, the recovery from gastric ulceration varied between both types of rat: APO-SUS rats did not show any sign of recovery after 6 hours whereas APO-UNSUS rats significantly recovered during the period of 0-6 hr after the stressor. It is hypothesised that this difference is due to the fact that APO-UNSUS rats are characterised by a less and shorter-lasting stress-induced increase of corticosterone. This study provides evidence that the pathological effects of exposure to stressors significantly differ between APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats and that genetic factors may direct the process of recovering from ulcers.


Degim, I. T., F. Acarturk, et al. (2003). "Transdermal administration of bromocriptine." Biol Pharm Bull 26(4): 501-5.

            Bromocriptine (BRC) has been mainly used for the inhibition of lactation, treatment of menstrual disorders, Parkinson disease, breast tumours, infertility and brain tumours as a dopamine agonist in clinics. But current BRC formulations have some side effects and bioavailability problems because of hepatic first pass effect. Transdermal application could be an alternative route to overcome all these problem and penetration properties of BRC has not been studied yet. Therefore, it was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of transdermal formulation of BRC which is applicable to the skin. For this purpose, a number of BRC gel formulations (Carbopol-934 (C-934), chitosan (CH) and Gantrez-SP215 (G-SP215) were developed and the effectiveness and bioavailability of the formulations were compared in rabbits. Commercial BRC tablets (Parlodel((R))) were also given to rabbits orally and plasma levels were compared. The effects of two different penetration enhancers, sodium taurocholate (ST) and ethoxydiglycol-Transcutol((R)) (TR) on the BRC penetration were also investigated. The skin samples from the dorsal part of the rabbit were removed after CH gel application and investigated under electron microscope to understand the effects of the gel on the penetration and the possible penetration mechanisms through skin were also discussed. In conclusion, CH gel formulation was found to be the best formulation and comparable blood BRC concentrations were obtained when applied to the rabbit skin. Higher blood levels were obtained with the use of CH. The main penetration process was found to be through transcellular route but some other mechanisms were also found to be incorporated, after microscopic investigation. CH gel was found to be a useful carrier for BRC administration through dermal route and the penetration enhancing effect and the mechanism of CH gel were first established in this study. It was concluded that transdermal delivery of BRC may be a very promising alternative route to the oral route for the treatment.


Del Arco, A., G. Segovia, et al. (2003). "Changes in dialysate concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the brain: an index of volume transmission mediated actions?" J Neurochem 85(1): 23-33.

            Brain microdialysis has become a frequently used method to study the extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters in specific areas of the brain. For years, and this is still the case today, dialysate concentrations and hence extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters have been interpreted as a direct index of the neuronal release of these specific neurotransmitter systems. Although this seems to be the case for neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and GABA do not provide a reliable index of their synaptic exocytotic release. However, many microdialysis studies show changes in extracellular concentrations of glutamate and GABA under specific pharmacological and behavioural stimuli that could be interpreted as a consequence of the activation of specific neurochemical circuits. Despite this, we still do not know the origin and physiological significance of these changes of glutamate and GABA in the extracellular space. Here we propose that the changes in dialysate concentrations of these two neurotransmitters found under specific treatments could be an expression of the activity of the neurone-astrocyte unit in specific circuits of the brain. It is further proposed that dialysate changes of glutamate and GABA could be used as an index of volume transmission mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. This hypothesis is based firstly on the assumption that the activity of neurones is functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which can release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space; secondly, on the existence of extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors with functional properties different from those of GABA receptors located at the synapse; and thirdly, on the experimental evidence reporting specific electrophysiological and neurochemical effects of glutamate and GABA when their levels are increased in the extracellular space. According to this concept, glutamate and GABA, once released into the extracellular compartment, could diffuse and have long-lasting effects modulating glutamatergic and/or GABAergic neurone-astrocytic networks and their interactions with other neurotransmitter neurone networks in the same areas of the brain.


del Olmo, N., A. Handler, et al. (2003). "Taurine-induced synaptic potentiation and the late phase of long-term potentiation are related mechanistically." Neuropharmacology 44(1): 26-39.

            The application of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) induces a long-lasting increase of synaptic efficacy and axon excitability (LLP-TAU) in rat hippocampal CA1 area. After taurine withdrawal, LLP-TAU lasted at least 3 h. This fact prompted us to assess whether the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this particular potentiation were similar to those implicated in the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP). In the presence of KN-62, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, taurine perfusion (10 mM, 30 min) did not affect the induction of LLP-TAU. However, LLP-TAU maintenance was completely suppressed by KT5720, an inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Moreover, the late phase of LLP-TAU was blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis with anisomycin. In addition, taurine perfusion increased the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), although did not affect cAMP levels. These features of LLP-TAU do not appear to be caused by the activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors, as taurine also induced synaptic potentiation in the presence of SCH23390, an antagonist of this type of receptors. Finally, the late phase of both L-LTP and LLP-TAU occluded mutually. These results suggest that taurine triggers the sequence of some of the molecular events involved in the induction of L-LTP.


Desai, R. I., D. J. Barber, et al. (2003). "Dopaminergic and cholinergic involvement in the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine and cocaine in rats." Psychopharmacology (Berl).

            RATIONALE. Previous work has demonstrated asymmetrical cross-generalization between the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine and cocaine: nicotine fully substitutes for cocaine, whereas cocaine only partially substitutes for nicotine. The factors responsible for the similarities and differences between the two drugs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE. The study tested the involvement of dopaminergic and/or cholinergic mechanisms in the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine and cocaine. METHODS. One set of rats was trained to discriminate cocaine (8.9 mg/kg) from saline, and two other sets of rats were trained to discriminate nicotine (0.1 mg/kg) from saline. RESULTS. In cocaine-trained rats, among the cholinergic agonists studied only nicotine (0.01-0.56 mg/kg) produced full, dose-related substitution; nornicotine (1-5.6 mg/kg) substituted only partially, and lobeline (2.71-15.34 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (0.26-2.55 mg/kg) failed to engender any cocaine-appropriate responding. The nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1-5.6 mg/kg) failed to block cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects. The dopamine antagonist cis-flupentixol (0.48 mg/kg) blocked the substitution of nicotine for cocaine. In nicotine-trained rats, the dopamine uptake blockers cocaine, bupropion and nomifensine (0.2-26.1 mg/kg) each substituted only partially for nicotine, and cis-flupentixol (0.48-0.86 mg/kg) antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. CONCLUSIONS. Nicotine fully substitutes for cocaine because of its effects on dopamine transmission, and not because the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine incorporate a cholinergic component. Substitution of nicotine for cocaine may depend more on nicotine-induced dopamine release than does the nicotine-trained discriminative stimulus; there may be differential dopaminergic involvement after acute and repeated treatment with nicotine or cocaine.


Desai, R. I. and P. Terry (2003). "Evidence of cross-tolerance between behavioural effects of nicotine and cocaine in mice." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166(2): 111-9.

            RATIONALE: Studies have reported that chronic exposure to nicotine does not alter the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity, and vice versa. However, the apparent lack of effect of one drug on the behavioural response to the other may be due to an exclusive focus on locomotor activity as the target behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To test whether repeated pretreatment with nicotine causes tolerance or sensitization to cocaine's effects on diverse behaviours: locomotion, rearing, grooming, and immobility. Similarly, the effects of repeated cocaine treatment on the acute response to nicotine were also tested. METHODS: Mice were pretreated with 14 injections of nicotine (0.3 mg/kg), cocaine (5 mg/kg) or saline, the injections being given once daily, except for three breaks of two days each. Two days after the final pretreatment injection, mice were given a challenge injection of saline, cocaine (3 or 5 mg/kg) or nicotine (0.3 or 1 mg/kg), and observed in a large test cage for 40 min using a time-sampling procedure. RESULTS: Repeated administration of either drug produced some tolerance to subsequent challenge with the same dose of the drug. Prior nicotine exposure significantly attenuated cocaine-induced decreases in grooming and increases in rearing, but did not significantly affect other behaviours. In contrast, prior cocaine exposure failed to alter nicotine's effects on any behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-tolerance between nicotine and cocaine (but not vice-versa) can be demonstrated if several behaviours are observed; measures of locomotor activity are less sensitive to the effect. The asymmetrical pattern of cross-tolerance may be due to differential inhibition of dopamine uptake by the two drugs.


Devoto, P., G. Flore, et al. (2003). "Co-release of noradrenaline and dopamine from noradrenergic neurons in the cerebral cortex induced by clozapine, the prototype atypical antipsychotic." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167(1): 79-84.

            RATIONALE. Clozapine has been shown to increase extracellular dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A recent study of ours suggested that extracellular DA in the PFC originates not only from dopaminergic but also from noradrenergic terminals, its release being controlled by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. OBJECTIVES. Since clozapine binds to alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, the possibility that it might co-release DA and NA was studied. METHODS. By means of microdialysis coupled to HPLC with electrochemical detection, the effect of clozapine on extracellular DA and NA in the mPFC, densely innervated by DA and NA, was compared to that in the occipital cortex, equally innervated by NA but receiving few DA projections. RESULTS. Extracellular NA was found to be the same in the two cortices, consistent with homogeneous NA innervation. On the other hand, extracellular DA in the occipital cortex was only 29% lower than in the mPFC, in spite of the scarce dopaminergic innervation in the occipital cortex. Clozapine (10 mg/kg IP) increased extracellular DA and NA not only in the mPFC (by about 320% and 290%, respectively) but also in the occipital cortex (by 560% and 230%, respectively). Administration of the alpha(2)-agonist clonidine (0.15 mg/kg) reversed the effect of clozapine in both cortices, while the D(2)-agonist quinpirole (0.1 mg/kg IP) was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS. The results suggest that clozapine, by inhibiting alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, co-releases DA and NA from noradrenergic terminals in the occipital cortex and that the same mechanism might be responsible for the concomitant increase of the two monoamines in the mPFC.


Di Ciano, P., R. J. Underwood, et al. (2003). "Attenuation of Cue-Controlled Cocaine-Seeking by a Selective D(3) Dopamine Receptor Antagonist SB-277011-A." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(2): 329-38.

            Conditioned stimuli (CS) previously paired with drugs of abuse can elicit cravings in humans, relapse to drug use, and can also reinforce drug-seeking behavior in both humans and animals, events that are believed to be subserved in part by activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Converging anatomical, pharmacological, and behavioral evidence implicates dopamine D(3) receptors in the mechanisms underlying cue-controlled behaviors. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects on cocaine-seeking behavior of a novel D(3) receptor antagonist, SB-277011-A, which is 100-fold more selective for D(3) over D(2) dopamine receptors. We have established previously that second-order schedules of reinforcement provide an animal model of cue-controlled drug-seeking both prior to and after cocaine has been self-administered. SB-277011-A dose-dependently decreased cocaine-seeking maintained by a cocaine-associated conditioned reinforcer in both the first, drug-free interval and also following self-administration of cocaine. At higher doses, SB-277011-A also increased the latency to receive the first CS presentation and cocaine infusion, thereby decreasing the number of cocaine infusions self-administered under the second-order schedule of reinforcement. SB-277011-A had no effect on cocaine intake under an FR-1 schedule of reinforcement, or on responding for sucrose under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, at any dose tested. These results therefore suggest that D(3) dopamine receptors may be critically involved in cue-controlled drug-seeking behavior independently of any interaction with the reinforcing effects of cocaine itself, and may therefore provide a therapeutic target in the treatment of relapse to cocaine use induced by CSs.Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) 28, 329-338. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300148


Di Marco, G. S., G. Naffah-Mazzacoratti Md Mda, et al. (2003). "Mesangial cells are able to produce catecholamines in vitro." J Cell Biochem 89(1): 144-51.

            Mesangial cells (MC) participate in the control of the glomerular function due to their ability to synthesize hormones and induce cell contraction. Since MC can produce various kinds of hormones, the purpose of the present study was to determine if they are able to synthesize catecholamines. For this evaluation, the levels of norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and biopterin, the enzymatic cofactor of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), were analyzed by HPLC in the intracellular compartment and in the medium of primary cultured MC. To identify and locate the enzymes responsible for monoamine synthesis, TH, dopa decarboxylase, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were employed using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Concentrations of NE = 57 +/- 8, EPI = 82 +/- 10, and DA = 52 +/- 9 pg/mg protein (X +/- SEM) were found in the cell homogenate. The culture medium showed concentrations of NE = 25 +/- 3, EPI = 33 +/- 3, and DA = 62 +/- 15 pg/mg protein. Western blotting analysis and immunocytochemistry evidenced the presence of all enzymes. Moreover, biopterin was also detected in the intracellular compartment and in the medium (0.28 +/- 0.03 and 5.70 +/- 2 nmol/mg cell protein, respectively). Overall, the data indicate that MC have the biosynthetic machinery necessary to produce catecholamines, suggesting that they can act as a paracrine/autocrine hormone system, contributing to the regulation of glomerular hemodynamic and renal microcirculation. J. Cell. Biochem. 89: 144-151, 2003.


Diana, M., M. Brodie, et al. (2003). "Enduring Effects of Chronic Ethanol in the CNS: Basis for Alcoholism." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(2): 354-61.

            This symposium focused on functional alterations in the mesolimbic dopamine system during the abstinence phase after chronic alcohol intake. Mark Brodie first described his recordings from midbrain slices prepared after chronic alcohol treatment in vivo by daily injection in C57BL/6J mice. No changes were found in the baseline firing frequency of dopaminergic neurones in the VTA (ventral tegmental area), but the excitation produced in these neurones by an acute ethanol challenge was significantly increased in neurons from ethanol-treated mice compared with those from the saline-treated controls. There was also a significant decrease in the inhibitory response to GABA by the dopamine neurones following the chronic ethanol treatment. These data suggest that the timing pattern and mode of ethanol administration may determine the types of changes observed in dopaminergic reward area neurons. Annalisa Muntoni lectured on the relationship between electrophysiological and biochemical in vivo evidence supporting a reduction in tonic activity of dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens at various times after suspension of chronic ethanol treatment and morphological changes affecting dopamine neurons in rat VTA. Hilary J. Little then described changes in dopaminergic neurone function in the VTA during the abstinence phase. Decreases in baseline firing were seen at 6 days after withdrawal of mice from chronic ethanol treatment but were not apparent after 2 months abstinence. Increases in the affinity of D1 receptors in the striatum, but not in the cerebral cortex, were seen however up to 2 months after withdrawal. Scott Steffensen then described his studies recording in vivo from GABA containing neurones in the VTA in freely moving rats. Chronic ethanol administration enhanced the baseline activity of these neurones and resulted in tolerance to the inhibition by ethanol of these neurones. His results demonstrated selective adaptive circuit responses within the VTA or in extrategmental structures that regulate VTA-GABA neurone activity.


Diaz, S. L., A. K. Kemmling, et al. (2003). "Baclofen reestablishes striatal and cortical dopamine concentrations during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal." Neurochem Int 42(4): 293-8.

            The present study analyzes the effects of baclofen (BAC) on mice brain neurochemical alterations during the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome. Male Swiss-Webster albino mice (27-33g) were rendered dependent by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MOR (2mg/kg), twice daily for 9 days. On day 10, the dependent animals were divided into two groups: one receiving naloxone (NAL; 6mg/kg i.p.) to precipitate the withdrawal syndrome 60min after the last dose of MOR and the other received BAC (2mg/kg, i.p.) followed by NAL (6mg/kg, i.p.), injected 30 and 60min after the last dose of MOR, respectively. Ten minutes after these treatments, mice were killed by decapitation and the striatum, cortex and hippocampus were dissected to determine endogenous concentrations of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Striatal DA, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations as well as cortical DA concentrations of the withdrawal groups decreased significantly with respect to the control groups. BAC attenuated the decrease in DA and DOPAC concentrations observed during the withdrawal, without modifying per se the control DA concentrations. No changes on 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were observed during the MOR abstinence syndrome. The prevention caused by BAC on the decreased concentrations of DA induced by MOR withdrawal could have a therapeutic interest for the management of withdrawal syndrome.


Dickinson, S. D., E. L. Lee, et al. (2003). "Lack of effect of dopamine receptor blockade on expression of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165(3): 238-44.

            RATIONALE. Self-administration studies have suggested that dopamine (DA) is important for the reinforcing effects of ethanol. However, ethanol place conditioning studies have less consistently demonstrated a role for DA in conditioned place preference. OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether blockade of D(1), D(2) or D(3) DA receptors would impact the expression of the conditioned place preference induced by ethanol in DBA/2J mice. METHODS. Mice underwent an unbiased place conditioning procedure with 2 g/kg ethanol. Prior to the preference test, mice were injected i.p. with SCH23390 (0, 0.015 or 0.03 mg/kg), raclopride (0, 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) or U99194A (0, 10 or 20 mg/kg). RESULTS. Ethanol produced a significant conditioned place preference that was not affected by any of the dopamine antagonists tested. Each of the antagonists decreased locomotor activity, though U99194A was minimally effective. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that the conditioned reinforcing effects of ethanol in DBA/2J mice as assessed by place conditioning are mediated by non-dopaminergic mechanisms.


DiMaio, S., N. Grizenko, et al. (2003). "Dopamine genes and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review." J Psychiatry Neurosci 28(1): 27-38.

            OBJECTIVE: To review the results of genetic studies investigating dopamine-related genes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DATA SOURCES: Papers (association/linkage, meta-analyses and animal model studies) were identified through searches of the PubMed database and systematically reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Consistent results from molecular genetic studies are pointing strongly to the possible link between 2 specific genes, the dopamine transporter (SLC3A6) and the dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4), and ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of SLC6A3 and DRD4 genes in ADHD appears to be one of the most replicated in psychiatric genetics and strongly suggests the involvement of the brain dopamine systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. However, more work is required to further these findings by genotype-to-phenotype correlations and identify the functional allelic variants/mutations that are responsible for these associations. The role of other dopamine genes, which may have smaller effects than SLC6A3 and DRD4, needs also to be determined.


Dobrev, D. and U. Ravens (2003). "Therapeutically relevant concentrations of neomycin selectively inhibit P-type Ca2+ channels in rat striatum." Eur J Pharmacol 461(2-3): 105-11.

            The effects of neomycin on voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (VACCs) were studied by Ca(2+)-dependent K(+)- and veratridine-evoked [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal slices. Neomycin (0.01-1 mM) concentration dependently reduced K(+)-evoked [3H]dopamine release (IC(50) approximately 25 microM), producing approximately 98% inhibition at 1 mM. Contribution of N-, P- and Q-type Ca(2+) channels to this neomycin-sensitive [3H]dopamine release was tested by the combined application of 100 microM neomycin and selective Ca(2+) channel blockers. The effects of neomycin combined with 1 microM of omega-conotoxin GVIA (N-type Ca(2+) channels) or with 100 nM of omega-conotoxin MVIIC (Q-type Ca(2+) channels) were additive, excluding involvement of N- and Q-type Ca(2+) channels. However, the combined effects of neomycin with 30 nM of omega-agatoxin-IVA (P-type Ca(2+) channels) were not additive, suggesting involvement of P-type Ca(2+) channels in neomycin-induced inhibition of [3H]dopamine release. On the other hand, veratridine-evoked [3H]dopamine release was shown to be mediated by Q-type Ca(2+) channels only. In addition, neither the inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase thapsigargin (500 nM) nor the blocker of sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine Ca(2+) channels ryanodine (30 microM) modulate veratridine-evoked [3H]dopamine release, suggesting no contribution of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Neomycin (up to 100 microM) did not affect veratridine-evoked [3H]dopamine release, suggesting that intracellular Ca(2+) stores are not a prerequisite for the action of neomycin. Lack of inhibitory effect of neomycin is taken as additional indirect evidence for the involvement of P-type Ca(2+) channels. In conclusion, therapeutically relevant concentrations of neomycin preferentially block P-type Ca(2+) channels which regulate dopamine release in rat striatum. This block could be responsible for aminoglycoside-induced toxicity.


Dolbeare, K., G. F. Pontoriero, et al. (2003). "Synthesis and dopamine receptor modulating activity of 3-substituted gamma-lactam peptidomimetics of L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide." J Med Chem 46(5): 727-33.

            gamma-Lactam peptidomimetic 2 of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH(2) (PLG) was substituted at the 3-position with isobutyl, butyl, and benzyl moieties to give the PLG peptidomimetics 3-5, respectively. These compounds were synthesized to test the hypothesis that attaching a hydrophobic moiety to the lactam ring to mimic the isobutyl side chain of the leucyl residue of PLG would increase the dopamine receptor modulating activity of such peptidomimetics. These peptidomimetics were tested for their ability to enhance the binding of [(3)H]-N-propylnorapomorphine to dopamine receptors isolated from bovine striatal membranes. The rank order of effectiveness of the 3-substituent was benzyl > n-butyl > isobutyl > H.


Dominguez, R., S. E. Cruz-Morales, et al. (2003). "Effect of steroid injection to newborn rats on serotonin activity in frontal cortex and raphe." Neuroreport 14(4): 597-9.

            The effects of injecting testosterone propionate or estradiol benzoate to newborn rats on dopaminergic and serotoninergic activity in the frontal cortex, dorsal and median raphe nucleus were analyzed when animals reached adulthood. High performance liquid chromatography was used to measure tissue levels of dopamine, serotonin and its metabolites. Activity was calculated as the metabolite/neurotransmitter ratio. An increase in androgen or estrogen levels at birth caused a significant decrease in serotoninergic activity in the frontal cortex and in the dorsal raphe nucleus, without causing apparent changes in dopaminergic activity; serotinergic activity in the median raphe nucleus was not affected. The results suggest that the transmission of DA and 5-HT in these structures are differentially influenced by early androgenization or estrogenization.


Dong, Y. and F. J. White (2003). "Dopamine d1-class receptors selectively modulate a slowly inactivating potassium current in rat medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons." J Neurosci 23(7): 2686-95.

            The dopamine (DA) innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates cognitive activity in a complex manner. Alterations of DA function, particularly via the DA D1 receptor class (D1R), are implicated in both schizophrenia and drug addiction, yet the precise roles of DA in modulating mPFC excitability remain unclear. We focused on DA modulation of voltage-gated K(+) current (VGKC) in acutely dissociated rat mPFC pyramidal neurons. We defined three components of the whole-cell VGKC according to biophysical and pharmacological properties. The A-type current (I(A)), with rapid activation and inactivation kinetics, was completely inactivated by prolonged holding of the membrane potential at -40 mV and was sensitive to the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) but not tetraethylammonium (TEA) or dendrotoxin (DTX). The slowly inactivating K(+) current (I(D)), with rapid activation but relatively slow inactivation, was the major contributor to VGKC and was completely inactivated at -40 mV and sensitive to TEA and DTX but less so to 4-AP. The very slowly inactivating K(+) current (I(K)) was elicited by command steps to more depolarized potentials from a prolonged holding potential of -40 mV and was sensitive to all three blockers. Stimulation of DA D2 receptors failed to alter any component of whole-cell VGKC. Stimulation of DA D1Rs selectively suppressed I(D), an effect mimicked by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, the active cAMP analog Sp-cAMP, and the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) with either PKI or Rp-cAMP abolished D1R modulation. Thus, the DA D1R/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway mediates modulation of I(D) by DA in rat mPFC pyramidal neurons.


Doreulee, N., O. A. Sergeeva, et al. (2003). "Cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity in endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficient mice." Brain Res 964(1): 159-63.

            Nitric oxide (NO) is a retrograde messenger involved in the processes of learning and memory. The role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in striatal synaptic plasticity was investigated in eNOS-deficient (eNOS(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice. Tetanic stimulation of cortical afferents in WT mice evoked either long-term potentiation (LTP), or long-term depression (LTD) of cortico-striatal transmission. Both these plasticity related phenomena were NMDA-receptor-dependent; LTD was blocked by sulpiride, a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. LTP occurrence in slices from eNOS(-/-) mice was significantly reduced when compared with WT mice. The NOS inhibitor NL-ARG reduced the occurrence of LTP and increased the occurrence of LTD in WT mice, resembling the balance of LTP/LTD in eNOS(-/-) mice. Impairment of NO-synthesis thus shifts striatal plasticity towards LTD. This indicates a possible involvement of eNOS from endothelia in neuronal modulation.


Doudet, D. J., S. Jivan, et al. (2003). "In vivo measurement of receptor density and affinity: comparison of the routine sequential method with a nonsequential method in studies of dopamine D2 receptors with [11C]raclopride." J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23(3): 280-4.

            Positron emission tomography with the dopamine D(2/3) receptor ligand raclopride was used to compare sequential (studies on 1 day) and nonsequential (different days) approaches to in vivo measurement of the density and affinity of receptors. The choice of temporal sequence of radiotracer injection over a range of specific activities might result in bias because of diverse factors. A strong concordance is reported between the outcomes of the sequential and nonsequential methods. This suggests that the characteristics of the dopamine D(2/3) receptors are relatively stable within physiologic boundaries and can be reproducibly and reliably measured in stable conditions.


Dougall, I. G., A. Young, et al. (2003). "Dual dopamine D2 receptor and beta2-adrenoceptor agonists for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the pre-clinical rationale." Respir Med 97 Suppl A: S3-7.

            This paper describes the rationale for the development of dual dopamine D2-receptor and beta2-adrenoceptor agonists as potential treatments for the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The putative involvement of pulmonary sensory afferent nerves in mediating the key COPD symptoms of breathlessness, cough and excess sputum production is outlined and the hypothesis that activation of D2-receptors on such nerves would modulate their activity is developed. This premise was tested, in a range of animal models, using the first of a novel class of dual dopamine D2-receptor and beta2-adrenoceptor agonists, sibenadet HCl (Viozan, AR-C68397AA). In the course of these studies it was demonstrated that sibenadet, through activation of D2-receptors, inhibited discharge of rapidly adapting receptors and was effective in reducing reflex-induced tachypnoea, mucus production and cough in the dog. Sibenadet, through its activation of beta2-adrenoceptors, was also shown to be an effective bronchodilator with a prolonged duration of action following topical administration to the lungs. These studies also indicated that sibenadet had a wide therapeutic ratio with respect to expected undesirable side-effects such as emesis and cardiovascular disturbances. These results provided a compelling rationale for the initiation of a clinical development programme with sibenadet for the treatment of COPD.


Douglass, A. B. (2003). "Narcolepsy: differential diagnosis or etiology in some cases of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?" CNS Spectr 8(2): 120-6.

            Does narcolepsy, a neurological disease, need to be considered when diagnosing major mental illness? Clinicians have reported cases of narcolepsy with prominent hypnagogic hallucinations that were mistakenly diagnosed as schizophrenia. In some bipolar disorder patients with narcolepsy, the HH resulted in their receiving a more severe diagnosis (ie, bipolar disorder with psychotic features or schizoaffective disorder). The role of narcolepsy in psychiatric patients has remained obscure and problematic, and it may be more prevalent than commonly believed. Classical narcolepsy patients display the clinical "tetrad"-cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, daytime sleep attacks, and sleep paralysis. Over 85% also display the human leukocyte antigen marker DQB1*0602 (subset of DQ6). Since 1998, discoveries in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology have greatly advanced the understanding of narcolepsy, which involves a nearly total loss of the recently discovered orexin/hypocretin (hypocretin) neurons of the hypothalamus, likely by an autoimmune mechanism. Hypocretin neurons normally supply excitatory signals to brainstem nuclei producing norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, and dopamine, with resultant suppression of sleep. They also project to basal forebrain areas and cortex. A literature review regarding the differential diagnosis of narcolepsy, affective disorder, and schizophrenia is presented. Furthermore, it is now possible to rule out classical narcolepsy in difficult psychiatric cases. Surprisingly, psychotic patients with narcolepsy will likely require stimulants to fully recover. Many conventional antipsychotic drugs would worsen their symptoms and make them appear to become a "chronic psychotic," while in fact they can now be properly diagnosed and treated.


DrCacciari, B., G. Pastorin, et al. (2003). "Medicinal Chemistry of A(2A)Adenosine Receptor Antagonists." Curr Top Med Chem 3(4): 403-11.

            Due to the clearly demonstrated receptor-receptor interaction between adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors in the basal ganglia, the discovery and development of potent and selective A(2A)adenosine receptor antagonists became, in the last ten years, an attractive field of research to discovery new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinsons disease. Different compounds have been deeply investigated as A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists, which could be classified in two great families: xanthine derivatives and nitrogen poliheterocyclic systems. These studies led to the discovery of some highly potent and selective A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists such as ZM241385, SCH58261 and some xanthine derivatives (KW6002), which have been used as pharmacological tools for studying this receptor subtype. However, those compounds showed some problems that do not permit their use in clinical studies, such as poor water solubility (SCH58261, and xanthine derivatives) or good affinity for A(2B) adenosine receptor subtype (ZM241385). In the last few years great efforts have been made to overcome these problems, trying to optimize not only the pharmacological profile but also the pharmacokinetic character of this class of compounds. The aim of this report is to briefly summarize the recent progress made in this attractive field of research.


Duan, J., M. S. Wainwright, et al. (2003). "Synonymous mutations in the human dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) affect mRNA stability and synthesis of the receptor." Hum Mol Genet 12(3): 205-16.

            Although changes in nucleotide sequence affecting the composition and the structure of proteins are well known, functional changes resulting from nucleotide substitutions cannot always be inferred from simple analysis of DNA sequence. Because a strong synonymous codon usage bias in the human DRD2 gene, suggesting selection on synonymous positions, was revealed by the relative independence of the G+C content of the third codon positions from the isochoric G+C frequencies, we chose to investigate functional effects of the six known naturally occurring synonymous changes (C132T, G423A, T765C, C939T, C957T, and G1101A) in the human DRD2. We report here that some synonymous mutations in the human DRD2 have functional effects and suggest a novel genetic mechanism. 957T, rather than being 'silent', altered the predicted mRNA folding, led to a decrease in mRNA stability and translation, and dramatically changed dopamine-induced up-regulation of DRD2 expression. 1101A did not show an effect by itself but annulled the above effects of 957T in the compound clone 957T/1101A, demonstrating that combinations of synonymous mutations can have functional consequences drastically different from those of each isolated mutation. C957T was found to be in linkage disequilibrium in a European-American population with the -141C Ins/Del and TaqI 'A' variants, which have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia and alcoholism, respectively. These results call into question some assumptions made about synonymous variation in molecular population genetics and gene-mapping studies of diseases with complex inheritance, and indicate that synonymous variation can have effects of potential pathophysiological and pharmacogenetic importance.


Duarte, C., G. Biala, et al. (2003). "Respective roles of dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors in food-seeking behaviour in rats." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166(1): 19-32.

            RATIONALE. Dopaminergic mechanisms are thought to be critically involved in reward-related processes and seeking behaviour. OBJECTIVE. To examine the involvement of dopamine in seeking behaviour supported by a natural reinforcer, food, and assess the role of D(2) and D(3) receptor subtypes in food-seeking, using an operant reinstatement procedure. METHODS. Wistar rats were subjected to a within-session extinction procedure. Experimental sessions consisted of a 15-min rewarded period during which each right lever press delivered one food pellet and initiated a 10-s time out period (FR1:TO(10s)), followed by a 45-min extinction period during which responding was no longer rewarded. The reinstating effects of dopaminergic drugs, food priming, or the combination of both treatments, were investigated during spaced test sessions. In dose range studies, dopamine receptor ligands were administered 20 or 30 min into the test sessions. In interaction studies, antagonists were injected immediately before testing. Food priming consisted of two pellets non-contingently delivered 45 min into the test sessions. RESULTS. Well trained rats emitted many responses during the rewarded period but almost none during extinction. During the last 15 min of the test sessions, non-rewarded responding was reinstated by the D(2)/D(3) agonist, apomorphine (0.125-0.25 mg/kg, SC), and the D(3) preferring agonist, 7-OH-DPAT (2-4 mg/kg, SC), but not by quinelorane (0.004-2 mg/kg, SC), another D(3) preferring agonist. In interaction studies, the D(2) preferring antagonist, raclopride (0.06-0.125 mg/kg, IP), and the D(3) preferring antagonist, l-nafadotride (1 mg/kg, IP), counteracted the reinstating effect of apomorphine and 7-OH-DPAT. Pellets non-contingently delivered during extinction, reinstated modest, but significant, responding. Such food-primed food-seeking was altered by neither nafadotride (0.015-1 mg/kg, IP) nor the D(2)/D(3) antagonists, amisulpride (0.25-1 mg/kg, IP) or sulpiride (2-4 mg/kg, IP). Food- and apomorphine-induced response reinstatement were additive, and food-primed food-seeking behaviour was potentiated by 7-OH-DPAT (0.125-1 mg/kg, SC) and quinelorane (7.5-15 micro g/kg, SC). Such a potentiation was reversed by two D(2) antagonists, haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, IP) and raclopride (0.125 mg/kg, IP), but not by nafadotride (1 mg/kg, IP) and another D(3) preferring antagonist, S 33084 (0.25-2 mg/kg, SC). CONCLUSION. These results indicate that reinstatement of non-reinforced responding by non-contingent food delivery and by dopamine agonists probably depend on different mechanisms. The properties of D(2)/D(3) receptor agonists, to reinstate food seeking at larger doses, and to potentiate food-primed response reinstatement at lower doses, are preferentially mediated by D(2) rather than by D(3) receptors.


Dupuy, O., E. Le Marec, et al. (2003). "[Efficacy of cabergoline in the treatment of macroprolactinoma]." Presse Med 32(2): 71-2.


Dziennis, S. and B. A. Habecker (2003). "Cytokine suppression of dopamine beta hydroxylase by extracellular signal regulated kinase-dependent and -independent pathways." J Biol Chem.

            Cholinergic differentiation factors (CDFs) suppress noradrenergic properties and induce cholinergic properties in sympathetic neurons. The CDFs leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) bind to a LIFR/gp130 receptor complex to activate Jak/signal transducers and activators of transcription and Ras/ mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways. Little is known about how these differentiation factors suppress noradrenergic properties. We used sympathetic neurons and SK-N-BE(2)M17 neuroblastoma cells to investigate CDF downregulation of the norepinephrine synthetic enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). LIF and CNTF activated ERK 12 (Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases) but not p38 or Jun N-terminal kinases in both cell types. Preventing ERK activation with PD98059 blocked CNTF suppression of DBH protein in sympathetic neurons, but did not prevent the loss of DBH mRNA. CNTF decreased transcription of a DBH promoter-luciferase reporter construct in SK-N-BE(2)M17 cells, and this was also ERK-independent. Cytokine inhibition of DBH promoter activity did not require a silencer element, but was prevented by over-expression of the transcriptional activator Phox2a. Inhibiting ERK activation increased basal DBH transcription in SK-N-BE(2)M17 cells, and DBH mRNA in sympathetic neurons. Transfection of Phox2a into PD98059-treated M17 cells resulted in a synergistic increase in DBH promoter activity compared to Phox2a or PD98059 alone. These data suggest that CDFs downregulate DBH protein via an ERK-dependent pathway but inhibit DBH gene expression through an ERK-independent pathway. They further suggest that ERK activity inhibits basal DBH gene expression.


Eells, J. B. (2003). "The control of dopamine neuron development, function and survival: insights from transgenic mice and the relevance to human disease." Curr Med Chem 10(10): 857-70.

            Transgenic technology, especially the use of homologous recombination to disrupt specific genes to produce knockout mice, has added considerably to the understanding of dopamine (DA) neuron develop, survival and function. The current review summarizes results from knockout mice with the target disruption of genes involved in the development of DA neurons (engrailed 1 and 2, lmx1b, and Nurr1), in maintaining DA neurotransmission (tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter, DA transporter, DA D2 and D3 receptors) and important for DA neuron survival (alpha-synuclein, glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and superoxide dismutase). As alterations in DA neurotransmission have been implicated in a number of human neuropathologies including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, understanding how specific genes are involved in the function of DA neurons and the compensatory changes that result from loss or reduction in gene expression could provide important insight for the treatment of these diseases.


Eiler, W. J., 2nd, R. Seyoum, et al. (2003). "D1 dopamine receptor regulates alcohol-motivated behaviors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in alcohol-preferring (P) rats." Synapse 48(1): 45-56.

            Recent studies have implicated the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) as a potential brain substrate for mediating drug-related behaviors. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated that reciprocal projections exist from the BST to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopamine reward substrate proposed to play a role in alcohol abuse. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors of the BST in regulating alcohol and sucrose-motivated behaviors. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained under an FR4 operant schedule to self-administer either EtOH (10% v/v) or sucrose (2% w/v). Following training, we evaluated the capacity of a competitive D(1) (SCH 23390; 0.5-20.0 microg) and a D(2) (eticlopride; 0.5-20.0 microg) dopamine antagonist to selectively reduce EtOH-maintained responding. Naltrexone, (5-30.0 microg), the nonselective opioid antagonist, was used as a reference agent. The results showed that SCH 23390 dose-dependently reduced alcohol-motivated responding. Responding was reduced with the 20.0 microg dose to about 97% of control levels. SCH 23390 also reduced sucrose responding; however, the magnitude of effects was substantially lower with the highest doses (2.5, 20.0 microg) (68-79% of control levels). In contrast, eticlopride failed to significantly alter alcohol responding and reduced sucrose responding only with the 10.0 microg dose. Unlike the dopamine antagonists, all naltrexone doses failed to alter EtOH or sucrose-maintained responding. The results suggest a salient role for the D(1), but not the D(2) and opioid receptors in selectively modulating EtOH-motivated behaviors in the BST.


Einsiedel, J., H. Hubner, et al. (2003). "Cyclic Amidines as Benzamide Bioisosteres: EPC Synthesis and SAR Studies Leading to the Selective Dopamine D4 Receptor Agonist FAUC 312." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13(5): 851-4.

            Investigation of conformationally restricted benzamide bioisosteres led to the chiral phenyltetrahydropyrimidine derivative ent2a (FAUC 312) displaying strong and highly selective dopamine D4 receptor binding (K(i(high))=1.5 nM). Mitogenesis experiments indicated 83% ligand efficacy when compared to the unselective agonist quinpirole. The target compounds of type 2 and 3 were synthesized in enantiopure form starting from asparagine.


El-Ghundi, M., B. F. O'Dowd, et al. (2003). "Attenuation of sucrose reinforcement in dopamine D1 receptor deficient mice." Eur J Neurosci 17(4): 851-62.

            Dopaminergic systems are thought to mediate the rewarding and reinforcing effects of palatable food. However, the relative contribution of different dopamine receptor subtypes is not clear. We used dopamine D1 receptor deficient mice (D1 -/-) and their wild-type and heterozygous littermates to study the role of the D1 receptor in palatable food reinforced behaviour using operant responding and free access paradigms. Non-deprived mice were trained to press a lever for sucrose pellets under three schedules of reinforcement including fixed ratios (FR-1 and FR-4) and a progressive ratio (PR). Responding on one lever was reinforced by the delivery of a sucrose pellet or solution while responding on a second lever had no programmed consequences. Initially, D1 mutant mice took longer to learn to discriminate between the two levers and had significantly lower operant responding for sucrose pellets and solution than wild-type and heterozygous mice under all schedules of reinforcement. Food deprivation enhanced responding on the active lever in all mice although it remained significantly lower in D1 -/- mice than in control mice. Following extinction of sucrose reinforcement and reversal of the levers, D1 -/- mice showed deficits in extinguishing and reversing previously learned responses. Home cage intake and preference of sucrose pellets and solutions when given under free-choice access paradigms were similar among the groups. These results suggest that the dopamine D1 receptor plays a role in the motivation to work for reward (palatable food) but not in reward perception and is critical in learning new but relevant information and discontinuing previously learned responses.


El-Khodor, B. F., T. F. Oo, et al. (2003). "Ectopic expression of cell cycle markers in models of induced programmed cell death in dopamine neurons of the rat substantia nigra pars compacta." Exp Neurol 179(1): 17-27.

            There is increasing evidence that proteins normally involved in the cell cycle can regulate neuronal programmed cell death (PCD). However, it remains unknown whether cell cycle markers are expressed in normal, postmitotic, postmigratory neurons undergoing PCD in vivo. We have previously shown that natural cell death occurs postnatally in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). PCD can be induced postnatally in these neurons either by intrastriatal injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or by medial forebrain bundle (MFB) axotomy. At the time of induction of death in these models, these neurons are long postmitotic and postmigratory. We have studied three cell cycle markers in these models: 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation (a marker of S phase), cdc2 protein expression (a marker of G2 phase), and expression of MPM2 (a marker of M phase), an epitope phosphorylated by cdc2. We report here that postmitotic dopaminergic neurons undergoing PCD in the SNpc following 6-OHDA and axotomy lesions incorporate BrdU and overexpress cdc2, but do not express MPM2. This is the first in vivo evidence that postmitotic dopamine neurons of the SNpc undergoing apoptosis express markers for S phase and G2 phase. These results raise the possibility that cell cycle regulatory proteins may play a role in the demise of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, in which PCD has been postulated to play a role.


El-Khodor, B. F. and P. Boksa (2003). "Effects of birth insult and stress at adulthood on in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase activities in rat brain." Synapse 47(1): 87-9.


Ellenbroek, B. A. and J. F. Liegeois (2003). "JL 13, An Atypical Antipsychotic: A Preclinical Review." CNS Drug Rev 9(1): 41-56.

            The extensive pharmacological evaluation of JL 13 as an atypical antipsychotic drug has revealed a close similarity to clozapine, however with some major advantages. JL 13 was characterized as a weak D(2) antagonist, both in vitro and in vivo, with a strong affinity for the D(4) and the 5-HT(2A) receptors. It has no affinity for the 5-HT(2C) receptor. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat showed that JL 13, like clozapine, preferentially increased extracellular dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex compared to nucleus accumbens or striatum. Behavioral studies showed that JL 13, like clozapine, has the profile of an atypical antipsychotic. Thus, JL 13 did not antagonize apomorphine-induced stereotypy nor did it produce catalepsy, but it antagonized apomorphine-induced climbing in rodents. It was inactive against d-amphetamine-induced stereotypy but antagonized d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in the mouse. Likewise, in the paw test, it was more effective in prolonging hindlimb retraction time than prolonging forelimb retraction time. Like other antipsychotic drugs, JL 13 reversed the apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. In a complex temporal regulation schedule in the dog, JL 13 showed a high resemblance with clozapine without inducing sialorrhea, palpebral ptosis or any significant motor side effects. In rats and squirrel monkeys JL 13 induced a high degree of generalization (70%) to clozapine. Regarding behavioral toxicology, JL 13 did not produce dystonia or Parkinsonian symptoms in haloperidol-sensitized monkeys. After acute administration, again like clozapine, JL 13 induced only a transient increase in circulating prolactin. Last but not the least, regarding a possible hematological toxicity, unlike clozapine, JL 13 did not present sensitivity to peroxidase-induced oxidation. Moreover, its electrooxidation potential was close to that of loxapine and far from that of clozapine. Taking all these preclinical data into account, it appears that JL 13 is a promising atypical antipsychotic drug.


Emdadul Haque, M., M. Asanuma, et al. (2003). "Apoptosis-inducing neurotoxicity of dopamine and its metabolites via reactive quinone generation in neuroblastoma cells." Biochim Biophys Acta 1619(1): 39-52.

            Neurotoxic properties of L-dopa and dopamine (DA)-related compounds were assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with reference to their structural relationship. L-Dopa and its metabolites containing two free hydroxyl residues on their benzene ring showed toxicity in the cell, which was prevented by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but not by catalase. Furthermore, a synthetic derivative of DA, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenethylamine (HMPE) containing methoxy residue at position 4 in the benzene ring, exerted partial cytotoxicity, which was not prevented by SOD, GSH or catalase. However, the metabolites containing methoxy residue at position 3 failed to show a toxic effect in the SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, DA induced apoptotic cell death, which was observed by nuclear and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and measurement of caspase-3 activity; this compound up-regulated apoptotic factor p53 while down-regulating anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. In the cell-free in vitro electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, DA possessing two hydroxyl groups showed generation of DA-semiquinone radicals, which were markedly prevented by addition of SOD or GSH but not by catalase. On the other hand, methylation of one of the hydroxyl residues on the benzene ring of DA converted DA to an unoxidizable compound (3-MT or HMPE), and caused it to lose the property to produce semiquinone radicals. It has been previously reported that SOD acting as a superoxide:semiquinone oxidoreductase prevents quinone formation, and that reduced GSH through forming a complex with DA-quinone prevents quinone binding to the thiol group of the intact protein. Therefore, the present results suggest that DA and its metabolites containing two hydroxyl residues exert cytotoxicity mainly due to generation of highly reactive quinones.


Enginar, N., P. Yamanturk, et al. (2003). "Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: determination of blood glucose levels, [3H]glutamate binding kinetics and antidopaminergic drug effects." Neuropharmacology 44(2): 199-205.

            The present study was performed to evaluate the role(s) of hypoglycemia, changes in [(3)H]glutamate binding kinetics and dopaminergic activity in the occurrence of scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake. Plasma glucose levels and density (B(max)) and affinity (K(d)) of [(3)H]glutamate binding sites in whole brain synaptic membranes were determined in animals fed ad lib or fasted for 48 h and treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 3 mg/kg scopolamine or saline and allowed to eat for 5 min. Fasting for 48 h decreased plasma glucose levels. After refeeding, plasma glucose concentrations increased in saline treated animals, but remained unchanged in scopolamine treated animals which consumed less food. Fasting for 48 h also produced significant changes in the kinetics of [(3)H]glutamate binding. The B(max) and K(d) of the binding sites decreased in fasted animals. These changes were partially antagonized by scopolamine treatment and food intake. For the evaluation of the contribution of dopaminergic activity, another group of mice fasted for 48 h and pretreated (i.p.) with saline or dopamine antagonists, 2 mg/kg chlorpromazine or 2 or 4 mg/kg haloperidol, were treated 10 min later with either saline or 3 mg/kg scopolamine. Then 20 min later, they were allowed to eat ad lib and were observed for 30 min for the incidence and onset of clonic convulsions. Pretreatment of both 2 mg/kg chlorpromazine and 4 mg/kg haloperidol markedly suppressed the convulsions. These results indicate that the decrease in the [(3)H]glutamate binding induced by fasting, its antagonism by scopolamine treatment and food intake, and the dopaminergic hyperactivity may be possible factors contributing to the occurrence of convulsions.


Engleman, E. A., W. J. McBride, et al. (2003). "Ethanol drinking experience attenuates (-)sulpiride-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring (P) rats." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(3): 424-31.

            BACKGROUND: The reinforcing properties of ethanol may be partly mediated through the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. This study examines the effects of local application of the DA D(2) receptor antagonist (-)sulpiride (SUL) on ethanol drinking of alcohol-preferring (P) rats, and extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of P rats that were either ethanol-naive or had been chronically drinking ethanol. METHODS: Microdialysis was used to sample NAc DA levels, and reverse microdialysis was used to locally administer the D(2) antagonist (-)sulpiride (SUL) into the NAc of adult female P rats that were either drinking ethanol (n = 17) or were ethanol-naive (n = 24). Stable intake of 15% (v/v) ethanol (>/=0.75 g/kg) was established for the ethanol-drinking group in daily 1-hr access periods over a minimum of 4 weeks before surgery. Naive and ethanol-drinking rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae aimed 4 mm above the NAc shell. After recovery from surgery, microdialysis probes (active area = 2 mm) were inserted bilaterally into the NAc. Two days later, rats in the ethanol-drinking and naive groups were each divided into two groups; one group was bilaterally perfused (1.0 microl/min) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and the other group was further divided into three subgroups that were perfused with aCSF + either 50, 100, or 200 microM SUL for 240 min. During the last 60 min of perfusion, the ethanol-drinking rats were given their daily 1-hr ethanol access period. Following ethanol access, the aCSF + SUL subgroups were then given aCSF only. The entire perfusion procedure was repeated 24 hr later, but the aCSF only and aCSF + SUL group treatment conditions were transposed. RESULTS: In ethanol-drinking rats, 100 and 200 microM SUL increased extracellular NAc DA levels to approximately 200% of basal values, but did not significantly alter ethanol intake. In ethanol-naive P rats, 100 and 200 microM SUL increased extracellular NAc DA levels significantly more (450% of basal; p < 0.05) than in the ethanol-drinking group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ethanol-drinking experience causes a desensitization or a down-regulation of D(2) autoreceptors in the NAc of P rats.


Enyedy, I. J., S. Sakamuri, et al. (2003). "Pharmacophore-Based discovery of substituted pyridines as novel dopamine transporter inhibitors." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13(3): 513-7.

            Abnormal dopamine signaling in brain has been implicated in several conditions such as cocaine abuse, Parkinson's disease and depression. Potent and selective dopamine transporter inhibitors may be useful as pharmacological tools and therapeutic agents. Simple substituted pyridines were discovered as novel dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors through pharmacophore-based 3D-database search. The most potent compound 18 has a K(i) value of 79 nM in inhibition of WIN35,248 binding to dopamine transporter and 255 nM in inhibition of dopamine reuptake, respectively, as potent as cocaine. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies show that the geometry and the nature of the substituents on the pyridine ring determine the inhibitory activity and selectivity toward the three monoamine transporters. The substituted pyridines described herein represent a class of novel DAT inhibitors with simple chemical structures and their discovery provides additional insights into the binding site of DAT.


Ercil, N. E. and C. P. France (2003). "Amphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of ephedrine and its stereoisomers in pigeons." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 11(1): 3-8.

            This study assessed the discriminative stimulus effects of (+/-)-ephedrine and its stereoisomers in pigeons discriminating 1.0 mg/kg of amphetamine from saline. Amphetamine, (+/-)-, (-)-, and (+)-ephedrine, and cocaine occasioned greater than 80% drug-key responding with the following rank order of potency: amphetamine > cocaine > (-)-ephedrine > or = (+/-)-ephedrine > or = (+)-ephedrine. Neither the alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, nor the beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, antagonized the effects of amphetamine or (+/-)-ephedrine. In contrast, the dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine and (+/-)-ephedrine as well as those of (-)- and (+)-ephedrine. These results indicate that, like cocaine, (+/-)-ephedrine and its stereoisomers share discriminative stimulus effects with amphetamine. Moreover, these effects appear to be the result of increased activity in dopaminergic systems.


Escola, L., T. Michelet, et al. (2003). "Disruption of information processing in the supplementary motor area of the MPTP-treated monkey: a clue to the pathophysiology of akinesia?" Brain 126(Pt 1): 95-114.

            It has been suggested that the underactivity of mesial frontal structures induced by dopamine depletion could constitute one of the main substrates underlying akinesia in Parkinson's disease. Functional imaging and movement-related potential recordings indicate an implication of the frontal lobes in this pathological process, but the question has not yet been investigated at a cellular level using single unit recording. We therefore compared neuronal activity in both the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the supplementary motor area proper (SMAp) of the Macaca mulatta monkey during a delayed motor task, before and after MPTP treatment. In the pre-SMA, which receives strong inputs from the prefrontal cortex, the baseline firing frequency and the percentage of neurons responding to visual instruction cues decreased in lesioned monkeys. In the SMAp, which sends direct outputs to the primary motor cortex, not only was the response to visual cues impaired, but the percentage of SMAp neurons responding to intracortical microstimulation fell and the threshold of response rose. Neuronal activity after the Go signal diminished sharply in both structures in the symptomatic animal and the discharge pattern became more irregular; in the SMAp neuronal activity remained modified longer. Most of these changes could already be observed in the presymptomatic animal presenting no clinical signs of parkinsonism. These data would indicate that, at the moment when dopamine depletion has impaired the ability of cortical neurons to operate the focused selection of incoming information giving instructions for movement, pre-SMA and SMAp neurons are also in a state of severe hypoactivity. The conjunction of these phenomena could play a critical role in the genesis of akinesia.


Espejo, E. F. (2003). "Prefrontocortical Dopamine Loss in Rats Delays Long-Term Extinction of Contextual Conditioned Fear, and Reduces Social Interaction Without Affecting Short-Term Social Interaction Memory." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(3): 490-498.

            Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (p&&#60;0.01), supporting the hypothesis that a hyperdopaminergic tone emerges in the nucleus accumbens after prefrontocortical dopamine loss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning responses without affecting their acquisition, and it is involved in time spent on social interaction, but not acquisition and short-term social interaction memory.Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) 28, 490-498. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300066


Etminan, M., S. Gill, et al. (2003). "Comparison of the risk of adverse events with pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with Parkinson's disease : a meta-analysis." Drug Saf 26(6): 439-44.

            Background: Pramipexole and ropinirole are relatively new dopamine agonists, both of which have proven efficacy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. There is, however, uncertainty regarding differences in the adverse event profiles associated with each drug.Objective: To compare the adverse events of pramipexole and ropinirole as reported in the peer-reviewed medical literature.Methods: We systematically reviewed the medical literature to identify randomised controlled trials of pramipexole and ropinirole used in the management of Parkinson's disease. Computerised databases (including Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were used to identify pertinent articles for inclusion in this study. Trials that compared the dopamine agonists to either levodopa or placebo were included.Analysis: Adverse events with these drugs included dizziness, nausea, hypotension, hallucinations, and somnolence. We made two separate analyses. In the first analysis, we estimated the pooled relative risk (RR) of adverse events with either pramipexole or ropinirole as compared with levodopa. In the second analysis, the pooled RRs of adverse events with pramipexole and ropinirole were compared with placebo. We used the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to estimate the RRs and their corresponding 95% CIs. We tested for study heterogeneity using Q statistics.Results: There was no significant difference in the risk of dizziness, nausea, or hypotension with either drug individually or in combination when compared with levodopa. The risk of hypotension was approximately four times higher with ropinirole than pramipexole when each drug was individually compared with placebo (6.46 [95% CI 1.47-28.28] for ropinirole, and 1.65 [0.88-3.08] for pramipexole). The pooled RR (for pramipexole and ropinirole combined) of hallucinations was 1.92 (95% CI 1.08-3.43) when compared with levodopa. Relative to placebo, pramipexole had a significantly higher risk of hallucinations than ropinirole (pramipexole 5.2 [95% CI 1.97-13.72] vs ropinirole 2.75 [95% CI 0.55-13.73]). There was no significant difference in the risk of somnolence between the two drugs when each was individually compared with levodopa. When compared with placebo, the pooled RR (pramipexole and ropinirole combined) of somnolence was 3.16 (95% CI 1.62-6.13). Relative to placebo, the risk of somnolence was 2.01 (95% CI 2.17-3.16) with pramipexole and 5.73 (95% CI 2.34-14.01) with ropinirole.Conclusions: Use of ropinirole seems to be associated with a higher risk of hypotension and somnolence than use of pramipexole when compared with placebo. Use of pramipexole seems to be associated with a higher risk of hallucinations than use of ropinirole when compared with placebo.


Eyny, Y. S. and J. C. Horvitz (2003). "Opposing roles of D1 and D2 receptors in appetitive conditioning." J Neurosci 23(5): 1584-7.

            Previous studies have shown that D(1) receptor blockade disrupts and D(2) receptor blockade enhances long-term potentiation. These data lead to the prediction that D(1) antagonists will attenuate and D(2) antagonists will potentiate at least some types of learning. The prediction is difficult to test, however, because disruptions in either D(1) or D(2) transmission lead to reduced locomotion, exploration, and response execution and are therefore likely to impair learning that requires behavioral responding (including exploration of an environment) during the learning episode. Under a paradigm that minimizes motor requirements, rats were trained to enter a food compartment during pellet presentation. Animals then received tone-food pairings under the influence of D(1) antagonist SCH23390 (0, 0.4, 0.8, and 0.16 mg/kg) or D(2) antagonist raclopride (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg). An additional group received unpaired presentations of tone and food. On a drug-free test day 24 hr later, animals that had been under the influence of SCH23390 (like animals that had received unpaired presentations of tone and food) showed reduced head entries in response to the tone, whereas animals that had been under the influence of raclopride showed increased head entries in response to the tone compared with vehicle controls. These data demonstrate that, under a conditioned approach paradigm, D(1) and D(2) family receptor antagonists disrupt and promote learning, respectively, as predicted by the effects of D(1) and D(2) receptor blockade on neuronal plasticity.


Fa, M., G. Mereu, et al. (2003). "Electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of nigral dopaminergic neurons in the conscious, head-restrained rat." Synapse 48(1): 1-9.

            Extracellular single-unit recordings of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons were obtained from conscious rats habituated to having their body suspended in a cloth jacket and their head immobilized in the stereotaxic frame by means of a "restraining platform" permanently fixed to the skull. The electrophysiological characteristics of DA neurons from head-restrained rats and their responses to apomorphine and haloperidol were compared with single-unit recordings obtained from rats lightly and deeply anesthetized with chloral hydrate and from mesencephalic slices. Head-restrained rats showed a higher number of spontaneously active DA neurons and a higher percentage of bursting neurons than lightly and deeply anesthetized rats. Indeed, bursting activity was rare in deeply anesthetized rats and was totally absent in slices. Haloperidol was more potent and effective in stimulating the firing rate and bursting activity in head-restrained than in lightly anesthetized rats, while it was virtually ineffective in deeply anesthetized rats and totally ineffective in slices. On the other hand, DA neurons in head-restrained rats showed the same average firing rate as DA neurons in lightly and deeply anesthetized rats and in slices. The potency of apomorphine in inhibiting the firing rate, and that of haloperidol in reversing apomorphine effect, did not vary among the different in vivo preparations. The results suggest that chloral hydrate anesthesia blunts or suppresses not only the excitatory inputs which normally sustain the number of spontaneously active DA neurons and their bursting activity, but also the feedback excitation of DA neurons following haloperidol-induced D(2) receptor blockade. On the other hand, chloral hydrate anesthesia modifies neither D(2) autoreceptor sensitivity to apomorphine and haloperidol nor the automatic genesis of action potentials. The head-restrained rat appears to be an important model for studies into the pharmacology and physiology of DA neurons. Synapse 48:1-9, 2003.


Fabre-Nys, C., D. Chesneau, et al. (2003). "Biphasic role of dopamine on female sexual behaviour via D2 receptors in the mediobasal hypothalamus." Neuropharmacology 44(3): 354-66.

            Dopamine has been implicated in the control of sexual behaviour, but its role seems quite complex and controversial. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of dopamine (DA) acting on D2 receptors in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) on sexual behaviour in female sheep. To achieve this, the D2 agonist, quinpirole, was administered bilaterally via microdialysis probes into the MBH of ovariectomized ewes either before or after oestradiol (E2) administration. Quinpirole (100 ng/ml) infused for 6 h just before E2 hastened the onset of oestrus behaviour and the luteinizing hormone surge, whereas the same treatment given 6-12 h or 18-21 h after E2 decreased the intensity of sexual receptivity without affecting LH or prolactin secretion. We then tested the hypothesis that E2 stimulates the onset of oestrus partly by decreasing DA activation of D2 receptors. In this case the D2 antagonists pimozide or spiperone (100 ng/ml) were infused into the MBH via microdialysis probes for 11 h in the absence of E2 administration. A significant number of ewes showed induction of receptivity with both antagonists, although its intensity was significantly lower than that induced by E2. These treatments generally did not significantly alter extracellular concentrations of monoamines or aminoacids although quinpirole modulated the ability of sexual interactions to increase noradrenaline release.These experiments show that DA acts via D2 receptors in the MBH to control female sexual behaviour in a biphasic manner: the onset of sexual motivation and receptivity requiring an initial increase in activation followed by a decrease. This dual action could explain some of the controversies concerning DA action on sexual behaviour.


Feifel, D., G. Melendez, et al. (2003). "A Systemically Administered Neurotensin Agonist Blocks Disruption of Prepulse Inhibition Produced by a Serotonin-2A Agonist." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(4): 651-3.

            Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex can be disrupted by drugs that act as agonists at the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor, such as DOI, and this effect is blocked by drugs that inhibit 5-HT2A transmission. We tested the effects of systemic administration of PD149163, a neurotensin agonist, on DOI-induced disruption of PPI in Sprague-Dawley rats. PD149163 completely and dose dependently blocked the PPI deficits produced by DOI. These findings suggest that, in addition to their established ability to inhibit dopamine transmission, neurotensin agonists may also inhibit 5-HT2A transmission, a pharmacological feature associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs.Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) 28, 651-653. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300083


Fenelon, G., S. Gimenez-Roldan, et al. (2003). "Efficacy and tolerability of entacapone in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with levodopa plus a dopamine agonist and experiencing wearing-off motor fluctuations. A randomized, double-blind, multicentre study." J Neural Transm 110(3): 239-51.

            The efficacy and tolerability of entacapone was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month study of 162 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with levodopa and a dopamine agonist and experiencing wearing-off motor fluctuations. Patients were randomized in a 3 : 2 ratio to entacapone 200 mg or placebo, administered with each dose of levodopa. Efficacy was judged on the improvement of "on" and "off" time while awake (Patient Diary and UPDRS part IV Item 39), Investigators' Global Assessment, the SF-36 Health Survey, and changes in levodopa dosages. Patients were monitored for adverse events, laboratory safety and vital signs throughout the study. Improvements in "on" time as assessed using patient diary data showed a trend in favour of entacapone, however these did not reach statistical significance. "Off" time while awake (UPDRS part IV Item 39) showed an improvement of at least one category in 36% of entacapone-treated patients, compared with 22% in the control group (p = 0.0038). The proportion of patients showing an improvement at the Investigators' Global Assessment was significantly higher (p = 0.0006) in the entacapone-treated group of patients. Also, the proportion of patients with a reduction in their daily levodopa dose was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the entacapone group (28%) compared with placebo (13%). As expected, the most frequent adverse events were dopamine-mediated (dyskinesia: entacapone 31% versus placebo 13%), and harmless urinary discoloration. The modest increase in dyskinesias could be readily managed by levodopa down-adjustment, and, at study end there was no significant difference for the UPDRS "overall dyskinesia score" between entacapone and placebo. In conclusion, although the primary efficacy variable did not reach statistical significance, the present results demonstrate that entacapone provides additional antiparkinsonian benefits to levodopa therapy and is well tolerated in levodopa-treated PD patients experiencing wearing-off motor fluctuations despite adjunct dopamine agonist therapy.


Feng, X., K. Fandrick, et al. (2003). "Syntheses of 3-carbomethoxy-4-(aryl)piperidines and In vitro and In vivo pharmacological evaluation: identification of inhibitors of the human dopamine transporter." Bioorg Med Chem 11(5): 775-80.

            A series of 3-carbomethoxy-4-(aryl-substituted)piperidines with various aryl groups were synthesized and examined for binding and reuptake inhibition at the human dopamine transporter, the human serotonin transporter, and the human norepinephrine transporter. The binding potency and reuptake inhibition efficacy was compared with that of (-)-cocaine to determine the significance of removing the two-carbon bridge of the cocaine nucleus on the inhibition of transporter binding and reuptake. Of the transporters examined, the substituted piperidines were relatively selective for the human dopamine transporter. In all cases examined, the cis-diastereomer of the 3-carbomethoxy-4-(aryl-substituted)piperidine was observed to be a more potent inhibitor of the human dopamine transporter than the trans diastereomer. Based on the K(i) (binding) and IC(50) (reuptake inhibition) values obtained, the most potent inhibitor of the series was cis-3-carbomethoxy-4-(4'-chlorophenyl)piperidine, and this compound suppressed spontaneous- and cocaine-induced stimulation in non-habituated male Swiss-Webster mice. The conclusion is that substantial portions of the cocaine structure can be dissected away to provide compounds with significant binding and reuptake inhibition of the human dopamine transporter.


Ferguson, S. S. (2003). "Receptor tyrosine kinase transactivation: fine-tuning synaptic transmission." Trends Neurosci 26(3): 119-22.

            G-protein-coupled receptors generate signals that promote gene transcription through the 'transactivation' of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade - a process that involves RTK autophosphorylation and endocytosis. Pioneering work now suggests that D4-dopamine-receptor-mediated transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor has immediate effects on synaptic neurotransmission via Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of NMDA receptors. The demonstration of a physiological role for RTK transactivation in the CNS provides novel opportunities for understanding how aberrant dopamine signalling might contribute to cognitive and attention deficits associated with schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.


Fernagut, P. O., S. Chalon, et al. (2003). "Motor behaviour deficits and their histopathological and functional correlates in the nigrostriatal system of dopamine transporter knockout mice." Neuroscience 116(4): 1123-30.

            Chronic dysregulation of dopamine homeostasis has been shown to induce behavioural impairment in dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice arising from the dysfunction of the mesolimbic and hypothalamo-infundibular system. Here, we assessed whether there are also any motor consequences of a chronic and constitutive hyperdopaminergia in the nigrostriatal system in dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice. For this, we analysed motor performances using tests assessing balance, coordinated motor skills (rotarod, pole test), stride lengths and locomotor activity. Dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice were markedly hyperactive in the open field with central compartment avoidance, as previously shown. However, sensorimotor integration was also found to be altered in dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice which displayed a reduced fore- and hind-limb mean stride length, impaired motor coordination on the pole test and reduced rearings in the open field. Moreover, dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice showed a slower task acquisition on the rotarod. Six-week-old dopamine transporter knockout wild type mice having the same femur size as adult dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice ruled out a possible size-effect bias. Whilst there was no significant difference in the striatal volume, we found a slight but significant reduction in neuronal density in the striatum but not in the nucleus accumbens of dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice. There was a reduced binding in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of dopamine(1) receptors ([(3)H]SCH 23390) and dopamine(2) receptors ([(3)H]YM-09151-2). There was no significant difference in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra between dopamine transporter knockout mutant mice and dopamine transporter knockout wild type mice. These results suggest an impaired functioning of the nigrostriatal system in dopamine transporter knockout mutant hyperdopaminergic mice, as illustrated by motor and sensorimotor integration deficits, despite their apparent hyperactivity. These dysfunctions may arise from combined striatal cell loss and/or functional changes of dopaminergic neurotransmission.


Fernandez, F., G. Porras, et al. (2003). "Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on locomotor activity and extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats." Neurosci Lett 335(3): 212-6.

            Previous studies have shown that Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats may differ with respect to their behavioural and neurochemical responses to several drugs of abuse, including amphetamines. Herein, we have examined whether such strain differences extend to a ring-substituted amphetamine, namely 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), a recreationally-used drug endowed with euphoric, but also long-term neurotoxic effects. Beside strain differences in baseline locomotor activity (F344>LEW), it was found that the subcutaneous administration of 10 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, MDMA increased locomotor activity in F344 rats only. On the other hand, such a treatment increased to similar extents extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens of F344 and LEW rats, thus suggesting that genetic differences in MDMA locomotor effects are not accounted for by accumbal DA release.


Fernandez Espejo, E., F. El Banoua, et al. (2003). "[Natural dopaminotrophic cell transplant: a new concept in antiparkinsonian therapy]." Rev Neurol 36(6): 540-4.

            AIM and METHOD. Parkinson s disease is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra projecting to striatum. Cellular substitution represents a potentially treatment once beneficial levodopa effects wear off. A promising therapeutic approach is grafting cells or other vectors which release neuroprotective molecules that stimulate regeneration in the damaged nigrostriatal system or, in other words, that exert a dopaminotrophic action. We have tested the suitability of intrastriatal grafts of extra adrenal chromaffin cells taken from the Zuckerkandl s organ. This paraganglion contains chromaffin cells that express and release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and transforming growth factor b1 (TGF b1), both known to protect dopamine cells in vitro and in vivo. Grafts induced a functional recovery of parkinsonian rats which developed over months. The beneficial effects of grafts of the Zuckerkandl s organ were related to long survival of grafted cells, striatal reinnervation, enhancement of dopamine levels in the host striatum, and the cell delivery into the host striatum of GDNF and TGF b1. CONCLUSION. Our result should stimulate research on the clinical applicability of transplants of the Zuckerkandl s organ in Parkinson s disease


Ferrari, P. F., A. M. van Erp, et al. (2003). "Accumbal dopamine and serotonin in anticipation of the next aggressive episode in rats." Eur J Neurosci 17(2): 371-8.

            Autonomic and limbic neural activities are linked to aggressive behavior, and it is hypothesized that activities in the cardiovascular and monoaminergic systems play a role in preparing for an aggressive challenge. The objective was to learn about the emergence of monoamine activity in nucleus accumbens before an aggressive confrontation that was omitted at the regular time of occurrence, dissociating the motoric from the aminergic activity. Dopamine, serotonin, heart rate and behavioral activity were monitored before, during and after a single 10-min confrontation in resident male Long-Evans rats fitted with a microdialysis probe in the n. accumbens and with a telemetry sender (experiment 1). DA, but not 5-HT efflux, was confirmed to increase in n. accumbens during and after a single aggressive episode. In aggressive males that confronted an opponent daily for 10 days (experiment 2) heart rate rose 1 h before the regularly scheduled encounter relative to control rats, as measured on day 11 in the absence of any aggression. Concurrently, DA levels increased by 60-70% over baseline levels and 5-HT levels decreased by 30-35% compared to baseline levels. These changes were sustained over 1 h, and contrasted with no significant changes in DA, 5-HT, heart rate or behavioral activity in control rats. The rise in mesolimbic DA appears to be significant in anticipating the physiological and behavioral demands of an aggressive episode, and the fall in 5-HT in its termination, dissociated from the actual execution of the behavior.


Ferro, A. (2003). "Renal dopamine receptors and hypertension." J Hypertens 21(1): 37-8.


Fetsko, L. A., R. Xu, et al. (2003). "Alterations in D1/D2 synergism may account for enhanced stereotypy and reduced climbing in mice lacking dopamine D2L receptor." Brain Res 967(1-2): 191-200.

            Concurrent activation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (D1 and D2) is required for the expression of certain dopamine (DA)-mediated responses, such as climbing and stereotyped behaviors. Such interactions between D1 and D2 (i.e. D1/D2 synergism) represent an important aspect of dopaminergic function and plasticity. The D2 receptor exists in two isoforms: D2L and D2S. We have generated mice that selectively lack D2L (D2L-/-). Here we showed that treatment with the indirect DA agonist amphetamine, the direct DA agonist apomorphine, or combination of D1 and D2 agonists elicited intense climbing in wild type mice (which express predominantly D2L in the striatum), but this behavior was absent or reduced in D2L-/- mice. On the other hand, apomorphine, the D2 agonist quinpirole, or combination of quinpirole and the D1 agonist SKF 81297 induced more stereotyped behavior such as biting or head movements in D2L-/- mice (which express only D2S) than in wild type mice. The D1 receptor functioned normally in D2L-/- mice. Taken together, these results suggest that D2L and D1 interactions may play a greater role in DA agonist-induced climbing, whereas D2S and D1 interactions may have a larger impact on DA agonist-induced stereotypy (and possibly psychosis). DA agonists, which are clinically used to treat Parkinson's disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are known to induce psychotic side effects. Thus, our findings may provide novel insights for designing anti-parkinsonian, anti-ADHD and antipsychotic drugs with greater therapeutic efficacy and fewer side effects.


Figlewicz, D. P., S. B. Evans, et al. (2003). "Expression of receptors for insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) of the rat." Brain Res 964(1): 107-15.

            Recent studies have demonstrated that the metabolic hormones insulin and leptin can modulate behavioral performance in reward-related paradigms. However, specific anatomical substrate(s) within the CNS for these effects remain to be identified. We hypothesize that midbrain dopamine neurons, which have been implicated to be critical in the mediation of motivational and reward aspects of stimuli, contribute to these behavioral effects of insulin and leptin. As one approach to evaluate this hypothesis, we used double-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemistry to determine whether the midbrain dopamine neurons express insulin receptors or leptin receptors. Extensive co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker for dopamine neurons) with both the insulin receptor and the leptin receptor was observed in the ventral tegmentum and substantia nigra. These findings suggest that midbrain dopamine neurons are direct targets of insulin and leptin, and that they participate in mediating the effects of these hormones on reward-seeking behavior.


Filip, M., I. Papla, et al. (2003). "Effects of 5-HT1B receptor ligands microinjected into the ventral tegmental area on cocaine discrimination in rats." Eur J Pharmacol 459(2-3): 239-45.

            Some recent data indicate a significant interaction between serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine in mesolimbic brain structures (e.g. the ventral tegmental area) which modulate the behavioral effects of cocaine in rats. The present study investigated the role of 5-HT(1B) receptors in the ventral tegmental area in the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) from saline (i.p.) in a two-choice, water-reinforced fixed-ratio 20 procedure. After reaching the cocaine-saline discrimination criterion, the rats were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cannulae in the ventral tegmental area and were then microinjected with selective 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands. In substitution studies, microinjections of the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist, 3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-4-hydroxy-N-[4-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]benzamide dihydrochloride (GR 55562; 0.1-1 microg/side), did not evoke cocaine-lever responding, whereas the 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, 1,4-dihydro-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridin-5- one (CP 93129; 0.3-1 microg/side), induced partial substitution for cocaine. Intra-tegmental microinjections with the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist, GR 55562 (0.1-1 microg/side), before cocaine (5 mg/kg), which alone produced 98% cocaine-lever responses, decreased in a dose-dependent manner the discriminative stimulus effects of the psychostimulant. On the other hand, combination tests using a fixed dose of CP 93129 (0.3 or 1 microg/side), given into the ventral tegmental area prior to low systemic doses of cocaine (1.25-2.5 mg/kg), increased cocaine discrimination. These results seem to indicate that tegmental 5-HT(1B) receptors are necessary to express the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine.


Fiorentini, C., F. Gardoni, et al. (2003). "Regulation of dopamine D1 receptor trafficking and desensitization by oligomerization with glutamate NMDA receptors." J Biol Chem.

            Activation of D1 dopamine receptors is critical for the generation of glutamate-induced long term potentiation at cortico-striatal synapses. In this study we report that in striatal neurons D1 receptors are co-localized with NMDA receptors in the post synaptic density (PSD) and that they co-immunoprecipitate with NMDA receptor subunits from PSD preparations. By using BRET2 we demonstrate that D1 and NMDA receptor clustering reflects the existence of direct interactions. Tagged D1 receptor and NR1 subunit co-transfected in COS-7 cells generated a significant BRET2 signal that was insensitive to agonist stimulation and did not change in the presence of the NR2B subunit, suggesting that the D1 receptor constitutively and selectively interacts with the NR1 subunit of the NMDA channel. Oligomerization with NMDA receptor substantially modify D1 receptor trafficking. In individually transfected HEK 293 cells NR1 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the D1 receptor was targeted to the plasma membrane. In co-transfected cells both D1 receptor and NR1 subunitwere retained into cytoplasmic compartments. In the presence of NR2B subunt the NR1/D1 receptor complex was translocated to the plasma membrane. These data suggest that D1 and NMDA receptors are assembled within intracellular compartments as constitutive heteromeric complexes that are deliverd to functional sites. Co-expression with NR1 and NR2B subunits also abolishes agonist-induced D1 receptor cytoplasmic sequestration, indicating that oligomerization with NMDA could represent a novel regulatory mechanism modulating D1 receptor desensitization and cellular trafficking.


Fiorillo, C. D., P. N. Tobler, et al. (2003). "Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons." Science 299(5614): 1898-902.

            Uncertainty is critical in the measure of information and in assessing the accuracy of predictions. It is determined by probability P, being maximal at P = 0.5 and decreasing at higher and lower probabilities. Using distinct stimuli to indicate the probability of reward, we found that the phasic activation of dopamine neurons varied monotonically across the full range of probabilities, supporting past claims that this response codes the discrepancy between predicted and actual reward. In contrast, a previously unobserved response covaried with uncertainty and consisted of a gradual increase in activity until the potential time of reward. The coding of uncertainty suggests a possible role for dopamine signals in attention-based learning and risk-taking behavior.


Fitzpatrick, P. F., E. C. Ralph, et al. (2003). "Characterization of metal ligand mutants of tyrosine hydroxylase: insights into the plasticity of a 2-histidine-1-carboxylate triad." Biochemistry 42(7): 2081-8.

            The amino acid ligands to the active site iron in the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase tyrosine hydroxylase are two histidines and a glutamate. This 2-histidine-1-carboxylate motif has been found in a number of other metalloenzymes which catalyze a variety of oxygenase reactions. As a probe of the plasticity of this metal binding site, each of the ligands in TyrH has been mutated to glutamine, glutamate, or histidine. The H336E and H336Q enzymes show dramatic decreases in iron affinity but retain substantial activity for both tyrosine hydroxylation and tetrahydropterin oxidation. The H331E enzyme shows a lesser decrease in iron affinity and is unable to hydroxylate tyrosine. Instead, this enzyme oxidizes tetrahydropterin in the absence of added tyrosine. The E376H enzyme has no significant activity, while the E376Q enzyme hydroxylates tyrosine at about 0.4% the wild-type rate. When dopamine is bound to either the H336Q or H331E enzymes, the position of the long wavelength charge-transfer absorbance band is consistent with the change in the metal ligand. In contrast, the H336E enzyme does not form a stable binary complex with dopamine, while the E376H and E376Q enzymes catalyze dopamine oxidation.


Forster, G. L. and C. D. Blaha (2003). "Pedunculopontine tegmental stimulation evokes striatal dopamine efflux by activation of acetylcholine and glutamate receptors in the midbrain and pons of the rat." Eur J Neurosci 17(4): 751-62.

            The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus appears to influence striatal dopamine activity via cholinergic and glutamatergic afferents to dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta. We measured changes in striatal dopamine oxidation current (dopamine efflux) in response to electrical stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus using in vivo electrochemistry in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus stimulation evoked a three-component change in striatal dopamine efflux, consisting of: (i) an initial rapid increase of 2 min duration; followed by (ii) a decrease below prestimulation levels of 9 min duration; then by (iii) a prolonged increase lasting 35 min. Intra-nigral infusions of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenate (10 micro g/ micro L) or the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (5 micro g/0.5 micro L) selectively attenuated the rapid first component, while systemic injections of the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) diminished the second and third components. In addition, intra-pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus infusions of the M2 muscarinic antagonist methoctramine (50 micro g/ micro L) selectively abolished the inhibitory second component, while intranigral infusions of scopolamine (200 micro g/ micro L) selectively abolished the prolonged third component. Intra-nigral infusions of the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (2 micro g/ micro L) had no effect on pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus-elicited striatal dopamine efflux. These results suggest that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus utilizes nicotinic and ionotropic glutamate receptors in the substantia nigra to mediate rapid activation, M2-like muscarinic autoreceptors in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to mediate decreased activation, and muscarinic receptors in the substantia nigra (probably of the M5 subtype) to mediate prolonged activation, of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.


Foster, J. D., B. Pananusorn, et al. (2003). "Dopamine transporters are dephosphorylated in striatal homogenates and in vitro by protein phosphatase 1." Brain Res Mol Brain Res 110(1): 100-8.

            Dopamine transporters (DATs) undergo increased phosphorylation upon treatment of striatal tissue or cultured cells with protein kinase C activators and protein phosphatase inhibitors. Phosphorylation conditions also lead to reductions in dopamine transport activity, which may function to regulate synaptic dopamine levels and control the extent and duration of dopaminergic signaling. Treatment of rat striatal tissue with okadaic acid (OA), a broad-spectrum protein phosphatase inhibitor, produces apparent maximal increases in DAT phosphorylation, suggesting that dephosphorylation is a crucial regulator of the DAT phosphorylation state. We used a combination of endogenous and in vitro approaches to identify the phosphatase(s) responsible for this activity. In homogenates prepared from (32)PO(4)-labeled rat striatal slices, OA inhibited DAT dephosphorylation with an IC(50) of 40 nM, a dose most compatible with inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Dephosphorylation of DAT in striatal homogenates was also inhibited by PP1 inhibitor 2, while little effect was produced by protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor 1. In vitro dephosphorylation assays showed substantial removal of (32)PO(4) from DATs by PP1 but not by protein phosphatase 2A, protein phosphatase 2B, or protein tyrosine phosphatase, and this effect was blocked by OA, verifying that the (32)PO(4) loss from DAT was due to dephosphorylation. These results demonstrate that DAT is a direct substrate for PP1 in vitro and suggest that PP1 is a major DAT phosphatase in rat striatum.


Fraley, G. S. and S. Ritter (2003). "Immunolesion of norepinephrine and epinephrine afferents to medial hypothalamus alters basal and 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the arcuate nucleus." Endocrinology 144(1): 75-83.

            Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti gene-related protein (AGRP) are orexigenic peptides of special importance for control of food intake. In situ hybridization studies have shown that NPY and AGRP mRNAs are increased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) by glucoprivation. Other work has shown that glucoprivation stimulates food intake by activation of hindbrain glucoreceptor cells and requires the participation of rostrally projecting norepinephrine (NE) or epinephrine (E) neurons. Here we determine the role of hindbrain catecholamine afferents in glucoprivation-induced increase in ARC NPY and AGRP gene expression. The selective NE/E immunotoxin saporin-conjugated antidopamine-beta-hydroxylase (anti-dbetah) was microinjected into the medial hypothalamus and expression of AGRP and NPY mRNA was analyzed subsequently in the ARC under basal and glucoprivic conditions using (33)P-labeled in situ hybridization. Saporin-conjugated anti-dbetah virtually eliminated dbetah-immunoreactive terminals in the ARC without causing nonspecific damage. These lesions significantly increased basal but eliminated 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced increases in AGRP and NPY mRNA expression. Results indicate that hindbrain catecholaminergic neurons contribute to basal NPY and AGRP gene expression and mediate the responsiveness of NPY and AGRP neurons to glucose deficit. Our results also suggest that catecholamine neurons couple potent orexigenic neural circuitry within the hypothalamus with hindbrain glucose sensors that monitor brain glucose supply.


Francisco, W. A., N. J. Blackburn, et al. (2003). "Oxygen and hydrogen isotope effects in an active site tyrosine to phenylalanine mutant of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase: mechanistic implications." Biochemistry 42(7): 1813-9.

            Peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DbetaM) are homologous copper-containing enzymes that catalyze an oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of peptide-extended glycine residues and phenethylamines, respectively. The mechanism whereby these enzymes activate molecular oxygen and the C-H bond of substrate has been the subject of numerous studies, and various mechanisms have been put forth. From the magnitude of (18)O isotope effects as a function of substrate structure in DbetaM, an active site tyrosine had been proposed to function in the reductive activation of Cu(II)-OOH to generate a reactive copper-oxo species [Tian et al. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 226]. The presence of a tyrosine residue, Y318, in the active site of PHM was subsequently confirmed from crystallographic studies [Prigge et al. (1997) Science 278, 1300]. We now report extensive kinetic and isotope effect studies on the Y318F mutant form of PHM, analyzing the role of this tyrosine in the catalytic mechanism. It is found that the Y318F mutant has intrinsic hydrogen and (18)O isotope effects that are within experimental error of the wild-type enzyme and that the mutation causes only a slight reduction in the rate constant for C-H bond cleavage. These findings, together with the recent demonstration that C-H activation in PHM is dominated by quantum mechanical tunneling [Francisco et al. (2002) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 8194], necessitate a reexamination of plausible mechanisms for this unique class of copper enzymes.


Franke, H., N. Schelhorn, et al. (2003). "Dopaminergic neurons develop axonal projections to their target areas in organotypic co-cultures of the ventral mesencephalon and the striatum/prefrontal cortex." Neurochem Int 42(5): 431-9.

            Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons are known to project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum (STR). Organotypic slice co-cultures of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN)-complex and the PFC or STR, respectively, were used to analyze the cytoarchitectural organization of the VTA/SN-complex and the innervation pattern of the target slices by dopaminergic fibers. After 10-28 days of culturing immunocytochemistry with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was performed. The VTA/SN-complex revealed in vitro an organization of TH-positive cells similar to those observed in rat brains of comparable age. TH-immunoreactive cells exhibited their typical morphology and formed long processes. No TH-immunolabeled elements were found in single cultures of PFC and STR. Tracing of VTA/SN fibers with biocytin as well as TH-immunostaining showed numerous labeled fibers in the co-cultured slices. Extensive fiber crossing was observed in the co-cultures of the VTA/SN-complex and STR but only a sparse fiber bridge in the co-cultured slices of VTA/SN-complex and PFC. The VTA/SN-complex-PFC system obviously retained several of its in vivo characteristics, e.g. the fiber network in the prefrontal cortical subareas. Our results demonstrate that TH-immunoreactive neurons develop their typical innervation pattern in slice co-cultures of VTA/SN-complex and PFC or STR, respectively. This in vitro approach may be useful for investigations of the dopaminergic function in the VTA/SN-prefrontal pathway.


Fredrickson, P., M. Boules, et al. (2003). "Blockade of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization by a novel neurotensin analog in rats." Eur J Pharmacol 458(1-2): 111-8.

            Neurotensin is a tridecapeptide with anatomic and functional relationships to dopaminergic neurons. Previously we showed that one of our brain-penetrating neurotensin analogs, NT69L (N-met-L-Arg, L-Lys, L-Pro, L-neo-Trp, L-tert-Leu, L-Leu), blocks cocaine- and D-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats. We have now performed a similar study in rats sensitized to nicotine over 15 days of administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive daily injections for 15 days with one of the following combinations: saline/nicotine (0.35 mg/kg), NT69L (1 mg/kg)/nicotine, saline/saline, or NT69L/saline with a 30-min period between injections. On day 15 each group was given saline/nicotine or NT69L/nicotine and tested in an activity chamber. One-time administration of NT69L attenuated nicotine-induced activity with an ED(50) of 1.6 microg/kg. Rats injected with nicotine over the 15 days had a significant increase in locomotor activity, consistent with nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. A single injection of NT69L on day 15 prior to nicotine markedly decreased nicotine-induced hyperactivity. Although daily injections of NT69L lessened its effect, statistically significant reductions in hyperactivity to nicotine persisted throughout the study. There was no significant difference in activity between rats injected with NT69L/saline and saline/saline. Thus, the activity reduction was not due to sedation. Acute and chronic nicotine injection caused an increase in cytisine binding in prefrontal cortex. NT69L significantly reduced the increase caused by acute but not chronic injection of nicotine. Nicotine injection resulted in an increase in dopamine levels in the striatum and dopamine and norepinephrine levels in the prefrontal cortex. NT69L lowered the norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex but did not affect striatal dopamine. The present study is the first report, to our knowledge, of a possible role for neurotensin in the development of nicotine dependence, and suggests that neurotensin analogs such as NT69L may be explored as treatment for nicotine and other psychostimulant abuse.


Freeman, A. Y., J. J. Soghomonian, et al. (2003). "Tyrosine kinase B and C receptors in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens are co-localized in enkephalin-positive and enkephalin-negative neuronal profiles and their expression is influenced by cocaine." Neuroscience 117(1): 147-56.

            Single- and double-label immunohistochemistry were used to determine the extent to which the tyrosine kinase B and C receptors, are expressed in enkephalin-immunopositive or enkephalin-immunonegative neuronal profiles in the rat neostriatum and nucleus accumbens. Results indicate that tyrosine kinase B and C receptors are co-localized in both enkephalin-positive and enkephalin-negative neurons in both of these nuclei, which suggests that these receptors influence both the striatal-pallidal (enkephalin) and striatal-ventral mesencephalic (substance P/dynorphin) pathways. We also examined the influence of acute or repeated injections of cocaine on the number of tyrosine kinase B and C receptors immunoreactive neuronal profiles in the rat neostriatum and nucleus accumbens. Following an acute injection of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.), there were significant decreases in the number of tyrosine kinase B and C receptors immunoreactive profiles in specific regions of the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens relative to saline-pretreated rats. One or 14 days following the last of seven daily injections of 15 mg/kg cocaine or saline there were no differences in the numbers of tyrosine kinase B or C receptors immunoreactive neuronal profiles between these treatment groups.Collectively, the present results indicate that tyrosine kinase B and C receptors in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens are co-localized in enkephalin-positive and enkephalin-negative neuronal profiles, which suggests that the striatal medium spiny neurons expressing tyrosine kinase B and C receptors include those that project to the pallidum or the ventral mesencephalon. The current results also show that an acute injection of cocaine results in a decrease in the number of tyrosine kinase B and C receptors immunoreactive neuronal profiles in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and neostriatum, indicating that cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the striatal complex result in compensatory decreases in the expression of tyrosine kinase B and C receptors.


Friggi-Grelin, F., M. Iche, et al. (2003). "Tissue-specific developmental requirements of Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms." Genesis 35(3): 175-84.

            Summary: Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is a key enzyme in dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, which is expressed in neural and hypodermal DA-synthesizing cells. We previously reported that two DTH isoforms are produced in flies through tissue-specific alternative splicing that show distinct regulatory properties. We have now selectively expressed each DTH isoform in vivo in a pale (ple, i.e., DTH-deficient) mutant background. We show that the embryonic lethality of ple can be rescued by expression of the hypodermal, but not the neural, DTH isoform in all DA cells, indicating that the hypoderm- isoform is absolutely required for cuticle biosynthesis and survival in Drosophila. In addition, we report new observations on the consequences of DTH overexpression in the CNS and hypoderm. Our results provide evidence that tissue-specific alternative splicing of the DTH gene is a vital process in Drosophila development. genesis 35:175-184, 2003.


Friggi-Grelin, F., H. Coulom, et al. (2003). "Targeted gene expression in Drosophila dopaminergic cells using regulatory sequences from tyrosine hydroxylase." J Neurobiol 54(4): 618-27.

            Dopamine (DA) is the only catecholaminergic neurotransmitter in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Dopaminergic neurons have been identified in the larval and adult central nervous system (CNS) in Drosophila and other insects, but no specific genetic tool was available to study their development, function, and degeneration in vivo. In Drosophila as in vertebrates, the rate-limiting step in DA biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The Drosophila TH gene (DTH) is specifically expressed in all dopaminergic cells and the corresponding mutant, pale (ple), is embryonic lethal. We have performed ple rescue experiments with modified DTH transgenes. Our results indicate that partially redundant regulatory elements located in DTH introns are required for proper expression of this gene in the CNS. Based on this study, we generated a GAL4 driver transgene, TH-GAL4, containing regulatory sequences from the DTH 5' flanking and downstream coding regions. TH-GAL4 specifically expresses in dopaminergic cells in embryos, larval CNS, and adult brain when introduced into the Drosophila genome. As a first application of this driver, we observed that in vivo inhibition of DA release induces a striking hyperexcitability behavior in adult flies. We propose that TH-GAL4 will be useful for studies of the role of DA in behavior and disease models in Drosophila.


Fujinaka, T., E. Kohmura, et al. (2003). "The morphological and neurochemical effects of diffuse brain injury on rat central noradrenergic system." Neurol Res 25(1): 35-41.

            The central noradrenergic system is widely distributed throughout the brain and is closely related to spontaneous motility and level of consciousness. The study presented here evaluated the morphological as well as neurochemical effects of diffuse brain injury on the central noradrenergic system in rat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to impact-acceleration brain injury produced with a weight-drop device. Morphological changes in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons were examined by using immunohistochemistry for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and norepinephrine (NE) turnover in the cerebral cortex was measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The size of LC neurons increased by 11% 24 h after injury but had decreased by 27% seven days after injury. Axons of noradrenergic neurons were swollen 24 h and 48 h after injury but the swelling had dwindled in seven days. NE turnover was significantly reduced seven days after injury and remained at a low level until eight weeks after injury. These results suggest that focal impairment of axonal transport due to diffuse brain injury causes cellular changes in LC and that the neurochemical effect of injury on the central noradrenargic system lasts over an extended period of time. Chronic suppression of NE turnover may explain the sustained behavioral and psychological abnormalities observed in a clinical situation.


Furukawa, Y. (2003). "Genetics and biochemistry of dopa-responsive dystonia: significance of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase protein loss." Adv Neurol 91: 401-10.

            Notwithstanding the discovery of GCH1 and TH mutations in autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive DRD, respectively, a therapeutic trial with levodopa is still the most practical approach to the diagnosis of DRD. The trial needs to be considered in all children with dystonic and/or parkinsonian symptoms or with unexplained gait disorders. Further accumulation of patients with TH-deficient DRD (the mild form of TH deficiency) is necessary to establish the clinical characteristics of this disorder. Regarding GTPCH-deficient DRD, there remain important unresolved issues, including questions of incomplete penetrance of GCH1 mutations, female predominance of affected subjects, and intrafamilial phenotypic variation. A clarification of the mechanism of striatal TH protein loss in GTPCH-deficient DRD may provide a new clue to the pathogenesis of this major form of DRD.


Fusco, F. R., A. Martorana, et al. (2003). "Huntingtin distribution among striatal output neurons of normal rat brain." Neurosci Lett 339(1): 53-6.

            Huntingtin is the protein whose mutation leads to Huntington's disease (HD). The protein is heterogeneously distributed in the telencephalon, and not consistently correlated with cell vulnerability in HD [Fusco, F.R., Chen, Q., Lamoreaux, W.J., Figueredo-Cardenas, G., Jiao, Y., Coffman, J.A., Surmeier, D.J., Honig, M.G., Carlock, L.R., and Reiner, A., J. Neurosci., 19 (1999) 1189-1202]. The aim of our study was to investigate a possible preferential distribution of huntingtin among the two main striatal output pathways, namely, the striatonigral and the striatopallidal circuit. Dual label immunofluorescence by means of confocal microscopy was used to detect the presence of huntingtin among striatal projection neurons identified by their cellular content of Substance P, Enkephalin, CB1 receptor, and D1a dopamine receptor. Our data showed that striatopallidal neurons co-containing SP and D1a [Surmeier, D.J., Song, W.J., and Yan, Z., J. Neurosci., 16 (1996) 6579-6591] co-localized with huntingtin in a higher proportion than striatonigral neurons.


Futamura, T., A. Kakita, et al. (2003). "Neonatal perturbation of neurotrophic signaling results in abnormal sensorimotor gating and social interaction in adults: implication for epidermal growth factor in cognitive development." Mol Psychiatry 8(1): 19-29.

            Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its structurally related proteins are implicated in the developmental regulation of various brain neurons, including midbrain dopaminergic neurons. There are EGF and EGF receptor abnormalities in both brain tissues and blood from schizophrenic patients. We administered EGF to neonatal rats to transiently perturb endogenous EGF receptor signaling and evaluated the neurobehavioral consequences. EGF-treatment-induced transient impairment in tyrosine hydroxylase expression. The animals grew normally, exhibited normal weight increase, glial growth, and gross brain structures, and later lost the tyrosine hydroxylase abnormality. During and after development, however, the rats began to display various behavioral abnormalities. Abnormal sensorimotor gating was apparent, as measured by deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Motor activity and social interaction scores of the EGF-treated animals were also impaired in adult rats, though not in earlier developmental stages. In parallel, there was a significant abnormality in dopamine metabolism in the brain stem of the adult animals. Gross learning ability appeared to be normal as measured by active avoidance. These behavioral alterations, which are often present in schizophrenic models, were ameliorated by subchronic treatment with clozapine. Although the molecular and/or physiologic background(s) of these behavioral abnormalities await further investigation, the results of the present experiment indicate that abnormal EGF receptor stimulation given during limited neonatal stages can result in severe and persistent cognitive/behavioral dysfunctions, which appear only in adulthood.Molecular Psychiatry (2003) 8, 19-29. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001138


Gainetdinov, R. R. and M. G. Caron (2003). "MONOAMINE TRANSPORTERS: From Genes to Behavior." Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 43: 261-84.

            Modulation of fast neurotransmission by monoamines is critically involved in numerous physiological functions and pathological conditions. Plasma membrane monoamine transporters provide one of the most efficient mechanisms controlling functional extracellular monoamine concentrations. These transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET), which are expressed selectively on the corresponding neurons, are established targets of many psychostimulants, antidepressants, and neurotoxins. Recently, genetic animal models with targeted disruption of these transporters have become available. These mice have provided opportunities to investigate the functional importance of transporters in homeostatic control of monoaminergic transmission and to evaluate, in an in vivo model system, their roles in physiology and pathology. The use of these mice as test subjects has been helpful in resolving several important issues on specificity and mechanisms of action of certain pharmacological agents. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the physiology and pharmacology of monoamine transporters gained in mice with targeted genetic deletion of DAT, SERT, and NET.


Gainey, L. F., Jr., J. C. Walton, et al. (2003). "Branchial musculature of a venerid clam: pharmacology, distribution, and innervation." Biol Bull 204(1): 81-95.

            This study was meant to analyze the neural control of the branchial muscles of the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Gills isolated from the animal contract in response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), dopamine (DA), and acetylcholine (ACh); but the ACh contraction occurred only if the gills had been pretreated with the cholinesterase inhibitor eserine. The 5HT antagonists cyproheptadine and mianserin blocked the contractile effects of all of the agonists. However, gills exposed to the 5HT antagonists and eserine relaxed in response to ACh. The DA antagonist SCH-83566 inhibited the effects of DA, but had no effect on contractions induced by 5HT and ACh. The ACh antagonist hexamethonium inhibited both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of ACh, but had no effect on contractions induced by 5HT and DA. 5HT and DA in gill tissue were visualized by using immunohistochemistry. Within each gill filament are dorsoventral neurons running adjacent to the epithelium and containing immunoreactive 5HT and DA. A complex network of 5HT-positive fibers is associated with the septa, blood vessels, and muscles, whereas DA-positive fibers are restricted to the septa. We propose that 5HT is the excitatory transmitter to the gill muscles, and that DA and ACh exert their excitatory effects by stimulating 5HT motor nerves. ACh may also be an inhibitory transmitter of the muscles.


Gale, C. and C. Martyn (2003). "Tobacco, coffee, and Parkinson's disease." Bmj 326(7389): 561-2.


Galici, R., A. Galli, et al. (2003). "Selective decreases in amphetamine self-administration and regulation of dopamine transporter function in diabetic rats." Neuroendocrinology 77(2): 132-40.

            The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates extracellular dopamine DA levels and is an important site of action for amphetamine and cocaine. Amphetamine and cocaine increase extracellular levels of DA by acting on the DAT; thus, variations in DAT binding sites or activity might influence the action of some drugs of abuse. It was hypothesized that streptozotocin-induced diabetes decreases amphetamine self-administration and that this behavioral change is accompanied by changes in DAT function. Separate groups of male rats responded to receive either amphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion), cocaine (0.25 mg/kg/infusion), or food before and for 7 days after receiving streptozotocin. Rats were sacrificed and [(3)H]DA uptake and [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding were measured in the striatum. In a second study, rats could self-administer one of several different doses of amphetamine (0.01-0.178 mg/kg/infusion) before and after receiving streptozotocin. In streptozotocin-treated rats, a marked decrease in staining for insulin in pancreatic sections was paralleled by a more than doubling in blood glucose levels. Streptozotocin significantly decreased the number of amphetamine infusions without changing the number of cocaine infusions or food pellets received. Streptozotocin increased DA uptake (V(max)) 1.6- or 2.4-fold in rats that responded for food or amphetamine and increased 3-fold the K(m) for DA only in rats that responded for food; however, [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding was not changed in any rat. In the second study, streptozotocin only decreased amphetamine self-administration thereby supporting the view that streptozotocin does not simply decrease the potency of amphetamine. These results demonstrate a selective decrease in amphetamine self-administration in diabetic rats that was associated with increased DAT function in the striatum. Collectively, these studies suggest that insulin pathways in the brain may play an important role in regulating DAT activity and amphetamine action.


Galindo, M. F., J. Jordan, et al. (2003). "Chromaffin cell death induced by 6-hydroxydopamine is independent of mitochondrial swelling and caspase activation." J Neurochem 84(5): 1066-73.

            Our results provide evidence that 6-hydroxydopamine induced, after auto-oxidation, toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that caused bovine chromaffin cell toxicity and death. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment markedly reduced, in a dose-response fashion, chromaffin cell viability. Cell death was accompanied by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation and DNA degradation. Under our experimental conditions, 6-OHDA auto-oxidation formed quinones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mainly contributed to 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in bovine chromaffin cells. Accordingly, different antioxidants, including catalase, vitamin E, Mn(IIItetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) or ascorbic acid, provided protection against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. Further evidence that 6-OHDA induces oxidative stress is provided by the fact that this compound decreased total mitochondrial reduced NAD(P)H levels. Our results also suggest that mitochondrial swelling and caspase activation do not play a direct role in 6-OHDA-induced death in bovine chromaffin cells.


Gallant, P., T. Malutan, et al. (2003). "Functionally distinct dopamine and octopamine transporters in the CNS of the cabbage looper moth." Eur J Biochem 270(4): 664-74.

            A cDNA was cloned from the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni based on similarity to other cloned dopamine transporters (DATs). The total nucleotide sequence is 3.8 kb in length and contains an open reading frame for a protein of 612 amino acids. The predicted moth DAT protein (TrnDAT) has greatest amino acid sequence identity with Drosophila melanogasterDAT (73%) and Caenorhabditis elegansDAT (51%). TrnDAT shares only 45% amino acid sequence identity with an octopamine transporter (TrnOAT) cloned recently from this moth. The functional properties of TrnDAT and TrnOAT were compared through transient heterologous expression in Sf9 cells. Both transporters have similar transport affinities for DA (Km 2.43 and 2.16 micro m, respectively). However, the competitive substrates octopamine and tyramine are more potent blockers of [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake by TrnOAT than by TrnDAT. D-Amphetamine is a strong inhibitor and l-norepinephrine a weak inhibitor of both transporters. TrnDAT-mediated DA uptake is approximately 100-fold more sensitive to selective blockers of vertebrate transporters of dopamine and norepinephrine, such as nisoxetine, nomifensine and dibenzazepine antidepressants, than TrnOAT-mediated DA uptake. TrnOAT is 10-fold less sensitive to cocaine than TrnDAT. None of the 15 monoamine uptake blockers tested was TrnOAT-selective. In situ hybridization shows that TrnDAT and TrnOAT transcripts are expressed by different sets of neurons in caterpillar brain and ventral nerve cord. These results show that the caterpillar CNS contains both a phenolamine transporter and a catecholamine transporter whereas in the three invertebrates whose genomes have been completely sequenced only a dopamine-selective transporter is found.


Galter, D., A. Carmine, et al. (2003). "Distribution of class I, III and IV alcohol dehydrogenase mRNAs in the adult rat, mouse and human brain." Eur J Biochem 270(6): 1316-26.

            The localization of different classes of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) in the brain is of great interest because of their role in both ethanol and retinoic acid metabolism. Conflicting data have been reported in the literature. By Northern blot and enzyme activity analyses only class III ADH has been detected in adult brain specimens, while results from riboprobe in situ hybridization indicate class I as well as class IV ADH expression in different regions of the rat brain. Here we have studied the expression patterns of three ADH classes in adult rat, mouse and human tissues using radioactive oligonucleotide in situ hybridization. Specificity of probes was tested on liver and stomach control tissue, as well as tissue from class IV ADH knock-out mice. Only class III ADH mRNA was found to be expressed in brain tissue of all three investigated species. Particularly high expression levels were found in neurons of the red nucleus in human tissue, while cortical neurons, pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus and dopamine neurons of substantia nigra showed moderate expression levels. Purkinje cells of cerebellum were positive for class III ADH mRNA in all species investigated, whereas granular layer neurons were positive only in rodents. The choroid plexus was highly positive for class III ADH, while no specific signal for class I or class IV ADH was detected. Our results thus support the notion that the only ADH expressed in adult mouse, rat and human brain is class III ADH.


Gamaro, G. D., L. P. Manoli, et al. (2003). "Effects of chronic variate stress on feeding behavior and on monoamine levels in different rat brain structures." Neurochem Int 42(2): 107-14.

            Chronic variate stress was seen to decrease the ingestion of sweet food when compared to control rats. Brain monoamines are known to be involved in the control of food intake, serotonin appears to be involved in the mechanisms of satiety, and dopamine in mediating appetite or approach behaviors triggered by incentive stimuli associated with rewards. The effect of chronic variate stress on cerebral levels of monoamines was also studied in rats. Increased levels of DOPAC were observed in the frontal cortex and in the hippocampus and an increased 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was also observed in this latter structure. In the hypothalamus, levels of HVA and DOPAC were decreased, as well as the DOPAC/DA ratio, while no difference was found in amygdala. During the treatment, there were no differences in the consumption of water and regular food between stressed and control animals. An increase in the adrenal weight was observed at the end of the treatment. The results suggest that emotional changes, such as exposure to stress situations can influence feeding behavior, chronic variate stress causes decreased ingestion of sweet food and decreased dopaminergic neurotransmission in hypothalamus. Increased dopamine metabolite levels in the cortex and hippocampus were also observed and some of these modifications may be related to alterations in feeding behavior.


Gao, W. J., Y. Wang, et al. (2003). "Dopamine modulation of perisomatic and peridendritic inhibition in prefrontal cortex." J Neurosci 23(5): 1622-30.

            The computations underlying cognitive functions are performed by a diversity of interactions between interneurons and pyramidal neurons that are subject to modulatory influences. Here we have used paired whole-cell recording to study the influence of dopamine on local inhibitory circuits involving fast-spiking (FS) and non-FS cells, respectively. We found that dopamine depressed inhibitory transmission between FS interneurons and pyramidal neurons but enhanced inhibition between non-FS interneurons and pyramidal cells. FS inhibitory transmission exhibited properties associated with presynaptic action at D(1) receptors that were not evident in non-FS inhibitory connections. In addition, FS and non-FS interneurons differed morphologically, forming contacts on the perisomatic and peridendritic domains, respectively, of their pyramidal cell targets. These findings provide evidence for both a dual mode of inhibition in prefrontal circuitry and circuit-dependent modulation by dopamine.


Gao, H. M., J. S. Hong, et al. (2003). "Synergistic dopaminergic neurotoxicity of the pesticide rotenone and inflammogen lipopolysaccharide: relevance to the etiology of Parkinson's disease." J Neurosci 23(4): 1228-36.

            Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway resulting in movement disorders. Although its etiology remains unknown, PD may be the final outcome of interactions among multiple factors, including exposure to environmental toxins and the occurrence of inflammation in the brain. In this study, using primary mesencephalic cultures, we observed that nontoxic or minimally toxic concentrations of the pesticide rotenone (0.5 nm) and the inflammogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5 ng/ml) synergistically induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The synergistic neurotoxicity of rotenone and LPS was observed when the two agents were applied either simultaneously or in tandem. Mechanistically, microglial NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species appeared to be a key contributor to the synergistic dopaminergic neurotoxicity. This conclusion was based on the following observations. First, inhibition of NADPH oxidase or scavenging of free radicals afforded significant neuroprotection. Second, rotenone and LPS synergistically stimulated the NADPH oxidase-mediated release of the superoxide free radical. Third and most importantly, rotenone and LPS failed to induce the synergistic neurotoxicity as well as the production of superoxide in cultures from NADPH oxidase-deficient animals. This is the first demonstration that low concentrations of a pesticide and an inflammogen work in synergy to induce a selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Findings from this study may be highly relevant to the elucidation of the multifactorial etiology of PD and the discovery of effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of the disease.


Gao, W. J. and P. S. Goldman-Rakic (2003). "Selective modulation of excitatory and inhibitory microcircuits by dopamine." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(5): 2836-41.

            Dopamine plays an important role in the working memory functions of the prefrontal cortex, functions that are impacted in age-related memory decline, drug abuse, and a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that dopamine depresses excitatory transmission between pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Here, using paired recordings, we have investigated dopaminergic modulation of excitatory transmission from pyramidal neurons to fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. In contrast to its effect on recurrent excitation, dopamine was without effect on excitatory transmission to FS interneurons. However, dopamine has directly enhanced the excitability of the FS interneurons to the extent that even a single excitatory postsynaptic potential could initiate spiking with great temporal precision in some of them. These results indicate that dopamine's effects on excitatory transmission are target-specific and that the axon terminals of pyramidal neurons can be selectively regulated at the level of individual synapses. Thus, dopamine's net inhibitory effect on cortical function is remarkably constrained by the nature of the microcircuit elements on which it acts.


Garg, R., A. Kurup, et al. (2003). "Searching for allosteric effects via QSAR. Part II." Bioorg Med Chem 11(4): 621-8.

            Allosteric interactions have in the past been established by means of X-ray crystallography or careful study of a single molecule at a variety of concentrations. Here we report a method for using QSAR to establish a change in reaction mechanism by establishing an inversion point. That is, as polarizability of a member of a congeneric set of compounds is increased (as measured by CMR), activity at first decreases until, at the inversion, activity turns around and increases. Out of 23 examples, 14 have inversion points of 10+/-1. This includes a wide variety of receptors such as thrombin, 5-HT, dopamine, and tyrosine kinase acting with a variety of ligands.


Garris, D. R. (2003). "Aggression-associated changes in murine olfactory tubercle bioamines." Brain Res 963(1-2): 150-5.

            The relationship between changes in regional brain bioamine levels and the expression of intraspecies aggressive behavior was evaluated in two murine models. In one study, normal male mice were maintained either in aggregate (i.e., normal, intraspecies social behavioral controls) or isolated (i.e., developed, non-social intraspecies aggressive 'fighter' behavior) housing environments, and the accompanying changes in both olfactory tubercle (OT) and hypothalamic (HYPOTH), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration indices quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis of behavior-related alterations in localized bioamine deposition loci. Intact mice which had been housed in isolation cages and which exhibited aggressive, intraspecies reflexive-biting ('fighter') behavior when introduced to a novel (stimulus) animal, exhibited significant (P<0.05) elevations in NE levels, and depressed DA concentrations, in the OT regions relative to aggregated controls, indicating an intrinsic social influence on the maintenance of basal adrenergic indices at this neural locus. No changes in 5-HT levels were indicated between control and aggressive, isolated 'fighter' groups in either OT or HYPOTH loci. In addition, the NE and DA levels in the HYPOTH samples of both control and aggressive groups were found to be comparable. In the second study, utilizing an alternate type of aggression-induced murine model, changes in bioamine parameters were determined from samples obtained from aggregated, olfactory-bulbectomized (Obx) mice which are recognized to exhibit an overt, intraspecies, reflexive-biting behavior as compared to sham-operated (control) mice housed under identical conditions. In these studies, Obx-mice exhibited a significant increase in 5-HT levels in the OT relative to sham-operated controls, but similar NE and DA concentrations. In addition, all hypothalamic bioamine indices were found to be comparable between control and Obx groups. These data, collected for both isolation-developed, and experimentally-induced (i.e., OBX), intraspecies aggressive models, indicate that the distinctive types of aggressive behaviors displayed by these two murine models are accompanied by specific alterations in regional bioamine levels within the OT of these groups, relative to controls. These data suggest that the specific type of overt aggressive behavior demonstrated by these models may be causally related to the identified changes in bioamine concentrations in the forebrain regions of the CNS, in loci recognized to participate in environmental recognition and social processing activities.


Gassen, M., I. Lamensdorf, et al. (2003). "Attenuation of methamphetamine induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity by flupirtine: microdialysis study on dopamine release and free radical generation." J Neural Transm 110(2): 171-82.

            Flupirtine is a triaminopyridine derived centrally acting analgetic, which has been found to display neuroprotective effects in models of excitotoxic cell damage, global, and focal ischemia, but no direct interaction with any component of the N-methyl- d-aspartate (NMDA) and glutamate triggered Ca(2+)-channel. Additionally flupirtine shows potent antioxidant effects in isolated mitochondria and cell culture. Work in models of monoamine depletion and neuroleptic induced catalepsy in rats suggests a interaction of flupirtine with the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system as well. This prompted us to examine the effect of flupirtine on methamphetamine toxicity in mice and to investigate the influence on dopamine release and free radical formation in the rat striatum by microdialysis that may explain methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of C57-BL mice with flupirtine (4 x 10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the striatal dopamine loss after methamphetamine application (4 x 5 mg/kg). In rats, a single injection of 10 mg/kg flupirtine reduced the methamphetamine induced striatal dopamine release by almost 50%, as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Flupirtine, however, did not influence the increase of free radical formation after methamphetamine infusion, which was assayed after infusion of salicylic acid by quantification of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. This suggests that other mechanisms rather than dopamine metabolism and autoxidation, may contribute to methamphetamine neurotoxicity.


Gazi, L., S. A. Nickolls, et al. (2003). "Functional coupling of the human dopamine D(2) receptor with Galpha(i1), Galpha(i2), Galpha(i3) and Galpha(o) G proteins: evidence for agonist regulation of G protein selectivity." Br J Pharmacol 138(5): 775-86.

            1 The human dopamine D(2long) (D(2L)) receptor was expressed with four different G proteins in Sf9 cells using the baculovirus expression system. When co-expressed with G(i)/G(o) G proteins (G(i1)alpha, G(i2)alpha, G(i3)alpha, or G(o)alpha, plus Gbeta(1) and Ggamma(2)), the receptor displayed a high-affinity binding site for the agonists (dopamine and NPA), which was sensitive to GTP (100 micro M), demonstrating interaction between the receptor and the different G proteins. 2 The receptor to G protein ratio (R : G ratio) was evaluated using [(3)H]-spiperone saturation binding (R) and [(35)S]-GTPgammaS saturation binding (G). R : G ratios of 1 : 12, 1 : 3, 1 : 14 and 1 : 5 were found for G(i1), G(i2), G(i3), and G(o) preparations, respectively. However, when R : G ratios of 1 : 2 and 1 : 12 were compared for G(i2) and G(o), no difference was found for the stimulation of [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding. 3 Several agonists were tested for their ability to stimulate [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding to membranes co-expressing the receptor and various G proteins. All the compounds tested showed agonist activity in preparations expressing G(i3) and G(o). However, for G(i2) and G(i1) preparations, compounds such as S-(-)-3-PPP and p-tyramine were unable to stimulate [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding. 4 Most of the compounds showed higher relative efficacies (compared to dopamine) and higher potencies in the preparation expressing G(o). Comparison of the effects of different agonists in the different preparations showed that each agonist differentially activates the four G proteins. 5 We conclude that the degree of selectivity of G protein activation by the D(2L) receptor can depend on the conformation of the receptor stabilised by an agonist. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 138, 775-786. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705116


Gehrke, B. J., S. B. Harrod, et al. (2003). "The effect of neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine on methamphetamine-conditioned place preference in rats." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166(3): 249-57.

            RATIONALE. Methamphetamine has been shown to produce neurotoxicity demonstrated by depletions of dopamine and serotonin in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. OBJECTIVE. The current study examined the effects of neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine on the rewarding effect of subsequent administration of methamphetamine assessed by the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. METHODS. Male and female rats were treated with a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine (4x10 mg/kg, s.c., once every 2 h) or saline, and concentrations of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured 15 days later in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In another experiment, male rats were given methamphetamine neurotoxic treatment or saline and were then conditioned 7 days later with methamphetamine (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline using a four-trial CPP procedure. Locomotor activity was also measured during the conditioning sessions to investigate whether or not the neurotoxic methamphetamine treatment altered locomotor activity following a subsequent methamphetamine challenge. RESULTS. Males and females did not differ significantly in the amount of neurochemical depletion produced by methamphetamine in any brain region. Collapsed across sex, dopamine was significantly depleted in nucleus accumbens (25%) and striatum (51%); serotonin was significantly depleted in nucleus accumbens (35%), striatum (34%) and PFC (33%). The methamphetamine challenge dose dependently increased locomotor activity, but the increase was not affected by treatment with neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine. In contrast, treatment with neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine enhanced CPP at the intermediate conditioning dose (0.3 mg/kg). CONCLUSIONS. These results indicate that the rewarding effect of methamphetamine is enhanced by prior treatment with neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine, suggesting either a compensatory hyperfunctioning of spared dopamine neurons or a loss of inhibitory control from serotonergic input.


Geldenhuys, W. J., G. Terre'Blanche, et al. (2003). "Screening of novel pentacyclo-undecylamines for neuroprotective activity." Eur J Pharmacol 458(1-2): 73-9.

            A novel series of pentacyclo-undecylamines with 8-benzylamino-8,11-oxapentacyclo[,6).0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane (NGP1-01) as the lead compound was synthesised and screened for neuroprotective activity in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) parkinsonian mouse model. We hypothesise that these compounds may attenuate excitotoxic neuronal cell death mediated through the NMDA receptor (similar to memantine), and through calcium channel block. The pentacyclo-undecylamines (300 mg/kg) were administered to C57BL/6 mice 30 min before intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP administration (35 mg/kg). Striatal dopamine, 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid levels were analysed 10 days later by means of HPLC with electrochemical detection. Increased levels of DOPAC and homovanillic acid were observed when some of the test compounds were administered together with MPTP (compared to animals receiving only MPTP). One compound in the series, 8-phenylethylamino-8,11-oxapentacyclo[,6).0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane , attenuated MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion when compared to animals treated with MPTP only (p<0.05).


Gerdeman, G. L., J. G. Partridge, et al. (2003). "It could be habit forming: drugs of abuse and striatal synaptic plasticity." Trends Neurosci 26(4): 184-92.

            Drug addiction can take control of the brain and behavior, activating behavioral patterns that are directed excessively and compulsively toward drug usage. Such patterns often involve the development of repetitive and nearly automatic behaviors that we call habits. The striatum, a subcortical brain region important for proper motor function as well as for the formation of behavioral habits, is a major target for drugs of abuse. Here, we review recent studies of long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum, emphasizing that drugs of abuse can exert pronounced influences on these processes, both in the striatum and in the dopaminergic midbrain. Synaptic plasticity in the ventral striatum appears to play a prominent role in early stages of drug use, whereas dopamine- and endocannabinoid-dependent synaptic plasticity in the dorsal striatum could contribute to the formation of persistent drug-related habits when casual drug use progresses towards compulsive drug use and addiction.


Gerlach, M. and P. Riederer (2003). "[Current preclinical findings on substances against Parkinson's disease]." Nervenarzt 74 Suppl 1: S2-6.

            Striatal dopamine loss provides the premise for dopamine substitution in palliative therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD).This includes firstly L-dopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, levodopa) and dopamine receptor agonists. Although this therapy has been demonstrated to induce marked clinical improvement in the early stages of PD, its use is limited in the long term by a loss of efficacy.In addition, most patients develop the "long-term L-dopa syndrome," which is characterized by a decrease in the control of Parkinsonian symptoms (decrease in the drug's effect) and the appearance of certain motor disturbances including episodes of akinetic freezing, debilitating dyskinesias, and on-off periods.The aim in developing new drugs is to achieve better therapeutic approaches. In the case of PD, the main strategies are to develop (1) alternatives to L-dopa therapy for alleviating the striatal dopamine deficit while avoiding or retarding the long-term L-dopa syndrome, (2) antidyskinetic approaches, and (3) neuroprotective drugs aimed at causal treatment of PD which is able to preserve the remaining dopaminergic neurones and to halt or at least retard the disease process. This article reviews new approaches for the treatment of PD and presents findings from our studies using a new experimental in vivo model of PD.


Ghersi, C., A. Bonfanti, et al. (2003). "Pharmacological heterogeneity of release-regulating presynaptic AMPA/kainate receptors in the rat brain: study with receptor antagonists." Neurochem Int 42(4): 283-92.

            Presynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors mediating hippocampal [(3)H]noradrenaline or [(3)H]serotonin release, striatal [(3)H]dopamine release and cortical [(3)H]acetylcholine release were pharmacologically characterized using several AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists. The releases of the four transmitters elicited by exposing synaptosomes to AMPA were antagonized by NBQX, indicating that they reflect AMPA/kainate receptor activation. GYKI52466 did not inhibit the AMPA-induced release of [(3)H]noradrenaline, [(3)H]dopamine or [(3)H]serotonin, while it weakly affected the AMPA-mediated release of [(3)H]acetylcholine. On the contrary, LY300164 and LY303070 were potent antagonists able to discriminate among AMPA/kainate receptor subtypes. Both compounds blocked the AMPA receptors mediating [(3)H]dopamine and [(3)H]acetylcholine release. However, LY303070, but not LY300164, inhibited the AMPA-induced release of [(3)H]noradrenaline, while the AMPA-mediated [(3)H]serotonin release was sensitive to LY300164 but not to LY303070. SYM2206 mimicked LY300164 and prevented the AMPA-induced release of [(3)H]dopamine, [(3)H]acetylcholine and [(3)H]serotonin, but not that of [(3)H]noradrenaline. NS102 failed to antagonize the AMPA-induced release of all four transmitters. LY293558 prevented the AMPA-mediated release of [(3)H]noradrenaline, [(3)H]dopamine, [(3)H]acetylcholine or [(3)H]serotonin. Differently, LY377770 did not inhibit the AMPA-mediated release of [(3)H]noradrenaline and [(3)H]acetylcholine, but it potently blocked the AMPA-induced release of [(3)H]serotonin and, less so, of [(3)H]dopamine. AMOA inhibited the AMPA-induced release of [(3)H]serotonin or [(3)H]acetylcholine, but not that of [(3)H]noradrenaline or [(3)H]dopamine. GAMS prevented the AMPA-mediated release of [(3)H]acetylcholine and, more weakly, that of [(3)H]dopamine, but it failed to inhibit the release of [(3)H]noradrenaline or [(3)H]serotonin elicited by AMPA. gamma-DGG did not affect the AMPA-mediated release of any of the four transmitters studied. In conclusion, based on the antagonist profiles obtained, the four receptors here analyzed all belong to the AMPA-preferring subclass of glutamate receptors; however, they appear to differ from each other, probably due to differences in subunit composition. The compounds LY300164, LY303070, LY377770, AMOA and GAMS may be useful to discriminate among AMPA-preferring receptor subtypes.


Ghibaudi, E., E. Laurenti, et al. (2003). "Organic and inorganic substrates as probes for comparing native bovine lactoperoxidase and recombinant human myeloperoxidase." J Inorg Biochem 94(1-2): 146-54.

            The interaction of native bovine lactoperoxidase (nbLPO) with four substrates has been studied and compared with that of recombinant human myeloperoxidase (rhMPO). Kinetic, spectroscopic and binding parameters extrapolated for each enzyme-substrate adduct have been interpreted in the light of the structural data available for myeloperoxidase (X-ray structure) and lactoperoxidase (3D-model), respectively. The differences in the reactivity and affinity of nbLPO and rhMPO towards SCN(-), catechol, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid are here discussed and related to a different structure of the organic substrate access channel as well as to a different accessibility of the heme pocket in the two enzymes.


Ghorai, S. K., C. Cook, et al. (2003). "High affinity hydroxypiperidine analogues of 4-(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)piperidine for the dopamine transporter: stereospecific interactions in vitro and in vivo." J Med Chem 46(7): 1220-8.

            In our effort to develop high-affinity ligands for the dopamine transporter which might find potential use as cocaine medication, a polar hydroxy substituent was introduced into the piperidine ring of one of our disubstituted lead analogues derived from 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)-ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR 12935). Both cis- and trans-3-hydroxy derivatives were synthesized and the racemic trans isomer, (+/-)-5, was further resolved into two enantiomers. Newly synthesized compounds were characterized for their binding affinity at the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporter systems in rat brain. The two enantiomers (+)-5 and (-)-5 exhibited marked differential affinities at the dopamine transporter with (+)-5 being 122-fold more potent than (-)-5 in inhibiting radiolabeled cocaine analogue binding (IC(50); 0.46 vs 56.7 nM) and 9-fold more active for inhibiting dopamine uptake (IC(50); 4.05 vs 38.0 nM). Furthermore, the most active (+)-5 was 22-fold more potent at the dopamine transporter compared to the standard GBR 12909. Absolute configuration of one of the enantiomers was determined unambiguously by X-ray structural analysis. In in vivo locomotor activity studies, the enantiomer (+)-5 and the racemic (+/-)-5, but not (-)-5, exhibited stimulant activity with a long duration of effect. All three compounds, (+)-5, (-)-5, and (+/-)-5, within the dose range tested, partially (50%) but incompletely (80%) produced cocaine-like responses in mice trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg ip cocaine from vehicle. Compound (-)-5 was distinctive in this regard in that, unlike (+)-5 and (+/-)-5, it did not affect locomotor activity yet, but similar to them, was able to engender (albeit incompletely) cocaine-like responses.


Gil Verona, J. A., J. F. Pastor, et al. (2003). "[Neurobiology of addiction to drugs of abuse]." Rev Neurol 36(4): 361-5.

            OBJECTIVE. In this review we study drug addiction from a neurobiological point of view, emphasizing the dopamine hypothesis. This is basic to explain how a genetic feature is related with an alteration of this neurotransmitter and can connect with environmental factors to develop the addiction problem. Development. Toxic addiction is defined as the physical or psychophysiological dependence on a special chemical substance, whose suppression arouses deprivation symptoms in the person. The study of addiction to different drugs gives us a new approach for knowing the strengthening systems. Because even thought we do not know precisely the nervous mechanism of these substances that cause pleasure, we suppose that they are in the same place as rewarding and strengthening the behaviour mechanisms. In this way the dopamine hypothesis has been developed: in this hypothesis drug addiction is closely connected with a genetic upset of this neurotransmitter, so there is a defect in the reward system. This in turn stimulates the substance abuse that increases the brain s dopamine levels. CONCLUSION. Knowing the neurobiological mechanisms involved in addiction and its relation with dopamine and the reward system can help us understand that problem and aid the rational development of treatment


Gilbert, D. L., L. Dure, et al. (2003). "Tic reduction with pergolide in a randomized controlled trial in children." Neurology 60(4): 606-11.

            OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pergolide, a mixed D1/D2/D3 dopamine agonist, is efficacious and safe in the treatment of children with chronic tic disorders and Tourette syndrome. BACKGROUND: Neuroleptics, which block dopamine transmission, are currently used to treat children with severe tics, but major side effects and limited efficacy reduce clinical utility. Prior open-label and crossover studies of pergolide suggest potential benefit. METHODS: The authors enrolled 57 children and adolescents, ages 7 to 17 years, randomizing them in a 2:1 ratio to either pergolide (0.15 to 0.45 mg per day) or placebo. Tic symptoms had to be >30 on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). The primary outcome measure was change in tic severity assessed by YGTSS. RESULTS: Compared to placebo treatment, pergolide treatment was associated with lower tic severity scores (treatment effect 8.8, pergolide vs placebo; 95% CI 0.1 to 17.6; p = 0.05) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms scores (treatment effect 3.8; 95% CI 0.7 to 6.8; p = 0.02). No patient had a serious adverse event and pergolide was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, pergolide appeared to be an efficacious and safe medication for tic reduction in children, and may also improve attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms.


Gill, S. S., N. K. Patel, et al. (2003). "Direct brain infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson disease." Nat Med.

            Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor with restorative effects in a wide variety of rodent and primate models of Parkinson disease, but penetration into brain tissue from either the blood or the cerebro-spinal fluid is limited. Here we delivered GDNF directly into the putamen of five Parkinson patients in a phase 1 safety trial. One catheter needed to be repositioned and there were changes in the magnetic resonance images that disappeared after lowering the concentration of GDNF. After one year, there were no serious clinical side effects, a 39% improvement in the off-medication motor sub-score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and a 61% improvement in the activities of daily living sub-score. Medication-induced dyskinesias were reduced by 64% and were not observed off medication during chronic GDNF delivery. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans of [(18)F]dopamine uptake showed a significant 28% increase in putamen dopamine storage after 18 months, suggesting a direct effect of GDNF on dopamine function. This study warrants careful examination of GDNF as a treatment for Parkinson disease.


Giner, V., D. Rueda, et al. (2003). "Thrombocytopenia associated with levodopa treatment." Arch Intern Med 163(6): 735-6.


Ginovart, N., A. A. Wilson, et al. (2003). "[11C]-DASB, a tool for in vivo measurement of SSRI-induced occupancy of the serotonin transporter: PET characterization and evaluation in cats." Synapse 47(2): 123-33.

            The in vivo pharmacological profile of [(11)C]-DASB, a new radioligand developed for in vivo imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT), was evaluated in the cat brain using positron emission tomography (PET). The in vivo distribution of [(11)C]-DASB binding was consistent with the known distribution of SERT sites in the cat brain in vitro with high uptakes of radioactivity in the midbrain and thalamus, intermediate levels in striatum, and modest to low levels of radioactivity in the neocortex and cerebellum, respectively. [(11)C]-DASB binding potential (BP) values ranged from about 0.2 in the neocortex to 2.2 in the midbrain. Radioligand binding in all brain regions except cerebellum was markedly reduced following pretreatment with fluoxetine and citalopram, but was unaffected by pretreatment with GBR12909, maprotiline, and haloperidol, indicating specificity of [(11)C]-DASB binding to the SERT. Two cats were each examined using PET and [(11)C]-DASB in a longitudinal fashion (from 30 min and up to 24 days) following a single i.v. dose of: 1) fluoxetine, and 2) citalopram at different dosages. Both drugs induced similar degrees of SERT occupancy at 30 min postinjection (approximately 90%). A comparison of citalopram and fluoxetine pharmacokinetics in the same animal and at the same dosage (1 mg/kg) showed that citalopram SERT occupancy and plasma half-lives were 9 times and 14 times shorter, respectively, than those of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine. In addition, studies performed after injection of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine suggested that high levels of synaptic serotonin may compete with [(11)C]-DASB for binding on the SERT. These studies indicate that [(11)C]-DASB is a suitable PET radioligand for measuring drug occupancy of the SERT in vivo and has potential for monitoring in vivo changes in serotonin levels.


Goerendt, I. K., C. Messa, et al. (2003). "Dopamine release during sequential finger movements in health and Parkinson's disease: a PET study." Brain 126(Pt 2): 312-25.

            Parkinson's disease is associated with slowness, especially of sequential movements, and is characterized pathologically by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, particularly targeting nigrostriatal projections. In turn, nigrostriatal dopamine has been suggested to be critical for the execution of sequential movements. The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo, with [(11)C]raclopride, PET changes in regional brain levels of dopamine in healthy volunteers and Parkinson's disease patients during the execution of paced, stereotyped sequential finger movements. Striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding reflects dopamine D(2) receptor availability and is influenced by synaptic levels of endogenous dopamine. During execution of a pre-learned sequence of finger movements, a significant reduction in binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride was seen in both caudate and putamen in healthy volunteers compared with a resting baseline, consistent with release of endogenous dopamine. Parkinson's disease patients also showed attenuated [(11)C]raclopride BP reductions during the same motor paradigm in striatal areas less affected by the disease process. These findings confirm that striatal dopamine release is a component of movement sequencing and show that dopamine release can be detected in early Parkinson's disease during a behavioural manipulation.


Goggi, J., I. A. Pullar, et al. (2003). "Signalling pathways involved in the short-term potentiation of dopamine release by BDNF." Brain Res 968(1): 156-61.

            Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to modulate synaptic plasticity in the corpus striatum in vitro by activation of the tyrosine kinase linked receptor, TrkB. However, the signalling pathways that mediate this modulation of plasticity are poorly understood. Three proteins mediating signalling pathways are activated by the binding of BDNF to TrkB: phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K); Ras-MEK and phospholipase C-gamma (PLCgamma). The present study investigates which of these pathways are necessary for BDNF-mediated potentiation of synaptic output of dopamine from slices and synaptosomes of rat corpus striatum. The results indicate that activation of the PI3K and Ras-MEK pathways, but not PLCgamma, are involved. Inhibitors of transcription and translation had no effect on the potentiation of depolarisation-stimulated (15 mM KCl) dopamine release mediated by BDNF.


Goldstein, D. S., G. F. Eisenhofer, et al. (2003). "Sources and Significance of Plasma Levels of Catechols and Their Metabolites in Humans." J Pharmacol Exp Ther.

            Human plasma contains several catechols, including the catecholamines, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine; their precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); and their deaminated metabolites, dihydroxyphenylglycol, the main neuronal metabolite of norepinephrine, and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, a deaminated metabolite of dopamine. Products of metabolism of catechols include 3-methoxytyrosine (from L-DOPA), homovanillic acid and dopamine sulfate (from dopamine), normetanephrine, vanillylmandelic acid, and methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (from norepinephrine), and metanephrine (from epinephrine). Plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites have related but distinct sources and therefore reflect different functions of catecholamine systems. This review provides an update about plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites and the relevance of those levels to some issues in human health and disease.


Gomes, P. and P. Soares-Da-Silva (2003). "Dopamine D(2)-like receptor-mediated opening of K(+) channels in opossum kidney cells." Br J Pharmacol 138(5): 968-76.

            1 This study examined the effects of dopamine D(1)- and D(2)-like receptor activation upon basolateral K(+) (I(K)) currents and changes in membrane potential in opossum kidney (OK) cells. 2 The addition of amphotericin B (3 micro g ml(-1)) to the apical side resulted in a rapid increase in I(K), this effect being markedly inhibited by the addition of the K(+) channel blockers barium chloride (1 mM) or glibenclamide (10 micro M), but not apamin (1 micro M). The K(+) channel opener pinacidil increased the amphotericin B-induced I(K). The selective D(2)-like receptor agonist quinerolane increased, in a concentration dependent manner (EC(50)=136 nM), I(K) across the basolateral membrane, this effect being abolished by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), S-sulpiride (selective D(2)-like receptor antagonist) and glibenclamide. The selective D(1)-like receptor agonist SKF 38393 did not change I(K). Both H-89 (PKA inhibitor) and chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor) failed to prevent the stimulatory effect of quinerolane upon I(K). 3 Quinerolane did not change basal levels of cyclic AMP and also failed to affect the forskolin-induced increase in cyclic AMP levels. 4 The stimulation of D(2)-like receptor was associated with a rapid hyperpolarizing effect, whereas D(1)-like receptor activation was accompanied by increases in cell membrane potential. The hyperpolarizing effect of quinerolane (EC(50)=129 nM) was prevented by pre-treatment with PTX, S-sulpiride and glibenclamide. 5 It is concluded that stimulation of dopamine D(2)-like, but not D(1)-like, receptors coupled to PTX-sensitive G proteins of the G(i/o) class produce membrane hyperpolarization through opening of K(ATP) channels. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 138, 968-976. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705125


Gomez-Isla, T., M. C. Irizarry, et al. (2003). "Motor dysfunction and gliosis with preserved dopaminergic markers in human alpha-synuclein A30P transgenic mice." Neurobiol Aging 24(2): 245-58.

            Alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) in the substantia nigra and cortex in Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and in glial inclusions in multiple systems atrophy (MSA). Mutations in alpha-synuclein have been associated with autosomal dominant forms of PD. We investigated the clinical and neuropathological effects of overexpression of human alpha-synuclein, alpha-synuclein A30P, and alpha-synuclein A53T under the control of the hamster prion protein (PrP) promoter; 5-15x endogenous levels of protein expression were achieved with widespread neuronal, including nigral, transgene expression. High expression of alpha-synuclein A30P in the Tg5093 line was associated with a progressive motor disorder with rigidity, dystonia, gait impairment, and tremor. Histological analysis of this line showed aberrant expression of the protein in cell soma and progressive CNS gliosis, but no discrete Lewy body-like alpha-synuclein inclusions could be identified. Biochemical analysis demonstrated alpha-synuclein fragmentation. Despite strong expression of the transgene in the nigra, there was no specific deterioration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as assessed by quantitation of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) containing neurons, striatal TH immunoreactivity, dopamine levels, or dopamine receptor number and function. Lower expressing lines had no specific behavioral or histopathological phenotype. Thus, high expression of mutant human alpha-synuclein resulted in a progressive motor and widespread CNS gliotic phenotype independent of dopaminergic dysfunction in the Tg5093 line.


Gonul, A. S., M. Kula, et al. (2003). "Tc-99 HMPAO SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in olanzapine-treated schizophrenic patients." Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 253(1): 29-33.

            Dopamine D(2) blocking typical antipsychotic drugs are known to change the cerebral perfusion patterns of schizophrenic patients, especially in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. In recent years atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine, which have high serotonin 5-HT(2A)/dopamine D(2) occupation ratios, have been shown to be more effective in the treatment of schizophrenia symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine in a within-subject design. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia participated as subjects in the study. Each subject was scanned in a medication-free state and after 6 weeks of 10 mg/day fixed dose olanzapine treatment. Despite the clinical improvement seen in the patients, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that olanzapine produced no significant changes in cortical rCBF after the six-week treatment. This finding indicates that unlike typical antipsychotics olanzapine has no negative effect on cortical cerebral perfusion patterns of schizophrenic patients.


Gonzalez, C., M. A. Rocher, et al. (2003). "[Arterial chemoreceptors: cellular and molecular mechanisms in the adaptative and homeostatic function of the carotid body]." Rev Neurol 36(1): 239-54.

            The carotid body is a sensory chemoreceptor organ located in the vicinity of the carotid bifurcation. Structurally it is composed of cell clusters formed by chemoreceptor and supporting cells. The sensory nerve endings of the carotid sinus nerve penetrate the clusters to synapse with chemoreceptor cells. The carotid body plays an important role in the control of ventilation during hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis. Hypoxia and other natural stimuli are detected by chemoreceptor cells which upon stimulation increase their rate of release of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters in turn increase the action potential frequency in the carotid sinus nerve which via its central projections to the brainstem activates ventilation. This review is devoted to the cellular aspects of the function of this chemoreceptor organ. From a brief description of the complex structure of the carotid body, we go to present a summary of the main prevailing theories concerning the transduction mechanisms for hypoxic and acidic/hypercapnic stimuli, with special emphasis on the electrical properties of cultured chemoreceptors cells. A special attention is provided to the possible significance of reactive oxygen species as mediators of the hypoxic transduction cascade. The neurotransmission between chemoreceptor cells and the sensory nerve endings is also covered in certain detail. After a brief historical presentation of the theories of communication between these two structures, we examine, following the classical criteria of neurotransmission, the functional significance of acetylcholine, dopamine, substance P and other neurotransmitters known to be present in chemoreceptor cells.


Gonzalez-Islas, C. and J. J. Hablitz (2003). "Dopamine enhances EPSCs in layer II-III pyramidal neurons in rat prefrontal cortex." J Neurosci 23(3): 867-75.

            Dopaminergic inputs to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are important for the integration of neuronal signals, the formation of working memory, and the establishment of memory fields. A detailed characterization of cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of dopamine on PFC is still emerging. We have examined how dopamine affects excitatory synaptic transmission in the PFC using whole-cell patch-clamp recording from visually identified layer II-III pyramidal cells in vitro. Bath application of dopamine significantly enhanced EPSC amplitudes. Pharmacologically isolated AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs were increased to a similar extent. Application of the specific D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 [(+/-)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol hydrobromide] significantly increased EPSC amplitude, whereas the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole had no effect. Responses to pressure-applied glutamate were also enhanced by dopamine, indicating a postsynaptic mechanism. Inclusion of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA in the recording pipette blocked the dopamine enhancement. When the PKA inhibitory peptide PKI [5-24] was included in the recording pipette, dopamine did not affect EPSCs. Similarly, when the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitory peptide was present in the pipette, dopamine enhancement of EPSCs was not observed in any of the cells tested. These results indicate that EPSC enhancement may be attributable to a postsynaptic signaling cascade involving Ca(2+), PKA, and CaMKII.


Goodman, M. M., P. Chen, et al. (2003). "Synthesis and characterization of iodine-123 labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane. A ligand for in vivo imaging of serotonin transporters by single-photon-emission tomography." J Med Chem 46(6): 925-35.

            2beta-Carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane (ZIENT) (6) and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-((E)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane (EIENT) (10) were prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for serotonin transporter (SERT) selectivity and specificity. High specific activity [(123)I]ZIENT and [(123)I]EIENT were synthesized in 45% (n = 5) and 42% (n = 4) radiochemical yield (decay-corrected to end of bombardment (EOB)), respectively, by preparation of the precursor carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-((Z)-2-trimethylstannylethenyl)phenyl)nortropane (7) and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-((E)-2-tributylstannylethenyl)phenyl)nortropa ne (9), respectively, followed by treatment with no carrier-added sodium [(123)I]iodide and hydrogen peroxide in ethanolic HCl. Competition binding in cells stably expressing the transfected human SERT, dopamine transporter (DAT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) using [(3)H]citalopram, [(3)H]WIN 35,428, and [(3)H]nisoxetine, respectively, demonstrated the following order of SERT affinity (K(i) in nM): ZIENT (0.05) > nor-CIT (0.12) >> EIENT (1.15) > fluvoxamine (1.46). The affinity of ZIENT and EIENT for DAT was 69 and 1.6-fold lower, respectively, than for SERT. In vivo biodistribution and blocking studies were performed in male rats and demonstrated that the brain uptake of [(123)I]ZIENT was selective and specific for SERT-rich regions (hypothalamus, striatum, pons, and prefrontal cortex). SPECT brain imaging studies in monkeys demonstrated high [(123)I]ZIENT uptake in the diencephalon, which resulted in diencephalon-to-cerebellum ratios of 2.12 at 190 min. [(123)I]ZIENT uptake in the diencephalon achieved transient equilibrium at 157 min. In a displacement experiment of [(123)I]ZIENT in a cynomolgus monkey, radioactivity was reduced by 39% in the diencephalon at 101 min following injection of citalopram. The high specific activity one-step radiolabeling preparation and high selectivity of [(123)I]ZIENT for SERT support its candidacy as a radioligand for mapping brain SERT sites.


Goodwin, A. K., D. M. Pynnonen, et al. (2003). "Serotonergic-dopaminergic mediation of MDMA's discriminative stimulus effects in a three-choice discrimination." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74(4): 987-95.

            (+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") is a common drug of abuse that is often described as both a psychostimulant and a hallucinogen. Two-choice drug discriminations (i.e. drug vs. nondrug) in nonhumans comparing the discriminative stimulus properties of MDMA to psychostimulants or hallucinogens have produced somewhat inconsistent findings. The relative contribution of serotonergic versus dopaminergic actions to MDMA's discriminative stimulus effects may depend on the training stimulus conditions employed. We have previously demonstrated that rats can learn to discriminate the effects of MDMA and D-amphetamine in a three-choice drug discrimination procedure, and that LSD produced nearly complete substitution for MDMA under these conditions, and fenfluramine fully substituted for MDMA. In the present study, 12 rats were trained to discriminate LSD (0.08 mg/kg) and MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) from saline in a three-choice drug discrimination procedure under a fixed-ratio (FR) 10 schedule of food reinforcement. D-Amphetamine produced only partial substitution for MDMA while fenfluramine produced complete stimulus generalization. Low doses of D-amphetamine and fenfluramine produced greater stimulus generalization when administered in combination than when given alone. The serontonin(2) antagonist MDL-100,907 only partially blocked the MDMA cue, but completely antagonized LSD discrimination. The dopamine antagonist haloperidol also failed to block MDMA discrimination. These results indicate that 5-HT release is a salient feature to MDMA's discriminative stimulus effects but that MDMA produces a compound discriminative stimulus.


Gorwood, P., F. Limosin, et al. (2003). "The A9 allele of the dopamine transporter gene is associated with delirium tremens and alcohol-withdrawal seizure." Biol Psychiatry 53(1): 85-92.

            The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in homeostatic regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and could thus be involved in the variability of two severe alcohol-withdrawal symptoms, alcohol-withdrawal seizure (AWS) and delirium tremens (DT). Interestingly, an association was found between the DAT gene (9-copy repeat) and the risk for these symptoms in two previous case-control studies.We reanalyzed the role of the DAT gene in the lifetime risk for AWS and DT in 120 alcohol-dependent patients, taking into account potentially confounding factors.Alcohol-dependent patients with the A(9) allele had experienced AWS or DT at least once (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52, p =.03). This association persisted when excluding patients with antisocial personality comorbidity (OR = 3.48, p =.02) or limiting the analysis to older patients (OR = 8.3, p =.0008).This study provides convergent data in favor of a significant role of the DAT gene in the risk for some severe withdrawal symptoms. If further replicated in larger samples, the DAT genetic polymorphism could be one of the factors to be analyzed to further assess the risk of some severe alcohol-withdrawal symptoms.


Goth, M. I., E. Hubina, et al. (2003). "Physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the endocrine system." Microsc Res Tech 60(1): 98-106.

            Formation of new blood vessels occurs in many physiological states (during development of the embryo, cycling changes of the female reproductive tract), as well as in pathological processes (such as diabetic retinopathy and wound healing). Angiogenesis has been shown to be related to tumor formation, prognosis, and response to treatment in many tumor types. Intratumoral microvessels can be related to tumor behavior or hormone secretion in different endocrine tumors. For example, invasive prolactinomas are more vascular than noninvasive adenomas; a surgical approach is more successful in macroprolactinomas with lower microvessel density. A higher number of microvessels have been found in papillary thyroid carcinomas during recurrences. A correlation between microvessel count and prognosis in papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas has been suggested. Several stimulating and inhibiting factors involved in the regulation of angiogenesis have been identified. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be critically involved in angiogenesis and also in the neovascularization of solid tumors. Dopamine agonists (already in clinical use for prolactinomas) have potent inhibitory actions on VEGF signaling, and thus may be a new tool in antiangiogenic therapy. Secretion of VEGF in the great majority of human pituitary adenomas is inhibited by dexamethasone. This suggests that glucocorticoids can be considered in the treatment of certain pituitary tumors. The cyclic nature of angiogenesis in the female reproductive tract indicates that stimulation or inhibition of paracrine angiogenic factors may lead to new approaches for being able to influence reproductive endocrine disorders. Experimental and clinical aspects of interactions between angiogenic factors and tumor growth of the endocrine system are also discussed.


Gourgiotis, L., N. J. Sarlis, et al. (2003). "Localization of medullary thyroid carcinoma metastasis in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A patient by 6-[18F]-fluorodopamine positron emission tomography." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(2): 637-41.

            6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine, a substrate for the norepinephrine transporter, has been used as a tumor-seeking tracer in positron emission tomography (PET) to localize pheochromocytomas and other chromaffin tumors. Here, we report the case of a 42-yr-old woman with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, in whom biopsy-proven recurrent medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) was detected by 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine PET scanning. The patient had previously undergone bilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma, total thyroidectomy, and extirpation of a parapharyngeal MTC metastatic deposit. An increase in plasma calcitonin 5 yr after her initial presentation was further investigated, leading to the discovery of a mass in the left parapharyngeal space. Levels of serum and urine catecholamines and metanephrines were normal. To exclude a hormonally silent pheochromocytoma metastasis, 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine PET was performed. The study showed a focus of radionuclide accumulation corresponding to the parapharyngeal mass. After resection of the latter, pathology confirmed metastatic MTC. To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic, histologically proven MTC, which was unequivocally detected by 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine PET scanning. Because norepinephrine transporter systems have been previously found in MTC, it is conceivable that 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine PET scanning can be used for the diagnostic localization of this tumor and its metastatic deposits because total and early resection is beneficial to the outcome of the patient.


Goyagi, T., A. Bhardwaj, et al. (2003). "Potent sigma 1-receptor ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine provides ischemic neuroprotection without altering dopamine accumulation in vivo in rats." Anesth Analg 96(2): 532-8, table of contents.

            The in vivo signaling of ischemic neuroprotection provided by sigma-receptor ligands remains unclear. Catecholamines have been implicated in the propagation of ischemic neuronal injury, and previous in vitro studies suggest that sigma ligands modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the potent sigma(1)-receptor ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) attenuates the increase of extracellular dopamine in ischemic striatum. Under controlled physiological conditions, a microdialysis probe was implanted in right caudoputamen (CP) complex of adult male Wistar rats. Rats were subjected to 2 h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by the intraluminal suture technique. In a blinded, randomized fashion, rats were divided into five treatment groups: Group 1 (n = 8; saline-saline) continuous i.v. infusion of saline vehicle 30 min before MCAO followed by saline at reperfusion until the end of the experiment; Group 2 (n = 8; PPBP-PPBP) i.v. PPBP 30 min before MCAO followed by 1 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) of PPBP; Group 3 (n = 8; saline-PPBP) i.v. saline before MCAO followed by PPBP; Group 4 (n = 4) surgical shams (saline-saline); and Group 5 (n = 4) surgical shams (PPBP-PPBP). Infarction volume at 22 h of reperfusion in the CP complex (percentage of ipsilateral structure) was significantly attenuated in rats treated with PPBP-PPBP (27.3% +/- 9.1%) and saline-PPBP (27.8% +/- 12.7%) compared with saline-saline (59.3% +/- 7.3%) treatment. There was a three- to fourfold increase in dopamine concentrations in the microdialysates within 40 min of the onset of MCAO. Dopamine and its metabolites dihydroxy phenylacetic acid and homovallinic acid levels were similar among the three groups subjected to MCAO. Therefore, PPBP provides significant ischemic neuroprotection in the CP complex without altering the acute accumulation of dopamine in vivo during transient focal ischemia in the rat.


Granas, C., J. Ferrer, et al. (2003). "N-terminal truncation of the dopamine transporter abolishes phorbol ester- and substance P receptor-stimulated phosphorylation without impairing transporter internalization." J Biol Chem 278(7): 4990-5000.

            The structural basis of phosphorylation and its putative role in internalization were investigated in the human dopamine transporter (hDAT). Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was achieved either directly by treatment with 4-alpha-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by activating the Galpha(q)-coupled human substance P receptor (hNK-1) co-expressed with hDAT in HEK293 cells and in N2A neuroblastoma cells. In both cell lines, activation of the hNK-1 receptor by substance P reduced the V(max) for [(3)H]dopamine uptake to the same degree as did PMA ( approximately 50 and approximately 20% in HEK293 and N2A cells, respectively). In HEK293 cells, the reduction in transport capacity could be accounted for by internalization of the transporter, as assessed by cell surface biotinylation experiments, and by fluorescence microscopy using enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged hDAT. In HEK293 cells, hNK-1 receptor activation, as well as direct PKC activation by PMA, was accompanied by a marked increase in transporter phosphorylation. However, truncation of the first 22 N-terminal residues almost abolished detectable phosphorylation without affecting the SP- or PMA-induced reduction in transport capacity and internalization. In this background truncation construct, systematic mutation of all the phosphorylation consensus serines and threonines in hDAT, alone and in various combinations, did also not alter the effect of hNK-1 receptor activation or PMA treatment in either HEK293 or N2A cells. Mutation of a dileucine and of two tyrosine-based motifs in hDAT was similarly without effect. We conclude that the major phosphorylation sites in hDAT are within the distal N terminus, which contains several serines. Moreover, the present data strongly suggest that neither this phosphorylation, nor the phosphorylation of any other sites within hDAT, is required for either receptor-mediated or direct PKC-mediated internalization of the hDAT.


Grayling, M. and C. D. Deakin (2003). "Methylene blue during cardiopulmonary bypass to treat refractory hypotension in septic endocarditis." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125(2): 426-7.


Gregerson (2003). "Functional Expression of the Dopamine-Activated K(+) Current in Lactotrophs During the Estrous Cycle in Female Rats: Correlation with Prolactin Secretory Responses." Endocrine 20(1-2): 67-74.

            It is well established that hypothalamic dopamine (DA) is the major physiologic regulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion, exerting a tonic inhibition throughout most of the estrous cycle. A dramatic drop in the amount of DA perfusing the anterior pituitary occurs in the afternoon of proestrus and is critical for the production of the surge of PRL that occurs at that time. In my laboratory, we have identified and characterized a DAactivated K(+) channel (K(DA)) in lactotrophs derived from proestrous rats that underlies DA-induced membrane hyperpolarization of lactotrophs. We have also demonstrated that this hyperpolarization plays a critical role in both the inhibition of PRL release from proestrous cells and the PRL secretory rebound that occurs following DA withdrawal. We now report that the ability of DA to activate the K(DA) channel and elicit hyperpolarization in primary lactotrophs changes dramatically during the estrous cycle. Lactotrophs isolated from cycling female rats were studied using whole-cell voltage clamp. DA (1 &mgr;M) elicited a robust membrane K(+) current in the majority of proestrous lactotrophs (86%; 24.0 +/- 2.9 pA). By contrast, DA activated a considerably smaller membrane current (3.3 pA) in very few lactotrophs isolated from rats on either diestrus or estrus (8 and 0%, respectively). Using a perifusion system to examine temporal patterns of PRL release, we found that following application and withdrawal of DA, proestrous cells produced a robust secretory rebound, but diestrous and estrous cells did not. However, DA inhibited PRL release to the same extent regardless the stage of the cycle from which the cells were derived. These data are consistent with the presence of multiple DA effectors in lactotrophs and demonstrate that their relative importance shifts dramatically with changes in the endocrine status of the animal. We propose that the DA-activated K(+) channel (K(DA)) is a critical effector governing the unique secretory profile of PRL observed in proestrous animals.


Greiner, E., T. Prisinzano, et al. (2003). "Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Highly Selective Inhibitors of the Dopamine Transporter: N-Benzylpiperidine Analogues of 1-[2-[Bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine." J Med Chem 46(8): 1465-1469.

            A series of 4-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl-1-benzylpiperidines were examined for their ability to bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Binding results indicated that the presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the C(4)-position of the N-benzyl group is beneficial for binding to the DAT. Several analogues have been identified with high affinity for the DAT, up to 500-fold selectivity over the SERT and about 170-fold selectivity over the NET in binding and uptake inhibition assays.


Grimm, J. W., L. Lu, et al. (2003). "Time-dependent increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels within the mesolimbic dopamine system after withdrawal from cocaine: implications for incubation of cocaine craving." J Neurosci 23(3): 742-7.

            Using a rat model of drug craving, we found that the responsiveness to cocaine cues progressively increases or incubates over the first 60 d of cocaine withdrawal. Here we studied whether alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels within the mesolimbic dopamine system are associated with this incubation phenomenon. BDNF is involved in synaptic plasticity and was found to enhance responding for cues associated with natural rewards. Rats were trained to press a lever to receive intravenous cocaine or oral sucrose for 6 hr/d for 10 d; each earned reward was paired with a tone-light cue. Resumption of lever-pressing behavior was then assessed on days 1, 30, or 90 of reward withdrawal. First, resistance to extinction was assessed during 6 hr in which lever presses were not reinforced and the cue was absent. Second, cue-induced reinstatement was assessed after extinction during 1 hr in which responding led to cue presentations. Other rats were killed without testing on days 1, 30, and 90 of reward withdrawal, and BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels were measured in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), accumbens, and amygdala. Lever pressing during extinction and cue-induced reinstatement tests of cocaine craving progressively increased after cocaine withdrawal. Time-dependent changes also were observed during the tests for sucrose craving, with maximal responding on day 30. BDNF, but not NGF, levels in the VTA, accumbens, and amygdala progressively increased after cocaine, but not sucrose, withdrawal. Time-dependent increases in BDNF levels may lead to synaptic modifications that underlie enhanced responsiveness to cocaine cues after prolonged withdrawal periods.


Grondin, R., W. A. Cass, et al. (2003). "Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor increases stimulus-evoked dopamine release and motor speed in aged rhesus monkeys." J Neurosci 23(5): 1974-80.

            Changes in the functional dynamics of dopamine release and regulation in the basal ganglia have been posited to contribute to age-related slowing of motor functions. Here, we report the effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the stimulus-evoked release of dopamine and motor speed in aged monkeys (21-27 years of age; n = 10). Although no changes were observed in the vehicle controls (n = 5), chronic infusions of 7.5 microg of GDNF per day for 2 months into the right lateral ventricle initially increased hand movement speed up to 40% on an automated hand-reach task. These effects were maintained for at least 2 months after replacing GDNF with vehicle, and increased up to another 10% after the reinstatement of GDNF treatment for 1 month. In addition, upper-limb motor performance times of the aged GDNF-treated animals (n = 5) recorded at the end of the study were similar to those of five young adult monkeys (8-12 years of age). The stimulus-evoked release of dopamine was significantly increased, up to 130% in the right caudate nucleus and putamen and up to 116% in both the right and left substantia nigra of the aged GDNF recipients compared with vehicle controls. Also, basal extracellular levels of dopamine were bilaterally increased, up to 163% in the substantia nigra of the aged GDNF-treated animals. The data suggest that the effects of GDNF on the release of dopamine in the basal ganglia may be responsible for the improvements in motor functions and support the hypothesis that functional changes in dopamine release may contribute to motor dysfunctions characterizing senescence.


Gross, C. E., P. Ravenscroft, et al. (2003). "Pattern of levodopa-induced striatal changes is different in normal and MPTP-lesioned mice." J Neurochem 84(6): 1246-55.

            While levodopa-induced neurochemical changes have been studied in animal models of Parkinson's disease, very little is known regarding the effects of levodopa administration in normal animals. The present study investigates the effects normal and MPTP-lesioned mice chronically treated with two different doses of levodopa. We assess changes in striatal dopamine (DA) receptor binding, striatal DA receptor mRNA levels and striatal neuropeptide precursor levels (preproenkephalin-A [PPE-A]; preprotachykinin [PPT]; preproenkephalin-B [PPE-B]). The extent of the lesion was measured by striatal DA transporter binding and stereological estimation of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In non-lesioned animals, chronic levodopa treatment induced an increase in PPE-A mRNA, whereas both D3R binding and PPE-B mRNA levels were dramatically increased in the lesioned animals in a dose dependent manner. The present results show that chronic levodopa administration may induce pathophysiological changes, even in the absence of a lesion of the nigro-striatal pathway, suggesting that the sensitization process involves predominantly the indirect striatofugal pathway in non-lesioned animals, whereas the direct pathway is primarily involved in lesioned animals.


Grove, K. L., S. Allen, et al. (2003). "Postnatal development of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y system." Neuroscience 116(2): 393-406.

            In the adult rat, arcuate-neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons have efferent projections throughout the hypothalamus and provide a potent orexigenic stimulus. At birth neuropeptide Y fibers are also present throughout the hypothalamus; however, the source of these fibers has been unknown. The present studies determined the postnatal ontogeny of arcuate-neuropeptide Y fibers into the paraventricular nucleus and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, as well as the ontogeny of neuropeptide Y1 receptor expression within these areas. Agouti-related protein messenger RNA and protein expression was present exclusively in cell bodies in the arcuate throughout postnatal development, starting at P2, and was colocalized in the vast majority of arcuate-neuropeptide Y neurons. This exclusive colocalization of agouti-related protein with arcuate-neuropeptide Y neurons makes it an excellent marker for these neurons and their projections. Even though single-label neuropeptide Y fibers were abundant in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus as early as P2, arcuate-neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein fibers did not significantly innervate these areas until P5-6 and P10-11, respectively. In contrast, a portion of the neuropeptide Y fibers within the paraventricular nucleus as early as P2 originated from the brainstem, as indicated by their colocalization with dopamine beta hydroxylase. It remains to be determined if local sources of neuropeptide Y-expressing cells within the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus also contribute to the neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive fibers within these regions prior to the development of arcuate-neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein projections. In addition to the dramatic change in arcuate-neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein projections, there is also a striking change in Y1 protein expression in the hypothalamus during the first two postnatal weeks. Taken together these data suggest that the early postnatal period, during which there is a dynamic change in the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y system, may constitute a critical period in the development of this important feeding circuit.


Gruber, A. J., S. A. Solla, et al. (2003). "Modulation of striatal single units by expected reward: A spiny neuron model displaying dopamine-induced bistability." J Neurophysiol.

            Single unit activity in the neostriatum of awake monkeys shows a marked dependence on expected reward. Responses to visual cues differ when animals expect primary reinforcements, such as juice rewards, in comparison to secondary reinforcements, such as tones. The mechanism of this reward-dependent modulation has not been established experimentally. To assess the hypothesis that direct neuromodulatory effects of dopamine on spiny neurons can account for this modulation, we develop a computational model based on simplified representations of key ionic currents and their modulation by D1 dopamine receptor activation. This minimalistic model can be analyzed in detail. We find that D1-mediated increases of inward rectifying potassium and L-type calcium currents cause a bifurcation: the native up/down state behavior of the spiny neuron model becomes truly bistable, which modulates the peak firing rate and the duration of the up state, and introduces a dependence of the response on the past state history. These generic consequences of dopamine neuromodulation through bistability can account for both reward-dependent enhancement and suppression of spiny neuron single unit responses to visual cues. We validate the model by simulating responses to visual targets in a memory guided saccade task; our results are in close agreement with the main features of the experimental data. Our model provides a conceptual framework for understanding the functional significance of the short term neuromodulatory actions of dopamine on signal processing in the striatum.


Grunblatt, E., R. Schlosser, et al. (2003). "Preclinical versus clinical neuroprotection." Adv Neurol 91: 309-28.


Grunder, G., I. Vernaleken, et al. (2003). "Subchronic haloperidol downregulates dopamine synthesis capacity in the brain of schizophrenic patients in vivo." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(4): 787-94.

            The antipsychotic effect of neuroleptics cannot be attributed entirely to acute blockade of postsynaptic D(2)-like dopamine (DA) receptors, but may arise in conjunction with the delayed depolarization block of the presynaptic neurons and reduced DA synthesis capacity. Whereas the phenomenon of depolarization block is well established in animals, it is unknown if a similar phenomenon occurs in humans treated with neuroleptics. We hypothesized that haloperidol treatment should result in decreased DA synthesis capacity. We used 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) and positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with compartmental modeling to measure the relative activity of DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) (k(D)(3), min(-1)) in the brain of nine unmedicated patients with schizophrenia, first in the untreated condition and again after treatment with haloperidol. Patients were administered psychometric rating scales at baseline and after treatment. Consistent with our hypothesis, there was a 25% decrease in the magnitude of k(D)(3) in both caudate and putamen following 5 weeks of haloperidol therapy. In addition, the magnitudes of k(D)(3) in cerebral cortex and thalamus were also decreased. Psychopathology as measured with standard rating scales improved significantly in all patients. The decrease of k(D)(3) in the thalamus was highly significantly correlated with the improvement of negative symptoms. Subchronic treatment with haloperidol decreased the activity of DDC in the brain of patients with schizophrenia. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the antipsychotic effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment is associated with a decrease in DA synthesis, reflecting a depolarization block of presynaptic DA neurons. We link an alteration in cerebral catecholamine metabolism in human brain with the therapeutic action of neuroleptic medication.Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) 28, 787-794. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300103


Grunder, G., T. Siessmeier, et al. (2003). "Quantification of D2-like dopamine receptors in the human brain with 18F-desmethoxyfallypride." J Nucl Med 44(1): 109-16.

            Substituted benzamides such as (11)C-raclopride or (123)I-iodobenzamide are selective radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging of D(2)-like dopamine (DA) receptors. (18)F-Desmethoxyfallypride ((18)F-DMFP) is a benzamide tracer with the advantage of an (18)F label. We optimized the synthesis and evaluated (18)F-DMFP in PET studies on healthy human volunteers. METHODS: The affinity of DMFP for D(2)-like DA receptors was characterized in vitro using membrane preparations from rat striatum and the DA receptor ligand (3)H-spiperone. PET studies on 10 healthy human volunteers were performed using a whole-body PET scanner after injection of 214 +/- 54 MBq (mean +/- SD) (18)F-DMFP. Brain images were acquired dynamically over 124 min, and metabolite-corrected plasma activity was used as the input function. Data analysis was performed using several different approaches (compartmental, graphical, equilibrium methods). RESULTS: The mean inhibition constant (K(i)) of DMFP was 15 +/- 9 nmol/L. In human brain, the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio reached a maximum of about 4 between 60 and 120 min. When specific binding in the striatum was expressed as the difference between binding in the striatum and the cerebellum, it reached a maximum at approximately 60 min after injection and remained almost constant until the end of data acquisition. The ratio of specific striatal to nonspecific cerebellar binding was about 3:1 at 120 min after injection. A small, but significant specific tracer binding could also be detected in the thalamus. Treatment of a schizophrenic patient with a high dose (1,000 mg/d) of another substituted benzamide, amisulpride, resulted in a reduction of specific tracer uptake of about 90% in striatal regions. With regard to measured distribution volumes and binding potentials, there was an excellent agreement between all applied analytic methods. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that (18)F-DMFP is a highly reliable tracer for PET imaging of D(2)-like DA receptors. It offers the major advantage that it can be used independently of an on-site cyclotron within a PET satellite network. Noninvasive analytic methods without blood sampling provide valid measurements of receptor quantities in human striatum. Because of the (18)F label and the favorable imaging properties, (18)F-DMFP could become an efficient substitute for (11)C-raclopride in a clinical context.


Gudelsky, G. A. and B. K. Yamamoto (2003). "Neuropharmacology and neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine." Methods Mol Med 79: 55-73.

            The existing data indicate that MDMA produces long-term deficits in markers of 5-HT axon terminals in the rodent brain. Increased cleavage of the cytoskeletal protein tau, impairment of axonal transport, and functional consequences associated with a 5-HT depleting regimen of MDMA support the view that MDMA induces structural brain damage, that is, axonal degeneration. A confluence of oxidative stress and bioenergetic stress induced by MDMA is hypothesized to underlie the process of MDMA neurotoxicity (Fig. 3). The actions of MDMA on the 5-HT transporter to promote free radical formation and/or intracellular calcium may synergize with MDMA-induced disturbances in cellular energetics and hyperthermia to effect selective toxicity to 5-HT axon terminals.


Guilleminault, C., L. Palombini, et al. (2003). "Sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubertal children: what triggers them?" Pediatrics 111(1): e17-25.

            OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical presentation and polysomnography of prepubertal children with repetitive sleep terrors and sleepwalking, to compare them with a control group, and to evaluate the treatment of associated sleep disorders. METHODS: Patients with complaint of sleep terrors with or without sleepwalking were studied retrospectively. A control group was also recruited. Each subject received a standardized evaluation, which included the following: 1) Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire; 2) interview regarding child's medical and sociofamilial history, orthodontic history, schooling, psychological difficulties, medication intake, and family history of medical and sleep disorders; 3) general pediatric physical examination and neurologic, otolaryngological, and craniofacial examination by a specialist; 4) obtaining medical history on variables relevant to early life sleep disorders; 5) polysomnography, which included electroencephalogram (EEG; C3/A2, Fp1/T1, T1/O1, O1/C3, C4/A1, Fp2/T2, T2/O2, O2/C4), chin and leg electromyelogram, right and left electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram (modified V2 lead); respiration was monitored with a nasal cannula/pressure transducer system, mouth thermistor, chest and abdominal bands, pulse oximeter, and neck microphone; respiratory effort was monitored with calibrated esophageal manometry; variables were collected on a computerized sleep system; and 6) available family members with a positive history of sleep terrors and sleepwalking received clinical evaluations similar to those used for index cases; they also underwent ambulatory monitoring with an Edentrace system, which monitors heart rate, body position, oro-nasal flow, chest impedance, breathing noises (neck microphone), and pulse oximetry. Movements are deduced from artifact, and leg movements may be recorded on one channel if the equipment is preset for such recording. Subjects used logs to record "lights out" time, "lights on" time, nocturnal awakenings, and other events that occurred during the night. All original and follow-up recordings were rescored by 2 of 4 randomly selected specialists who were blind to subject identity. Mann-Whitney U test was used for group comparison. Nonparametric chi2 test was used to compare percentages of symptoms in symptomatic children versus control children. RESULTS: Eighty-four children (5 with sleep terrors and 79 with both sleep terrors and sleepwalking) and 36 normal control children formed the studied population. All subjects were Tanner stage 1 (prepubertal). None of the control children had any parasomnias. Fifty-one (61%) of 84 children with parasomnia had a diagnosis of an additional sleep disorder: 49 with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 2 with restless leg syndrome (RLS). Twenty-nine of the children with both parasomnia and SDB had a positive family history of parasomnias, and 24 of the 29 also had a positive family history of SDB. Of the 51 children with associated sleep disorders, 45 were treated. Forty-three of 49 children with SDB were treated with tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and/or turbinate revision, and 2 of 2 children with RLS were treated with Pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, at bedtime. Treatment of the precipitating sleep disorder eliminated parasomnias in all 45 children. In all 43 children who received surgery, polysomnography performed 3 to 4 months later indicated the disappearance of SDB. The recordings also showed an absence of confusional arousals. The number of EEG arousals significantly decreased from a mean of 9 +/- 2.6 EEG arousals > or =3 seconds/hour during total sleep time to 3 +/- 1.5. The number of EEG arousals > or =3 seconds during the first sleep cycle of slow wave sleep (stage 3-4 non-rapid eye movement sleep) decreased from 4 +/- 1.4 to 1 +/- 0.2. In all surgically treated cases, parents also reported subsequent absence of the parasomnia. The 2 symptomatic children who were treated with Pramipexole had a complete absence of confusional arousals on the follow-up recording and reported no parasomnia since treatment. The periodic limb movemia since treatment. The periodic limb movement syndrome arousal index (number of EEG arousals associated with periodic limb movement/hour) decreased from 11 and 16 to 0 and 0.2, respectively. Parasomnia persisted in the 6 children who were untreated for SDB. Surgeons had refused to perform surgery on these children because of lack of data on the relationship between parasomnia and SDB-related tonsil and adenoid enlargement. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic parasomnias may often also present SDB or, to a lesser extent, RLS. Furthermore, the disappearance of the parasomnias after the treatment of the SDB or RLS periodic limb movement syndrome suggests that the latter may trigger the former. The high frequency of SDB in family members of children with parasomnia provided additional evidence that SDB may manifest as parasomnias in children. Children with parasomnias are not systematically monitored during sleep, although past studies have suggested that patients with sleep terrors or sleepwalking have an elevated level of brief EEG arousals. When children receive polysomnographies, discrete patterns (eg, nasal flow limitation, abnormal respiratory effort, bursts of high theta or slow alpha EEG frequencies) should be sought; apneas are rarely found in children. Children's respiration during sleep should be monitored with nasal cannula/pressure transducer system and/or esophageal manometry, which are more sensitive than the thermistors or thermocouples currently used in many laboratories. The clear, prompt improvement of severe parasomnia in children who are treated for SDB, as defined here, provides important evidence that subtle SDB can have substantial health-related significance. Also noteworthy is the report of familial presence of parasomnia. Studies of twin cohorts and families with sleep terror and sleepwalking suggest genetic involvement of parasomnias. RLS and SDB have been shown to have familial recurrence. RLS has been shown to have genetic involvement. It remains to be investigated whether a genetic factor directly influences sleep terror and sleepwalking or instead influences other disorders that fragment sleep and lead to confusional arousals. Additional studies are needed to investigate the association between SDB and non-;rapid eye movement parasomnias in the general population.


Guo, W., L. Shi, et al. (2003). "The fourth transmembrane segment forms the interface of the dopamine d2 receptor homodimer." J Biol Chem 278(7): 4385-8.

            Considerable evidence suggests that G-protein-coupled receptors form homomeric and heteromeric dimers in vivo. Unraveling the structural mechanism for cross-talk between receptors in a dimeric complex must start with the identification of the presently unknown dimer interface. Here, by using cysteine cross-linking, we identify the fourth transmembrane segment (TM4) as a symmetrical dimer interface in the dopamine D2 receptor. Cross-linking is unaffected by ligand binding, and ligand binding and receptor activation are unaffected by cross-linking, suggesting that the receptor is a constitutive dimer. The accessibility of adjacent residues in TM4, however, is affected by ligand binding, implying that the interface has functional significance.


Gupta, R. (2003). "Akathisia can be reduced by lowering the dose of D2 receptor antagonists." Ann Emerg Med 41(2): 280; author reply 280.


Guttman, M., S. J. Kish, et al. (2003). "Current concepts in the diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease." Cmaj 168(3): 293-301.

            Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by rest tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability. The cause is unknown, but growing evidence suggests that it may be due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Treatment during the early stage of Parkinson's disease has evolved, and evidence suggests that dopamine agonist monotherapy may prevent the response fluctuations that are associated with disease progression. L-dopa therapy, however, remains the most efficacious treatment. Treatment during the advanced stage focuses on improving control of a number of specific clinical problems. Successful management of motor response fluctuations (e.g., "wearing off," on-off fluctuations, nighttime deterioration, early morning deterioration and dyskinesias) and of psychiatric problems is often possible with specific treatment strategies. Surgical treatment is an option for a defined patient population.


Guzman, J. A., A. E. Rosado, et al. (2003). "Dopamine-1 receptor stimulation impairs intestinal oxygen utilization during critical hypoperfusion." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 284(2): H668-75.

            Effects of a dopamine-1 (DA-1) receptor agonist on systemic and intestinal oxygen delivery (Do(2))-uptake relationships were studied in anesthetized dogs during sequential hemorrhage. Control (group 1) and experimental animals (group 2) were treated similarly except for the addition of fenoldopam (1.0 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) in group 2. Both groups had comparable systemic critical Do(2) (Do(2crit)), but animals in group 2 had a higher gut Do(2crit) (1.12 +/- 1.13 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.09 ml. kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). At the mucosal level, a clear biphasic delivery-uptake relationship was not observed in group 1; thus oxygen consumption by the mucosa may be supply dependent under physiological conditions. Group 2 demonstrated higher peak mucosal blood flow and lack of supply dependency at higher mucosal Do(2) levels. Fenoldopam resulted in a more conspicuous biphasic relationship at the mucosa and a rightward shift of overall splanchnic Do(2crit) despite increased splanchnic blood flow. These findings suggest that DA-1 receptor stimulation results in increased gut perfusion heterogeneity and maldistribution of perfusion, resulting in increased susceptibility to ischemia.


Gyertyan, I. and K. Gal (2003). "Dopamine D3 receptor ligands show place conditioning effect but do not influence cocaine-induced place preference." Neuroreport 14(1): 93-8.

            The importance of dopamine D receptors in reward related processes, especially in cocaine addiction, has been investigated extensively. However, in the reported studies a combination of different experimental conditions and different ligands have been used which renders the interpretation and comparison of the diverse results extremely difficult. Here, we report one comparative study investigating a wide range of dopamine D receptor ligands in one model of cocaine abuse: the place conditioning paradigm in rats. Of the antagonists tested, the moderately D selective nafadotride and the more selective SB-277011 did not produce any place conditioning effect while U-99194A caused place-preference. The most D selective agonist PD-128907, the less selective 7-OH-DPAT and the moderately selective partial agonist BP-897 all caused significant place aversion. None of the compounds influenced the cocaine-induced place preference. Results suggest the D -preferring agonists could affect the reward mechanisms of the brain, however, modulation of D receptor function does not appear to be a significant mechanism for modifying the place conditioning effect of cocaine.(3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3)


Hadj Tahar, A., R. Grondin, et al. (2003). "New insights in Parkinson's disease therapy: can levodopa-induced dyskinesia ever be manageable." Adv Neurol 91: 51-64.


Hagelberg, N., H. Forssell, et al. (2003). "Striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in burning mouth syndrome." Pain 101(1-2): 149-54.

            Animal studies have indicated that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is involved in central pain modulation. In a recent positron emission tomography (PET) study, we demonstrated presynaptic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in burning mouth syndrome, which is a chronic pain state. The objective of the present study was to examine striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in these patients. We used 11C-NNC 756 and 11C-raclopride to study D1 and D2 receptor binding in a PET study in ten burning mouth patients and 11 healthy controls. Patients underwent a structured psychiatric evaluation and an electrophysiological test for the excitability of the blink reflex. The striatal uptake of 11C-NNC 756 did not differ between patients and controls. In a voxel-level analysis, the uptake of 11C-raclopride was statistically significantly higher in the left putamen in burning mouth patients (corrected P-value 0.038 at cluster-level). In the region of interest analysis, the D1/D2 ratio was 7.7% lower in the right putamen (0.64+/-0.04 vs. 0.69+/-0.04, P=0.01) and 6.4 % lower in the left putamen (0.65+/-0.05 vs. 0.70+/-0.05, P=0.05) when compared to controls. Increased 11C-raclopride uptake and the subsequent decrease in the D1/D2 ratio may indicate a decline in endogenous dopamine levels in the putamen in burning mouth patients.


Haidkind, R., M. Eller, et al. (2003). "Effects of partial locus coeruleus denervation and chronic mild stress on behaviour and monoamine neurochemistry in the rat." Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13(1): 19-28.

            It has been proposed that lesions of the ascending noradrenergic projections render animals more vulnerable to stress. In this study, the effects of partial denervation of the locus coeruleus (LC) by DSP-4 (10 mg/kg) treatment, chronic mild stress (CMS) and their combination were examined. DSP-4 was administered to rats 1 week before the onset of CMS, which was applied for 5 weeks. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time was decreased by both DSP-4 and CMS. In the open field test, the number of defecations was increased after DSP-4 treatment plus CMS. Partial LC denervation decreased the levels of noradrenaline (NA) by 34%, increased NA turnover, and decreased the density of beta-adrenoceptors in the cerebral cortex. CMS decreased the binding affinity of beta-adrenoceptors, an effect not observed in the DSP-4 treated animals. In conclusion, 6 weeks after partial LC denervation NA turnover is increased in the cortex, and the effect of CMS on emotionality is enhanced.


Hain, T. C. and M. Uddin (2003). "Pharmacological treatment of vertigo." CNS Drugs 17(2): 85-100.

            This review discusses the physiology and pharmacological treatment of vertigo and related disorders. Classes of medications useful in the treatment of vertigo include anticholinergics, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, calcium channel antagonists and dopamine receptor antagonists. These medications often have multiple actions. They may modify the intensity of symptoms (e.g. vestibular suppressants) or they may affect the underlying disease process (e.g. calcium channel antagonists in the case of vestibular migraine). Most of these agents, particularly those that are sedating, also have a potential to modulate the rate of compensation for vestibular damage. This consideration has become more relevant in recent years, as vestibular rehabilitation physical therapy is now often recommended in an attempt to promote compensation. Accordingly, therapy of vertigo is optimised when the prescriber has detailed knowledge of the pharmacology of medications being administered as well as the precise actions being sought. There are four broad causes of vertigo, for which specific regimens of drug therapy can be tailored. Otological vertigo includes disorders of the inner ear such as Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and bilateral vestibular paresis. In both Meniere's disease and vestibular neuritis, vestibular suppressants such as anticholinergics and benzodiazepines are used. In Meniere's disease, salt restriction and diuretics are used in an attempt to prevent flare-ups. In vestibular neuritis, only brief use of vestibular suppressants is now recommended. Drug treatments are not presently recommended for BPPV and bilateral vestibular paresis, but physical therapy treatment can be very useful in both. Central vertigo includes entities such as vertigo associated with migraine and certain strokes. Prophylactic agents (L-channel calcium channel antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, beta-blockers) are the mainstay of treatment for migraine-associated vertigo. In individuals with stroke or other structural lesions of the brainstem or cerebellum, an eclectic approach incorporating trials of vestibular suppressants and physical therapy is recommended. Psychogenic vertigo occurs in association with disorders such as panic disorder, anxiety disorder and agoraphobia. Benzodiazepines are the most useful agents here. Undetermined and ill-defined causes of vertigo make up a large remainder of diagnoses. An empirical approach to these patients incorporating trials of medications of general utility, such as benzodiazepines, as well as trials of medication withdrawal when appropriate, physical therapy and psychiatric consultation is suggested.


Hair, W. M., F. C. Wu, et al. (2003). "An investigation of the effectiveness of testosterone implants in combination with the prolactin inhibitor quinagolide in the suppression of spermatogenesis in men." Hum Reprod 18(4): 749-55.

            BACKGROUND: Administration of testosterone inhibits gonadotrophin secretion and spermatogenesis in men but the degree of response is highly variable. This treatment also stimulates prolactin, itself a progonadal hormone in animals. This study investigated whether concomitant suppression of prolactin (PRL) with the non-ergot, dopamine receptor agonist quinagolide (Q), would enhance the efficacy of testosterone in its inhibition of spermatogenesis in healthy eugonadal men. METHODS: A total of 46 men were randomized to three treatment groups: Group 1, T1200: 1200 mg testosterone implant plus daily oral placebo; Group 2, T1200 + Q: 1200 mg testosterone plus oral Q 75 micro g/day; Group 3, T800 + Q: testosterone 800 mg plus oral Q 75 micro g/day. After an initial pre-treatment period of 4 weeks, subjects were treated for 24 weeks followed by an 8-week recovery period. RESULTS: The total numbers of subjects that achieved severe oligospermia (</=10(6)/ml including azoospermia) from weeks 8-16 were 11/13 (85%), 11/12 (92%), 8/13 (61.5%) in the three groups respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that inhibition of PRL does not to confer additional efficacy in spermatogenic suppression in men. However, Q did not totally block PRL secretion in the subjects, possibly because testosterone replacement itself stimulated PRL by a direct action on the lactotroph, thus the effectiveness of dual inhibition of gonadotrophin and PRL could not be fully investigated.


Hameg, A., F. Bayle, et al. (2003). "Affinity of cyamemazine, an anxiolytic antipsychotic drug, for human recombinant dopamine vs. serotonin receptor subtypes." Biochem Pharmacol 65(3): 435-40.

            Animal studies indicate that the anxiolytic properties of the antipsychotic agent cyamemazine may result from blockade of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors and to a lesser extent from blockade of serotonin 5-HT(3) receptors. Here, we used human recombinant receptors to determine the relative affinity of cyamemazine for serotonin and dopamine receptor subtypes. In addition, cyamemazine was tested in other brain receptor types and subtypes which are considered to mediate central nervous systems effects of drugs. Hence, cyamemazine affinity was determined in human recombinant receptors expressed in CHO cells (hD(2), hD(3), and hD(4.4) receptors, h5-HT(1A), h5-HT(2A), h5-HT(2C), and h5-HT(7), and hM(1), hM(2), hM(3), hM(4), and hM(5) receptors), L-cells (hD(1) receptor), and HEK-293 cells (h5-HT(3) receptors) or natively present in N1E-115 cells (5-HT(3) receptors) or in rat cerebral cortex (non-specific alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors, H(3) histamine receptors), and guinea-pig cerebellum (H(1) central and H(2) histamine receptors) membranes. Similarly to atypical antipsychotics, cyamemazine exhibited high affinity for: (i) h5-HT(2A) receptors (K(i)=1.5+/-0.7 nM, mean+/-SEM, N=3) and this was four times higher than for hD(2) receptors (K(i)=5.8+/-0.8 nM), (ii) h5-HT(2C) receptors (K(i)=11.8+/-2.2nM), and (iii) 5-HT(7) receptors (K(i)=22 nM). Conversely, cyamemazine exhibited very low affinity for h5-HT(3) receptors (K(i)=2.9+/-0.4 microM). In conclusion, similarly to atypical antipsychotic agents, cyamemazine, possesses high affinity for h5-HT(2A), h5-HT(2C), and h5-HT(7) receptors, a feature which can explain its low propensity to cause extrapyramidal adverse reactions in clinical practice. The high affinity for h5-HT(2C) receptors, but not for h5-HT(3) receptors, can account for the anxiolytic activity of cyamemazine in human subjects.


Hanaoka, M., Y. Droma, et al. (2003). "Polymorphisms of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in subjects susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema." Chest 123(1): 54-8.

            STUDY OBJECTIVES: A blunted hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) has been observed in some sufferers of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and was proposed as a potential mechanism in its pathogenesis. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the carotid body responding to hypoxia to synthesize dopamine neurotransmitter to heighten ventilation. The association of constitutional susceptibility to HAPE regarding the blunted HVR aspect with polymorphisms of the TH gene was examined. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case control study. SETTING: Shinshu University Hospital, Matsumoto, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three subjects with a history of HAPE (HAPE group) and 51 healthy climbers without a history of HAPE (control group). MEASUREMENTS: The (TCAT)n tetranucleotide microsatellite repeats within intron 1 and Met81Val variant in exon 2 of the TH gene were investigated by polymerase chain reaction following either direct sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. The HVR in 21 subjects among the HAPE group was also measured. RESULTS: No significant frequency differences could be found in terms of either of the two polymorphisms between the HAPE and control groups. Meanwhile, no relationships were observed between the HVR values of HAPE subjects and the individual alleles in both polymorphisms of the TH gene. CONCLUSION: The genetic susceptibility of HAPE, specifically the blunted HVR in HAPE, is probably not associated with the mutations of the TH gene, implying that these two polymorphisms may not be a sufficient genetic marker for predicting a predisposition to the susceptibility to HAPE.


Happe, S., W. Pirker, et al. (2003). "Periodic leg movements in patients with Parkinson's disease are associated with reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding." J Neurol 250(1): 83-6.

            We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to study striatal [(123)I]beta-CIT binding and polysomnography to study periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) in eleven patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The reduced striatal [(123)I]beta-CIT binding was significantly correlated with the number of PLMS. We propose that striatal dopaminergic nerve cell loss is involved in the increased number of PLMS in PD patients.


Hardy, S. L., G. M. Anderson, et al. (2003). "Evidence that estrogen receptor alpha, but not Beta, mediates seasonal changes in the response of the ovine retrochiasmatic area to estradiol." Biol Reprod 68(3): 846-52.

            In ewes, anestrus results from a reduction in LH pulsatility due to an increased sensitivity of the hypothalamic estradiol negative feedback system. Considerable evidence has implicated the A15 group of dopaminergic neurons in the retrochiasmatic area in this seasonally dependent estradiol effect. Moreover, estradiol administered to the retrochiasmatic area in ovariectomized anestrous ewes inhibits LH secretion. However, A15 neurons do not appear to contain the classical estrogen receptors (ERalpha). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that beta-estrogen receptors mediate the action of estradiol in the retrochiasmatic area by comparing the effects of estradiol and genistein, a selective ERbeta agonist. We also examined whether there are seasonal changes in response of the retrochiasmatic area to these agonists and if these effects are mediated by dopamine. To test these hypotheses, ovariectomized ewes were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the retrochiasmatic area. Crystalline agonists were administered via microimplants inserted down the cannulae. Blood samples taken before and 4 days after microimplant insertion were analyzed for LH concentrations, pulse frequency, and amplitude. Genistein treatment produced no significant change in LH levels in either season. Estradiol treatment decreased both mean LH concentrations and pulse frequency in anestrous but not breeding-season ewes. Administration of the dopamine antagonist sulpiride to ovariectomized ewes with estradiol microimplants in the retrochiasmatic area returned LH pulse frequency to levels indistinguishable from controls. From these data, we hypothesize that estradiol acts on local ERalpha-containing neurons in this area to stimulate a dopaminergic pathway that inhibits LH secretion during anestrus.


Harms, E., H. Siggelkow, et al. (2003). "[Macroadenoma of the pituitary gland with moderate hyperprolactinaemia]." Dtsch Med Wochenschr 128(13): 667-70.

            HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: A 46-year-old woman was referred to the neurosurgery department for treatment of a macroadenoma of the pituitary. She had complained of recurrent galactorrhoea for 7 years; a hysterectomy was performed 4 years ago. The clinical investigation was uremarkable, except for a slight galactorrheoa on both sides. INVESTIGATIONS: The endocrinological work-up revealed a moderately elevated prolactin level of 3133 mU/l (147 ng/ml) with intact pituitary functions. She had no visual impairment and the MRI depicted a pituitary tumor with a maximal diameter of 1.9 cm and both intra- and suprasellar extension. DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CLINICAL COURSE: The diagnosis of a nonfunctioning macrodenoma with functional hyperprolactinemia was made and a selective transsphenoidal adenomectomy was performed. The primary histology showed a chromophobe adenoma. However, additional immunhistological investigations revealed distinct staining for prolactin. In the meantime, because of persistant galactorrhea and elevated prolactin levels, treatment with cabergolin 0.5 mg/week was started. This stopped galactorrhea and normalized the prolactin levels. A follow-up MRI after 3 months of treatment showed a significant shrinkage of the residual tumor. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates that the differential diagnosis of macroprolactinoma with low secretory activity and functional hyperprolactinemia is very difficult preoperatively in individual cases. This is relevant because macroprolactinomas with low secretory activity can also be treated successfully with dopamine agonists. We therefore suggest a drug treatment trial with dopamine agonists in all macroadenoms with hyperprolactinemia, particulary in those with prolactin levels above 2000 mU/l (100 ng/ml).


Harris, G. C. and G. Aston-Jones (2003). "Critical role for ventral tegmental glutamate in preference for a cocaine-conditioned environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(1): 73-6.

            Cocaine administration induces glutamatergic activation within the mesolimbic-accumbens system. This activation has been linked to the behavioral effects of cocaine and recently to the induction of long-term potentiation in dopamine neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We sought to determine if glutamate receptor activation is also crucial to the development of a conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine's rewarding effects. Two groups of rats were given intra-VTA injections of either vehicle or a combination of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor antagonists (AP5 0.24 nmol plus CNQX 0.12 nmol per side) prior to each cocaine place-conditioning trial. Microinjections of the glutamate antagonists completely blocked the development of a cocaine CPP when given within, but not when given outside of, the VTA. These data indicate that glutamatergic activity in the VTA may be crucial for learning to associate environmental stimuli with cocaine exposure.


Harrod, S. B., L. P. Dwoskin, et al. (2003). "Lobeline does not serve as a reinforcer in rats." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165(4): 397-404.

            RATIONALE: Previous results demonstrated that pretreatment with lobeline attenuates d-methamphetamine self-administration in rats. OBJECTIVE: The present experiments determined if lobeline serves as a reinforcer, if it decreases d-methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of d-methamphetamine self-administration, and if it activates the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathways in Sprague-Dawley male rats. METHODS: The ability of intravenous (IV) lobeline (0.015-0.15 mg/kg per infusion) to engender responding and the ability of lobeline (0.015 and 0.05 mg/kg per infusion) to substitute for d-methamphetamine was determined using the self-administration paradigm. Experiments were also performed to determine if lobeline (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) reinstates responding for d-methamphetamine or alters the ability of d-methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg per infusion) to reinstate responding following extinction. The effect of lobeline (3.0 mg/kg) or d-methamphetamine (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) on DA and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum were also determined. RESULTS: Lobeline was not self-administered and did not substitute for d-methamphetamine. Also, lobeline did not reinstate responding for d-methamphetamine following extinction nor did it alter d-methamphetamine-induced reinstatement. Furthermore, lobeline did not alter DA or DOPAC levels in the either the nucleus accumbens or striatum. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the present results indicate that lobeline decreases d-methamphetamine self-administration by decreasing reward, not by acting as a substitute reinforcer.


Harsing, L. G., I. Gacsalyi, et al. (2003). "The glycine transporter-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org 24461: a pharmacological study." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74(4): 811-825.

            The in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of two glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitors, N[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)-propyl]sarcosine (NFPS) and R,S-(+/-)N-methyl-N-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-3-phenyl-propylglycine (Org 24461), was studied. NFPS and Org 24461 inhibited the uptake of [3H]glycine in hippocampal synaptosomal preparation with IC(50) values of 0.022 and 2.5 &mgr;M. Neither NFPS nor Org 24461 (0.1 &mgr;M) showed significant binding to alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-adrenoceptors, D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors, and 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain or to cloned 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors. At 10 &mgr;M concentrations, binding affinity was measured for NFPS to 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptors and alpha-2 adrenoceptors and for NFPS and Org 24461 to 5-HT(7) serotonin receptors. Glycine (0.1 mM) and sarcosine (5 mM) increased [3H]glycine efflux from superfused rat hippocampal slices preloaded with [3H]glycine. NFPS and Org 24461 (0.1 mM) did not influence [3H]glycine efflux, however, they inhibited glycine-induced [3H]glycine release. These findings indicate that NFPS and Org 24461 selectively inhibit glycine uptake without being substrates of the transporter protein. Several antipsychotic tests were used to characterize antipsychotic effects of NFPS and Org 24461 in vivo. These compounds did not alter apomorphine-induced climbing and stereotypy in a dose of 10 mg/kg po in mice and did not induce catalepsy in a dose of 10 mg/kg ip in rats. The ID(50) values of NFPS were 21.4 mg/kg and higher than 30 mg/kg ip for inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)- and D-amphetamine-induced hypermotility in mice and these values were 2.5 and 8.6 mg/kg ip for Org 24461. NFPS and Org 24461 did not exhibit anxiolytic effects in light-dark test in mice, in the meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP)-induced anxiety test (minimal effective dose or MED was higher than 3 mg/kg ip) and in the Vogel conflict drinking test in rats (MED was higher than 10 mg/kg ip). Both NFPS and Org 24461 (1-10 mg/kg ip) reversed PCP-induced changes in EEG power spectra in conscious rats. These data support the view that GlyT1 inhibitors may have potential importance in treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.


Hashiba, E., K. Hirota, et al. (2003). "Effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor ligands on blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamine concentrations in guinea pigs." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 367(4): 342-7.

            Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP) and has been shown previously to produce bradycardia and hypotension in rodents. In this study we have measured the effects of intravenous N/OFQ, and the NOP antagonists [Nphe(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH(2) ([Nphe(1)]) and [Nphe(1),Arg(14),Lys(15)]N/OFQ-NH(2) (UFP-101) on cardiovascular parameters and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Female Hartley guinea pigs were anesthetized with pentobarbital and ventilated artificially. MAP and HR were measured via a femoral arterial catheter and ECG, respectively. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured by HPLC. Animals received saline, N/OFQ (0.25, 1.25, 6.25 and 25 nmol cumulatively at 10-min intervals), [Nphe(1)] (600 nmol) and UFP-101 (60 nmol) i.v. in various combinations. After establishing a stable baseline, MAP and HR measurements and blood sampling were performed at the beginning and 3 min following each drug administration. N/OFQ significantly decreased MAP, HR and the plasma noradrenaline concentrations in a dose dependent manner (maximally by 29.1+/-1.8%, 13.8+/-0.8% and 46.6+/-7.8%, respectively) To the contrary, N/OFQ tended to increase plasma adrenaline concentration but did not affect plasma dopamine concentrations. There was a significant correlation between percent change in MAP (0.69, P<0.01) or HR (0.84, P<0.01) and that in plasma noradrenaline. [Nphe(1)], but not UFP-101, alone significantly decreased MAP. [Nphe(1)] partially antagonized N/OFQ-induced hypotension, bradycardia and the decrease in plasma concentration of noradrenaline. UFP-101 fully prevented the effects of N/OFQ in this model. In conclusion, the present study shows that intravenous N/OFQ, via NOP receptors, elicits hypotension and bradycardia also in the anaesthetized guinea pig and that the decrease in MAP and HR are positively correlated with the decrease in the plasma noradrenaline level.


Hashimoto, M., T. Miyamae, et al. (2003). "DOPA cyclohexyl ester potently inhibits aglycemia-induced release of glutamate in rat striatal slices." Neurosci Res 45(3): 335-44.

            Brain ischemic insult causes glutamate release and resultant neuronal cell death. We here show that L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is a positive regulatory factor for glutamate release elicited by a mild brain insult using in vitro superfused rat striatal slices as a model system. Glucose deprivation for 18 min elicited release of glutamate, DOPA and dopamine (DA). Either tetrodotoxin (TTX) (1 microM) or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT) (1 mM), a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor reduced markedly each of these releases. NSD-1015 (20 microM), an aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor restored the inhibition by alpha-MPT of glutamate and DOPA but not DA release. DOPA cyclohexyl ester (DOPA CHE) (0.3-1 microM), a competitive DOPA antagonist, concentration-dependently suppressed aglycemia-induced glutamate release, the effect which was mimicked neither by S-sulpiride nor SCH23390, a DA D(1) or D(2) receptor antagonist, respectively. Zonisamide (1-1000 microM), an anticonvulsant or YM872 (1 microM), an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) a receptor antagonist produced no effect on aglycemia-induced glutamate release. DOPA CHE thus showed a relatively potent inhibitory action on aglycemia-induced glutamate release among several neuroprotective agents tested.


Hassoun, W., M. Le Cavorsin, et al. (2003). "PET study of the [(11)C]raclopride binding in the striatum of the awake cat: effects of anaesthetics and role of cerebral blood flow." Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30(1): 141-8.

            Cats were trained to stay in a containment box, without developing any signs of behavioural stress, while their head was maintained in a position that allowed positron emission tomography (PET) experiments to be performed. The binding potential for [(11)C]raclopride (BP(raclo)), a radioligand with good specificity for dopamine (DA) receptors of the D(2) type, was measured in the striatum and in three experimental situations: awake, anaesthetised with ketamine (50 mg kg(-1) h(-1); i.m.) and anaesthetised with halothane (1.5%). Non-specific binding was evaluated in the cerebellum. In the striatum of both sides, the BP(raclo) was unmodified by ketamine anaesthesia when compared with awake animals. In contrast, a large increase in BP(raclo) was observed under halothane anaesthesia. The non-specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride, evaluated in the cerebellum, was also unchanged under ketamine anaesthesia but greatly increased under halothane anaesthesia. To evaluate whether changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) resulting from the different experimental situations could be at the root of these discrepancies, injections of [(15)O]H(2)O were performed; measurements revealed a drastically increased CBF under halothane anaesthesia and a slight enhancement under ketamine anaesthesia, when compared with the waking state. These results are the first to be obtained on this topic in awake cats, and show that the BP(raclo) is greatly dependent on alterations in the CBF.


Hausdorff, J. M., J. D. Schaafsma, et al. (2003). "Impaired regulation of stride variability in Parkinson's disease subjects with freezing of gait." Exp Brain Res 149(2): 187-94.

            Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often experience freezing of gait, a debilitating phenomenon during which the subject suddenly becomes unable to start walking or to continue to move forward. Little is known about the gait of those subjects with PD who experience freezing of gait or the pathophysiology of freezing. One possibility is that freezing of gait is a truly paroxysmal phenomenon and that the usual walking pattern of subjects who experience freezing of gait is not different than that of other patients with PD who do not experience these transient episodes of freezing of gait. On the other hand, a recent study noted gait changes just prior to freezing and concluded that dyscontrol of the cadence of walking contributes to freezing. To address this question, we compared the gait of PD subjects with freezing of gait to PD subjects without freezing of gait. Given the potential importance of the dyscontrol of the cadence of walking in freezing, we focused on two aspects of gait dynamics: the average stride time (the inverse of cadence, a measure of the walking pace or rate) and the variability of the stride time (a measure of "dyscontrol," arrhythmicity and unsteadiness). We found that although the average stride time was similar in subjects with and without freezing, stride-to-stride variability was markedly increased among PD subjects with freezing of gait compared to those without freezing of gait, both while "on" ( P<0.020) and "off" ( P<0.002) anti-parkinsonian medications. Further, we found that increased gait variability was not related to other measures of motor control (while off medications) and levodopa apparently reduced gait variability, both in subjects with and without freezing. These results suggest that a paradigm shift should take place in our view of freezing of gait. PD subjects with freezing of gait have a continuous gait disturbance: the ability to regulate the stride-to-stride variations in gait timing and maintain a stable walking rhythm is markedly impaired in subjects with freezing of gait. In addition, these findings suggest that the inability to control cadence might play an important role in this debilitating phenomenon and highlight the key role of dopamine-mediated pathways in the stride-to-stride regulation of walking.


Haustein, K. O. (2003). "Bupropion: pharmacological and clinical profile in smoking cessation." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 41(2): 56-66.

            Chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, clinical efficacy, adverse effects and dosage of bupropion hydrochloride (BP), an aminoketone antidepressant used in smoking cessation, are reviewed. The nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors are inhibited at clinically relevant concentrations of BP. BP does not inhibit monoamine oxidase, and it has minimal inhibitory effects on presynaptic noradrenaline and dopamine uptake. BP is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and demonstrates biphasic elimination with an elimination half-life of 11 - 14 hours. BP is extensively metabolized by oxidation and reduction to at least 6 metabolites, 2 of which may be active. The plasma levels of the erythro-amino alcohol of BP correlate with several side effects such as insomnia and dry mouth. Efficacy of BP(SR) in smoking cessation has been examined in several double-blind, randomized trials in which daily doses of 150 or 300 mg have been administered for 7 or 9 weeks. In addition, 1 study examined the combination of BP(SR) plus nicotine patch. The point prevalences of stopping smoking reached values between 21.2 and 38%, but they did not exceed those after nicotine replacement therapy alone. Long-term administration (52 weeks) of BP did not improve abstinence compared with placebo after a 2-year follow-up period. Thus, the efficacy of BP in smoking cessation is comparable to that of nicotine replacement therapy. However, BP possesses a broad spectrum of infrequent adverse effects and interferes with the degradation of several drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants, beta-recpetor blocking agents, class Ic-antiarrhythmics etc. As the risk-benefit ratio of BP is smaller than that of nicotine replacement, BP should be considered as a second-line treatment in smoking cessation.


Hawi, Z., N. Lowe, et al. (2003). "Linkage disequilibrium mapping at DAT1, DRD5 and DBH narrows the search for ADHD susceptibility alleles at these loci." Mol Psychiatry 8(3): 299-308.

            Abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission are now accepted as factors in predisposing to ADHD. Evidence of associations between dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and ADHD was first reported by Cook et al. We confirmed the DAT1 association and also identified two additional susceptibility loci at the DRD5 and DBH. Notably, none of the associated variants at these three genes are known to be expressed. Other variants within or closely mapped to the associated alleles are likely to be relevant. In this investigation, we analyse additional markers creating a high-density map across and flanking these genes, and measure intermarker linkage disequilibrium (LD). None of the newly examined markers were more strongly associated with ADHD. At DAT1, the pattern of intermarker LD and haplotype association with the phenotype between exon 9 and the 3' of the gene suggests that the functional variant at DAT1 may be located to this region. For DRD5, three markers, covering a region of approximately 68 kb including the single DRD5 exon are all associated with disease, and thus do not provide localizing information. However, the data for DBH point to a region close to the centre of the gene. Correlation between D' and physical distance was observed between markers at DAT1 and DRD5 for distances less than 50 kb. This was not the case for DBH, where LD breakdown was observed between the intron 5 and intron 9 polymorphisms although they are only 9 kb apart. Further genetic analysis is unlikely to refine the location of susceptibility variants and functional assessment of variants within associated regions is required.Molecular Psychiatry (2003) 8, 299-308. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001290


Hays, J. T. and J. O. Ebbert (2003). "Bupropion for the treatment of tobacco dependence: guidelines for balancing risks and benefits." CNS Drugs 17(2): 71-83.

            Tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, is now a global pandemic. The expected morbidity and mortality from smoking-attributable diseases will continue to rise for the next 30 years. In order to reduce this negative impact on worldwide health, effective therapy to aid smoking cessation must be provided to current smokers. Treatment for tobacco dependence involves the combination of behavioural therapies and pharmacological treatment. The most common pharmacological treatments include nicotine replacement therapy and non-nicotine medications, including antidepressants. The antidepressant with the greatest weight of evidence for efficacy in the treatment of tobacco dependence is bupropion. Sustained-release bupropion is approved for the treatment of tobacco dependence in over 50 countries worldwide. The efficacy of bupropion for the treatment of tobacco dependence is attributed to the blockage of dopamine reuptake in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. This area of the brain is believed to mediate reward for nicotine use and for other drugs of dependence. Randomised, controlled clinical trials have shown that bupropion approximately doubles abstinence rates compared with placebo. In addition, long-term treatment with bupropion may reduce or delay smoking relapse. Bupropion also appears to be effective in the treatment of smokers who have recently relapsed and smokers with other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Bupropion has a good adverse events profile, but the risk exists for serious adverse effects such as seizures. Recent postmarketing surveillance reports have raised safety concerns about bupropion, although no causal relationship between bupropion and the reported serious adverse events or death has been established.


He, Y., W. Q. Jin, et al. (2003). "Expression of dopamine D1 receptor in Sf9 insect cells and agonism of l-12-chloroscoulerine on recombinant D1 receptor." Acta Pharmacol Sin 24(3): 225-229.

            AIM: To express dopamine D1 receptor in baculovirus-Sf9 cell system, and to investigate the effects of l-12-chloroscoulerine (l-CSL) on the recombinant D1 receptor (D1R). METHODS: The recombinant baculovirus, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus bearing D1R (AcNPV- D1R) was generated, and then was used to produce recombinant D1R in Sf9 insect cells. Expression of D1R in Sf9 cells was monitored by [3H]SCH23390 binding assay. The effects of l-CSL on recombinant D1R were investigated by [3H]SCH23390 binding assay and cAMP assay. RESULTS: The recombinant baculovirus AcNPV bearing D1R cDNA was generated, and was successfully expressed in Sf9 insect cells. The expression level of (Bmax) was (0.94+/-0.06) nmol/g protein. The Kd value of [3H]SCH23390 was (1.9+/-0.3) nmol/L, which was consistent with the previous results from calf striutam tissues. l-CSL had a high affinity to recombinant D1R with Ki value of (6.3+/-1.4) nmol/L, and increased the intracellular cAMP level in a concentration-dependent manner with EC50 value of 0.72 &mgr;mol/L and 95 % confidence limit was 0.67-0.77 &mgr;mol/L. Thus l-CSL has the D1 receptor agonism. CONCLUSION: An efficient baculovirus-Sf9 insect cell system for dopamine D1 receptor was constructed and l-CSL presented the D1 receptor agonism on cellular-molecular level directly.


Heinrichs, L. (2003). "Linking olfaction with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, recurrent abortion, hyperemesis gravidarum, and migraine headache." Headache 43(3): 304-5.

            Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 May;185(5 Suppl Understanding):S215-S219 OBJECTIVE: The experience of women was sought about nausea and vomiting, its relation to olfaction, its occurrence among pregnant women with anosmia, and the potential association of hyperemesis gravidarum and migraine headache. METHODS: We performed a community-based study with a physician/patient-directed questionnaire, and a retrospective analysis of hospital records. RESULTS: Nearly all women (n = 163 parous women) experience nausea (98%) and vomiting (97%). The highest frequency causes of nausea and vomiting were "food poisoning" (65%), "flu" (58%), pregnancy (54%), and offensive odors (52%); vomiting occurred as frequently as nausea for the first 2 causes, and one half as often for the latter causes. Most women reported that the pain experienced during vomiting exceeded that of parturition. Among 9 women with hypogonadotropic anosmia with advanced reproductive technology-induced pregnancies, 2 experienced nausea and vomiting, one from "food poisoning." Among 37 women with migraine headache, 10 (27%) had experienced hyperemesis gravidarum, and among 16 who experienced hyperemesis gravidarum, 5 (37%) had migraine headaches. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of nausea and vomiting, caused most often by nonpregnancy-related triggers, is high among women. In a small sample of women with congenital anosmia, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy occurred in only 1 pregnancy, suggesting that olfaction is a highly selected trigger for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. The shared nausea and vomiting experience of hyperemesis gravidarum and migraine headache among women suggests a common mechanism, possibly based on allelic variations within the DRD2 (dopaminergic receptor) gene. Because olfactory receptors, odor types, and MHC antigens are closely integrated, and because olfactory stimuli often incite episodes of pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting, hyperemesis gravidarum, and migraine headache, these genes and their products invite further scrutiny. The pregnancy-conserving effect of PNV and the MHC antigen overlap in couples with recurrent abortion are important clues possibly relating olfaction, MHC antigens, and reproductive success or failure. Comment: Dr Stephen Peroutka described a group of patients with migraine with DRD2 gene abnormalities that he thought might predict for antidopamine medication efficacy in treating their migraines. He felt these patients had prominent dopaminergic manifestations in their migraine presentations: yawning and severe nausea and vomiting. (Peroutka SJ. Dopamine and migraine. Neurology. 1997;49:650-656). The current study suggests that we may be able to look for other comorbid illnesses, such as hyperemesis gravidarum, to find patients with "dopaminergic migraine," if this entity exists. SJT


Helm, K. A., P. Rada, et al. (2003). "Cholecystokinin combined with serotonin in the hypothalamus limits accumbens dopamine release while increasing acetylcholine: a possible satiation mechanism." Brain Res 963(1-2): 290-7.

            Serotonin (5-HT) or cholecystokinin (CCK) injected in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) inhibits feeding, but the mechanism is unknown. Prior research suggests that dopamine (DA) input to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) motivates behavior, and a component of that motivation circuit includes hypothalamic feeding systems. Acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc, on the other hand, may act in part to inhibit feeding and generate satiety. If so, 5-HT and/or CCK in the PVN should lower extracellular DA or release ACh in the NAc. Rats were prepared with microdialysis probes in the NAc and injectors in the PVN. Serotonin (7.75 microg) or CCK-8 (0.12 microg) injected in the PVN significantly decreased ipsilateral accumbens DA (63 and 73% of baseline, respectively, without effect on ACh). However, 5-HT plus CCK injected in combination decreased DA to 72% (P<0.001) and simultaneously increased extracellular ACh to 128% of baseline (P<0.001). In later tests with the same doses and the same animals, unilateral PVN injections of 5-HT, CCK, or both combined, significantly inhibited food intake in the early dark period. The results suggest that 5-HT in the PVN acts as a neural modulator that primes a hypothalamic satiation system to respond to CCK when the gastrointestinal tract contains food to be digested. The synergistic action of 5-HT plus phasic CCK may then activate a circuit that simultaneously limits DA and releases ACh in the accumbens as part of the satiation process.


Hemby, S. E., J. Q. Trojanowski, et al. (2003). "Neuron-specific age-related decreases in dopamine receptor subtype mRNAs." J Comp Neurol 456(2): 176-83.

            Age-related decline in dopamine receptor levels has been observed in regional studies of animal and human brains; however, identifying specific cellular substrates and/or alterations in distinct neuronal populations remains elusive. To evaluate whether age-related decreases in dopamine receptor subtypes are associated with specific cell populations in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, antisense RNA amplification was combined with cDNA array analysis to examine effects of aging on D1-D5 dopamine receptor mRNA expression levels in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells from post-mortem human brains (19-92 years). In CA1 pyramidal neurons, significant age-related decline was observed for dopamine receptor mRNAs (D1-D4, P < 0.001; D5, P < 0.05) but not for the cytoskeletal elements beta-actin, three-repeat (3R) tau, and four-repeat (4R) tau. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in stellate cells across the same cohort. Thus, senescence may be a factor responsible for cell-specific decrements in dopamine receptor gene expression in one population of neurons within a circuit that is critical for learning and memory. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that alterations in dopaminergic function may also be related to behavioral abnormalities, such as psychosis, that occur with aging.


Hemmings, S. M., C. J. Kinnear, et al. (2003). "Investigating the role of dopaminergic and serotonergic candidate genes in obsessive-compulsive disorder." Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13(2): 93-8.

            There is increasing evidence that the aetiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a marked genetic component, although the precise mechanism of inheritance is unclear. Clinical and pharmacological studies have implicated the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in disease pathogenesis. This study investigated the role of attractive candidate genes in the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways in the development of OCD. The distribution of selected polymorphic variants in the serotonin receptor type 2A and 1Dbeta (5-HT(2A), 5-HT(1Dbeta)), dopamine transporter (DAT), dopamine receptor type 4 (DRD4) and monoamine-oxidase A (MAO-A) genes were analysed in 71 OCD cases and 129 control individuals in the genetically homogeneous Afrikaner population, by means of case-control association studies. Although no statistically significant genotypic or allelic associations were detected, the data yielded interesting preliminary results that warrant further discussion and investigation.


Henderson, J. M., S. Watson, et al. (2003). "Relationships between various behavioural abnormalities and nigrostriatal dopamine depletion in the unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rat." Behav Brain Res 139(1-2): 105-13.

            While rotational asymmetry is used as a characteristic behavioural sign of striatal dopamine (DA) loss in unilateral animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), there is relatively little analysis of how other common behavioural deficits relate to nigrostriatal DA depletion. We analysed the relationships between several deficits induced by unilateral 6-OHDA lesions and striatal neurochemistry, as well as neuronal loss in the dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN). Behaviour was evaluated from before until 6 weeks after surgery and abnormalities appeared in body axis, head position and sensorimotor performance as well as apomorphine-induced rotation. As expected, rotational behaviour correlated with striatal DA loss and not with other striatal neurotransmitters measured. Similar observations were found for sensorimotor deficits ('disengage task'). Both deficits were observed in rats with >70% loss of TH+ nigral neurons and >80% loss of striatal DA. Additional postural abnormalities appeared with mean losses of 87% of nigral DA neurons and 97% striatal DA, consistent with observations in patients with advanced PD. The data show that the repertoire of behavioural abnormalities manifested by hemiparkinsonian rats relate directly to the degree of nigrostriatal DA loss and, therefore, mimic features of PD. Analysis of such behaviours are relevant for chronic therapeutic studies targeting PD.


Hilker, R., J. Voges, et al. (2003). "Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus does not increase the striatal dopamine concentration in parkinsonian humans." Mov Disord 18(1): 41-8.

            Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has become an effective treatment option in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent animal studies showed an increase of neuronal firing in dopaminergic neurons under effective STN-DBS. Increased striatal dopamine levels may also contribute to the stimulation's mechanism of action in humans. We investigated the striatal dopamine release in 6 patients with advanced PD under effective bilateral STN-DBS with positron emission tomography (PET) of the reversible dopamine-D2/3-receptor ligand [(11)C]raclopride (RACLO). Although STN-DBS proved to be a highly effective treatment in these subjects, we found no significant difference of the striatal RACLO binding between the STN-DBS-on and -off condition. The changes of radioligand binding did not correlate with the patients' improvement in clinical rating scales or with the stimulation amplitudes. Therefore, our PET data in living parkinsonian humans do not provide evidence for an increased striatal dopamine concentration under effective STN-DBS. We conclude that the modulation of dopaminergic activity does not seem to play a crucial role for the stimulation's mechanisms of action in parkinsonian humans.


Hiller, F. C., V. Alderfer, et al. (2003). "Long-term use of Viozan (sibenadet HCl) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results of a 1-year study." Respir Med 97 Suppl A: S45-52.

            Viozan (sibenadet HCl, AR-C68397AA) is a novel dual D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist that has been investigated for efficacy in alleviating the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The slowly progressive nature of this disease means that patients will require ongoing therapeutic management for many years, or even decades. With such long-term treatment, the safety profile of new agents will be of paramount importance. As part of the large-scale assessment of sibenadet, a 12-month safety study has been conducted. Following completion of a 2-week baseline period, 435 adults with stable, symptomatic, smoking-related COPD were randomized to receive either 500 microg sibenadet or placebo delivered via pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), three times daily for 52 weeks. Sibenadet therapy was generally well tolerated, with the only notable differences seen in the incidence of tremor and taste of treatment (16.9% vs. 4.1% and 14.5% vs. 4.1% in the sibenadet and placebo groups respectively). There were a total of 79 patients with serious adverse events (SAEs), 43 (14.8%) in the sibenadet pMDI group and 36 (24.8%) in the placebo group. No clinically significant abnormal laboratory values or overall differences between treatment groups were noted. Similarly, there were no clinically significant differences between the two treatment groups for cardiac variables, or in vital signs. The secondary variables showed no notable differences with respect to lung function, exacerbations or health-related quality of life. Due to the effective beta2-agonist properties, patients in the sibenadet group did, however, report reduced rescue medication usage at all timepoints. While the results of this study show that, overall, sibenadet therapy was well tolerated, the lack of sustained benefit reported in large-scale clinical efficacy studies means that sibenadet development will not be continued.


Hirokawa, Y., I. Fujiwara, et al. (2003). "Synthesis and structure-affinity relationships of novel N-(1-ethyl-4-methylhexahydro-1,4-diazepin-6-yl)pyridine-3-carboxamides with potent serotonin 5-HT3 and dopamine D2 receptor antagonistic activity." J Med Chem 46(5): 702-15.

            A structurally original series of N-(1-ethyl-4-methylhexahydro-1,4-diazepin-6-yl)pyridine-3-carboxamides derived from the corresponding benzamide 5 were prepared and evaluated for their binding affinity for the dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(3) receptors using rat striatum and rat cortical membrane, respectively. Many of the synthesized pyridine-3-carboxamides exhibited nanomolar binding affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor along with moderate to high binding affinity for the dopamine D(2) receptor. Introduction of the more lipophilic bromine atom and methylamino group at the 5- and 6-positions of the pyridine ring, respectively, enhanced the affinity for the dopamine D(2) receptor while keeping a potent serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor binding affinity. As a result of structure-affinity relationships, the 5-bromo-2-methoxy-6-methylaminopyridine-3-carboxamide 53 was selected as the most promising product showing a high binding affinity for both receptors. Compound 53 affinity for the dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(3) receptors was much more potent than that of metoclopramide (dopamine D(2) receptor; 23.3 nM vs 444 nM, serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor; 0.97 nM vs 228 nM). Optical resolution of the racemate 53 brought about a dramatic change in the pharmacological profile with (R)-53 exhibiting a strong affinity for both the dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(3) receptors, while the corresponding (S)-53 had a potent serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor binding affinity and a moderate dopamine D(2) receptor binding affinity. X-ray crystallographic study of (R)-53 revealed the existence of two energically stable conformers just like two mirror images. This may account for (R)-53 high affinity for both the dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(3) receptors. Pharmacologically, (R)-53 [AS-8112] showed a potent antagonistic activity for both the dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(3) receptors in vivo tests and dose-dependently inhibited both the incidence and frequency of emetic episodes induced by cisplatin (ferrets) and morphine (dogs) with ID(50) values of 27.1 microg/kg, po and 136 microg/kg, po, respectively. On the basis of this pharmacological profile, (R)-53 is now under further investigation as a potential broad antiemetic agent.


Hirsch, E. C., G. Orieux, et al. (2003). "Nondopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease." Adv Neurol 91: 29-37.


Hitzemann, R., B. Hitzemann, et al. (2003). "Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding, Drd2 Expression and the Number of Dopamine Neurons in the BXD Recombinant Inbred Series: Genetic Relationships to Alcohol and Other Drug Associated Phenotypes." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(1): 1-11.

            BACKGROUND It has not been established to what extent the natural variation in dopamine systems contribute to the variation in ethanol response. The current study addresses this issue by measuring D dopamine (DA) receptor binding, the expression of, the number of midbrain DA neurons in the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) series and then compares these strain means with those previously reported for a variety of ethanol and other drug-related phenotypes.(2)METHODS Data were collected for 21 to 23 of the BXD RI strains and the parental strains. D DA receptor autoradiography was performed using I-epidepride as the ligand [ Kanes S, Dains K, Cipp L, Gatley J, Hitzemann B, Rasmussen E, Sanderson S, Silverman S, Hitzemann R (1996) Mapping the genes for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 277:1016-1025]. expression was measured using the Affymetrix oligoarray system. Immunocytochemical techniques were used to determine the number of midbrain DA neurons [Hitzemann B, Dains K, Hitzemann R (1994) Further studies on the relationship between dopamine cell density and haloperidol response. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 271:969-976].(2)RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The range of difference in receptor binding for the RI strains was approximately 2-fold in all regions examined, the core, the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPu); heritability in all regions was moderate-( 2 approximately 0.35). expression in forebrain samples from the RI and parental strains ranged 1.5- to 2-fold and was moderate-0.47. Variation in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons was moderate, 41% and 26% and was low-0.19 and 0.15 for the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra compacta (SNc), respectively. Significant correlations were found between D DA receptor binding and the low dose (1.33 g/kg) ethanol stimulant response. ( < 0.002) and between expression and conditioned place preference (CPP) ( < 0.0005). No significant correlations were detected between ethanol preference and either receptor binding or expression; however, a significant correlation was found between preference and expression. is approximately 0.2 Mb from. Overall, the data suggest ethanol preference and CPP are associated with the expression of or closely linked genetic loci.(2)


Hogl, B., K. Seppi, et al. (2003). "Increased daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease: A questionnaire survey." Mov Disord 18(3): 319-23.

            We evaluated the frequency and severity of excessive daytime sleepiness in an outpatient population with Parkinson's disease in comparison to age-matched controls and examined its relationship with antiparkinsonian drug therapy and sleep history. Increased daytime sleepiness and involuntary sleep episodes have been described in Parkinson's disease, but the etiology is not completely understood. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), a validated questionnaire for daytime sleepiness, was prospectively administered to 99 consecutive outpatients with Parkinson's disease and 44 age-matched controls. In addition, a short sleep-screening questionnaire was used. The ESS revealed significantly increased daytime sleepiness in PD patients compared to controls (7.5 +/- 4.6 vs. 5.8 +/- 3.0, P = 0.013). The ESS score was abnormally high (10 or more) in 33 % of PD patients and 11.4% of controls (P = 0.001). ESS was not different between PD patients on levodopa monotherapy and those on levodopa and dopamine agonists, or between patients taking ergoline or non-ergoline dopamine agonists. In PD patients and in controls, sleepiness was significantly associated with reported heavy snoring. Increased daytime sleepiness is more frequent in patients with PD than in elderly controls. Similar to controls, increased daytime sleepiness in PD patients is correlated with heavy snoring. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society


Holmes, C. L. and K. R. Walley (2003). "Bad medicine: low-dose dopamine in the ICU." Chest 123(4): 1266-75.

            Low-dose dopamine administration (ie, doses < 5 micro g/kg/min) has been advocated for 30 years as therapy in oliguric patients on the basis of its action on dopaminergic renal receptors. Recently, a large, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial has demonstrated that low-dose dopamine administered to critically ill patients who are at risk of renal failure does not confer clinically significant protection from renal dysfunction. In this review, we present the best evidence and summarize the effects of low-dose dopamine infusion in critically ill patients. We review the history and physiology of low-dose dopamine administration and discuss the reasons why dopamine is not clinically effective in the critically ill. In addition to the lack of renal efficacy, we present evidence that low-dose dopamine administration worsens splanchnic oxygenation, impairs GI function, impairs the endocrine and immunologic systems, and blunts ventilatory drive. We conclude that there is no justification for the use of low-dose dopamine administration in the critically ill.


Homann, C. N., K. Wenzel, et al. (2003). "Sleep attacks--facts and fiction: a critical review." Adv Neurol 91: 335-41.


Homicsko, K. G., I. Kertesz, et al. (2003). "Binding site of salsolinol: its properties in different regions of the brain and the pituitary gland of the rat." Neurochem Int 42(1): 19-26.

            It has been recently shown that salsolinol (SAL) is present in the hypothalamic neuroendocrine dopaminergic (NEDA) system and appears to be a selective and potent stimulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion in the rat. Furthermore, the lack of interference of SAL with 3H-spiperone binding in the striatum and the anterior lobe (AL) of the pituitary gland has been also demonstrated. These data clearly indicate that SAL does not act at the dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, and suggest that SAL supposedly has a binding site through which the secretion of PRL may be affected. Therefore, binding of 3H-SAL to different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) has been investigated. Specific and saturable binding has been detected in the striatum, cortex, median eminence and in the hypothalamus as well as in the AL and the neuro-intermediate lobe (NIL) of the pituitary gland. K(D) values of the bindings were in the nanomolar range in all tissue tested. 3H-SAL displacing activity of several agonists and antagonists of known DA receptors have also been tested. It has been found that DA and in a lesser extent, apomorphine could displace 3H-SAL, but other DA receptor specific ligands have not been able to affect it. Furthermore, several pharmacologically active compounds, selected on the basis of their influence on DA synthesis, transport mechanisms and signal transduction, have also been tested. Neither mazindol (a selective DA transporter inhibitor) nor clonidine (an alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist) could alter SAL binding. At the same time, L-dopa, carbidopa, benserazide and alpha-methyldopa were able to displace 3H-SAL. The possible changes in SAL binding due to physiological and pharmacological stimuli, like suckling stimulus and reserpine pretreatment (that blocks vesicular monoamine transport in DA terminals), respectively, have also been investigated. In the NIL of the pituitary gland and in the median eminence of the hypothalamus the binding decreased following 10 min of suckling stimulus compared to the binding detected in the same tissues obtained from mothers separated from their pups for 4h and not allowed to be suckled. At the same time, there were no changes in the binding at the AL and striatum. Following reserpine pretreatment that has completely prevented PRL releasing effect of SAL, the binding was significantly augmented. These results support our assumption that SAL should have specific binding sites through which it can affect PRL secretion. Furthermore, it clearly suggests that it may regulate DAergic neurotransmission of NEDA neurons by an altered intracellular or intraterminal synthesis and/or distribution of hypophysiotropic DA.


Hong, C. J., C. Y. Cheng, et al. (2003). "Association study of the dopamine and serotonin transporter genetic polymorphisms and methamphetamine abuse in Chinese males." J Neural Transm 110(4): 345-51.

            The dopamine transporter (DAT) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) play important roles in methamphetamine (METH) dependence because they are the target of METH action. For this study, the association between the DAT and 5-HTT polymorphisms and METH dependence were investigated for a Chinese-male sample population. The investigated polymorphisms included those of the DAT 3'-variable number tandem repeat, the 5-HTT gene promoter and a 5-HTT variable number tandem repeat polymorphisms. No significant difference was demonstrated for genotype or allele frequency, when comparing METH dependent and control cases for the DAT and the 5-HTT polymorphisms. The findings of this study suggest that these polymorphisms do not play major roles in METH dependence in the Chinese-male population.


Horstink, M. W., E. Strijks, et al. (2003). "Estrogen and Parkinson's disease." Adv Neurol 91: 107-14.


Hosoi, R., M. Ishikawa, et al. (2003). "Effect of rolipram on muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the intact mouse brain." J Neural Transm 110(4): 363-72.

            The effect of rolipram, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE(4)) and elevating cyclic AMP (cAMP), on in vivo and in vitro (3)H-N-methylpiperidyl benzilate ((3)H-NMPB) binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the mouse brain was examined. Rolipram significantly decreased in vivo (3)H-NMPB binding in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, whereas in vitro (3)H-NMPB binding in these regions was not altered. Saturation experiments on in vivo binding in conjunction with the kinetic analysis revealed that the apparent association rate constant (k(on)) of (3)H-NMPB binding in vivo was significantly decreased by rolipram. A similar decrease in the apparent association rate constant (k(on)) by rolipram was reported for dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptor binding in vivo. These results indicate that rolipram plays an important role in the global modulation of apparent rates of ligand-receptor interactions in the intact brain.


Houeto, J. L., V. Mesnage, et al. (2003). "Subthalamic DBS replaces levodopa in Parkinson's disease: two-year follow-up." Neurology 60(1): 154-5; author reply 154-5.


How, C. K., C. H. Chern, et al. (2003). "Tetrodotoxin poisoning." Am J Emerg Med 21(1): 51-4.

            Tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning, although uncommon, is frequently seen in Taiwan, Japan, and Southeast Asia. It is rare but significant in the United States as well. Only three cases have been reported in the EM literature. We report an outbreak of six cases of TTX poisoning from eating puffer fish. On April 17, 2001, an outbreak of TTX poisoning occurred among Mainland Chinese fishermen who shared puffer fish on their boat in the Taiwan Strait. All six cases were middle-aged men (aged 32-49 yr). Onset of symptoms began approximately 2 to 3 hours after ingestion; symptoms included orolingual numbness, acroparesthesia, and breathlessness. As a result of delayed transportation and initial resuscitation, one patient presented in full cardiac arrest, with recovery of spontaneous circulation after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. With the exception of this patient, the initial acid-base abnormalities were inconsistent with severity of illness and mild hypercapnia was common (4 out of 5). The patient who presented in full arrest died 1 day after admission as a result of intractable bradycardia (complete atrioventricular block), a finding rarely mentioned in the literature, despite intravenous atropine and dopamine infusion. The remaining patients survived without significant sequelae and were discharged after short-term observation and supportive care, although some had neurologic and cardiopulmonary manifestations (muscle weakness, hypotension, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia). Some mildly hypoventilated patients recovered well without endotracheal intubation and ventilatory support. Favorable outcomes in most patients can be obtained if aggressive supportive treatment is provided in time. Thus, appropriate prehospital and ED ventilatory support (the implementation of a bag-valve mask or endotracheal intubation with good ventilatory support) is mandatory for those patients with respiratory failure. Most patients experience onset of symptoms within 6 hours of ingestion, but a few have a delayed onset up to 20 hours. Therefore, for those TTX-intoxicated patients without immediate prominent respiratory insufficiency, at least 24 hours of intensive monitoring of their respiratory state is necessary because of the different susceptibility and unpredictability of an individual course.


Hsieh-Wilson, L. C., F. Benfenati, et al. (2003). "Phosphorylation of spinophilin modulates its interaction with actin filaments." J Biol Chem 278(2): 1186-94.

            Spinophilin is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)- and actin-binding protein that modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine morphology. We report that spinophilin is phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase A (PKA). Phosphorylation of spinophilin was stimulated by treatment of neostriatal neurons with a dopamine D1 receptor agonist or with forskolin, consistent with spinophilin being a substrate for PKA in intact cells. Using tryptic phosphopeptide mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and microsequencing analysis, we identified two major sites of phosphorylation, Ser-94 and Ser-177, that are located within the actin-binding domain of spinophilin. Phosphorylation of spinophilin by PKA modulated the association between spinophilin and the actin cytoskeleton. Following subcellular fractionation, unphosphorylated spinophilin was enriched in the postsynaptic density, whereas a pool of phosphorylated spinophilin was found in the cytosol. F-actin co-sedimentation and overlay analysis revealed that phosphorylation of spinophilin reduced the stoichiometry of the spinophilin-actin interaction. In contrast, the ability of spinophilin to bind to PP1 remained unchanged. Taken together, our studies suggest that phosphorylation of spinophilin by PKA modulates the anchoring of the spinophilin-PP1 complex within dendritic spines, thereby likely contributing to the efficacy and plasticity of synaptic transmission.


Hsin, L. W., T. Prisinzano, et al. (2003). "Synthesis and dopamine transporter affinity of chiral 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(2-hydroxypropyl)piperazines as potential cocaine abuse therapeutic agents." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13(3): 553-6.

            A series of optically pure phenyl-and non-phenyl-substituted 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(2-hydroxypropyl)piperazines was synthesized and their binding affinity for dopamine transporter (DAT) was investigated. The analogues with a hydroxyl group in the S configuration were more selective for the DAT over the serotonin transporter (SERT) than the corresponding R enantiomers. Compound (+)-11 showed high affinity and selectivity for DAT over the SERT and, therefore, is a potential candidate for the development of a long-acting cocaine abuse therapeutic agent.


Hu, M. and J. B. Becker (2003). "Effects of sex and estrogen on behavioral sensitization to cocaine in rats." J Neurosci 23(2): 693-9.

            Estrogen rapidly enhances dopamine (DA) activity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens as well as behavioral responses to psychomotor stimulants in female rats but not males. This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of pulsatile estrogen treatment on and sex differences in the development and expression of sensitization of cocaine-induced rotational behavior in rats with unilateral striatal DA denervation. Four groups were tested: ovariectomized (OVX) females treated with 5 microg of estradiol benzoate (OVX+E), OVX females, castrated (CAST) males, and intact males. Animals received estrogen or vehicle 30 min before cocaine (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) on 4 consecutive days, followed by 3 d without treatment for 3 weeks. At the conclusion of the experiment, animals were withdrawn from hormone and/or cocaine for 10 d, and all groups underwent a challenge test with 10 mg/kg cocaine. We report here that OVX+E females exhibit significantly greater sensitization of rotational behavior with a faster rate of sensitization than the three other groups. There is also a sex difference independent of gonadal hormones: OVX females exhibit a greater magnitude of sensitization of rotational behavior than do CAST males at 20 mg/kg cocaine. Furthermore, on the challenge test, OVX+E animals tested without estrogen treatment continue to exhibit greater rotational behavior than do all other groups. Thus, estrogen enhances sensitization to cocaine, there are sex differences in behavioral sensitization, and sensitization that develops under conditions with estrogen persists even when estrogen levels are low.


Huang, W. S., K. H. Ma, et al. (2003). "99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT in healthy and 6-OHDA lesioned parkinsonian monkeys: comparison with 18F-FDOPA PET." Nucl Med Commun 24(1): 77-83.

            SUMMARY Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, leading to a selective loss of dopamine in the striatum. Tc-TRODAT-1 is a recently developed radiotracer that selectively binds to the dopamine transporters, which are significant because loss of these transporters corresponds with a loss of dopaminergic neurons. The present investigation compared Tc-TRODAT-1 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with F-FDOPA positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of PD using a primate model. Three monkeys, including one 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned PD model and two controls, were examined by both Tc-TRODAT-1 SPECT and F-FDOPA PET. For the PD monkey, expression of parkinsonian behaviour and F-FDOPA PET were used to evaluate the severity of the lesion. Tc-TRODAT-1 was prepared from a lyophilized kit. After intravenous injection of the radiotracer, SPECT was acquired over 4 h using a dual-head camera equipped with ultra-high resolution fan-beam collimators. Both uptake measurement and visual assessment were performed. Data were compared with motor behaviour and PET imaging. The striatal uptake in both healthy and PD monkeys increased continuously during the study, although the gradient of increase was less prominent in the diseased monkey. The increased uptake in the controls appeared to become blunt around 4 h after injection. A profound decrease of Tc-TRODAT-1 uptake was found in the striatum of the PD monkey compared with the controls (0.91 vs 2.16). In the PD monkey, the decrease of striatal uptake contralateral to the more affected side of the body was more prominent compared to the ipsilateral side (0.77 vs 1.06). In addition, greater loss occurred in the contralateral side of the putamen (0.54 vs 1.04). Changes of uptake ratios in the striatum and its subnuclei of the PD monkey were significantly correlated with those measured from PET. The loss of striatal uptake appeared greater in SPECT than the corresponding PET with both visual and uptake analyses. In conclusion, our data in a limited series of cases indicate that Tc-TRODAT-1 with a conventional nuclear medicine camera system may provide a suitable tool in evaluating parkinsonism in a primate model.


Huda, K. and K. Matsunami (2003). "Influence of dopamine on ventrolateral thalamic inputs in cat motor cortex." Brain Res 963(1-2): 178-89.

            Neuronal activity in several brain regions is modulated by dopaminergic inputs. When single neuronal activity/20 trials of single-pulse ventrolateral thalamic (VL) stimulation was extracellularly recorded in the in vivo, anesthetized cat motor cortex, iontophoretic application of dopamine (DA) elicited either suppression or, in a fewer instances, facilitation of evoked unitary responses. The predominant inhibition exerted by DA appeared to be consistent for successive trials, and a D(1), D(2), and D(1)/D(2) receptor antagonist restored the effect, thereby reflecting a possible coexistence of two DA receptors. By contrast, only a fewer neurons' response to DA displayed facilitation, which was not attenuated by DA antagonists. Moreover, subsequent trials with receptor agonist and antagonists induced inconsistent effects. Except for the jitters, single unit spikes showed invariant latency, which was constant during all recording parameters, and the mean latency remained unchanged. The modulatory effects mediated by DA did not reveal any substantial difference between short- and long-latency responses. Both pyramidal tract neurons and non-pyramidal tract neurons, determined on the basis of antidromic potentials from the pyramidal tract, responded to DA essentially in a similar manner. It appears that DA overall inhibits cat motor cortical neuronal activity in response to VL inputs. We propose that such DAergic inhibition of thalamocortical excitation in the motor cortex could be critical for ongoing sensorimotor transformation.


Huemer, K. H., G. Garhofer, et al. (2003). "Effects of dopamine on human retinal vessel diameter and its modulation during flicker stimulation." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 284(1): H358-63.

            We performed a randomized, subject-blinded, placebo and time-controlled, two-way crossover study in 12 healthy male subjects. Placebo or dopamine was administered on two separate study days. After saline infusion, dopamine hydrochloride was infused in three consecutive doses (5, 10, and 15 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Plasma levels of dopamine were determined at each perfusion step. Arterial and venous retinal vessel diameters were measured with the use of a Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer. Diffuse luminance flicker stimuli of 8 Hz were applied for 60 s. Blood pressure and pulse rate were monitored continuously. Flicker stimulation (8 Hz) increased retinal vessel diameters under basal conditions. The response to 8-Hz flicker light was significantly reduced by dopamine administration. In addition, dopamine slightly but significantly increased retinal vessel diameters. Dopamine hydrochloride significantly increased systolic but not diastolic or mean arterial pressure. The present study indicates that dopamine has a distinct effect on retinal vessel diameters also attenuating the flicker-induced response reactivity of retinal vessels. This implies a role of dopamine in retinal blood flow hemodynamics.


Hummel, M. and E. M. Unterwald (2003). "Intra-accumbens pertussis toxin sensitizes rats to the locomotor activating effects of a single cocaine challenge." Brain Res 965(1-2): 100-7.

            Drugs of abuse share common neurochemical signaling substrates, many of which are components of the cAMP cascade. Interestingly, a number of these substrates have been linked to drug-influenced behaviors. This study sought to understand the role of one signaling substrate, inhibitory G-proteins, in a drug-induced phenomenon known as behavioral sensitization. Specifically, we used pertussis toxin (PTX) as a tool to investigate the relationship between cocaine-induced alterations in cAMP signaling and behavior. Vehicle (1 micro l/side) or PTX (0.15 or 0.25 micro g/1 micro l/side) was bilaterally infused into the nucleus accumbens of rats. Locomotor activity was assessed on days 7, 14 and 21 post-infusion. Intra-accumbal PTX produced a dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity. On day 21 following behavioral monitoring for 1 h, rats were acutely challenged with cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and behavioral data were accumulated for an additional 2 h. Intra-accumbal PTX sensitized rats to the locomotor-activating effects of a single cocaine challenge which was dose-dependent. After behavioral testing, brains were removed and processed for in vitro receptor autoradiography using the D(1) receptor ligand [3H] SCH 23390. No changes in D(1) dopamine receptor binding were observed. These findings suggest a role for inhibitory proteins (G(i)/G(o)) within the nucleus acumbens in locomotor activity and also cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization.


Hungund, B. L., I. Szakall, et al. (2003). "Cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice exhibit markedly reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and lack alcohol-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens." J Neurochem 84(4): 698-704.

            The mechanisms underlying predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism are poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the role of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors in (i) voluntary alcohol consumption, and (ii) acute alcohol-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens, using mice that lack the CB1 receptor gene (CB1-/-). CB1-/- mice exhibited dramatically reduced voluntary alcohol consumption, and completely lacked alcohol-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens, as compared to wild-type mice. The gender difference, with female mice consuming significantly more alcohol than wild-type male mice, was observed in wild-type mice, whereas this gender difference was nonexistent in CB1 mutant male and female mice. There was also a significant gender difference, with the wild-type, heterozygous, and mutant females consuming significantly more liquid and food than wild-type, heterozygous and mutant males. However, the total volume of fluid consumption and food intake did not differ between wild-type, heterozygous, and mutant mice. These results strongly suggest that the CB1 receptor system plays an important role in regulating the positive reinforcing properties of alcohol.


Hurd, Y. L. (2003). "In situ hybridization with isotopic riboprobes for detection of striatal neuropeptide mRNA expression after dopamine stimulant administration." Methods Mol Med 79: 119-35.


Hurt, R. D., J. E. Krook, et al. (2003). "Nicotine patch therapy based on smoking rate followed by bupropion for prevention of relapse to smoking." J Clin Oncol 21(5): 914-20.

            PURPOSE: To determine whether (1) tailored nicotine patch therapy that is based on smoking rate can be carried out in a multisite oncology investigative group practice setting, (2) long-term use of bupropion reduces the rate of relapse to smoking in smokers who stop smoking with nicotine patch therapy, and (3) bupropion can initiate smoking abstinence among smokers who have failed to stop smoking after nicotine patch therapy. Participants and METHODS: Fourteen North Central Cancer Treatment Group sites recruited generally healthy adult smokers from the general population for nicotine patch therapy and based the patch dosage on smoking rates. At completion of nicotine patch therapy, nonsmoking participants were eligible to be assigned to bupropion or placebo for 6 months (for relapse prevention). and smoking participants were eligible to be assigned to bupropion or placebo for 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Of 578 subjects, 31% were abstinent from smoking at the end of nicotine patch therapy. Of those subjects not smoking at the end of nicotine patch therapy who entered the relapse prevention phase, 28% and 25% were not smoking at 6 months (the end of the medication phase) for bupropion and placebo, respectively (P =.73). For those still smoking at the end of nicotine patch therapy, 3.1% and 0.0% stopped smoking with bupropion or placebo, respectively (P =.12). CONCLUSION: Tailored nicotine patch therapy for the general population of smokers can be provided in a multisite oncology investigative group setting. Bupropion did not reduce relapse to smoking in smokers who stopped smoking with nicotine patch therapy. Bupropion did not initiate abstinence among smokers who failed to stop smoking with nicotine patch therapy.


Hussain, T. and M. F. Lokhandwala (2003). "Renal dopamine receptors and hypertension." Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 228(2): 134-42.

            Dopamine has been recognized as an important modulator of central as well as peripheral physiologic functions in both humans and animals. Dopamine receptors have been identified in a number of organs and tissues, which include several regions within the central nervous system, sympathetic ganglia and postganglionic nerve terminals, various vascular beds, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, and the kidney. The peripheral dopamine receptors influence cardiovascular and renal function by decreasing afterload and vascular resistance and promoting sodium excretion. Within the kidney, dopamine receptors are present along the nephron, with highest density on proximal tubule epithelial cells. It has been reported that there is a defective dopamine receptor, especially D(1) receptor function, in the proximal tubule of various animal models of hypertension as well as in humans with essential hypertension. Recent reports have revealed the site of and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the defect in D(1) receptors in hypertension. Moreover, recent studies have also demonstrated that the disruption of various dopamine receptor subtypes and their function produces hypertension in rodents. In this review, we present evidence that dopamine and dopamine receptors play an important role in regulating renal sodium excretion and that defective renal dopamine production and/or dopamine receptor function may contribute to the development of various forms of hypertension.


Hwang, J. J., E. M. Uchio, et al. (2003). "Diagnostic localization of malignant bladder pheochromocytoma using 6-18F fluorodopamine positron emission tomography." J Urol 169(1): 274-5.


Ibanez, A., C. Blanco, et al. (2003). "Genetics of pathological gambling." J Gambl Stud 19(1): 11-22.

            Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder and a model 'behavioral' addiction. Familial factors have been observed in clinical studies of pathological gamblers, and twin studies have demonstrated a genetic influence contributing to the development of PG. Serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic dysfunction have been reported as biological factors contributing to the pathophysiology of PG. Molecular genetic techniques have been used to investigate the role of genetic factors in PG. Molecular genetic research has identified specific allele variants of candidate genes corresponding to these neurotransmitter systems to be associated with PG. Associations have been reported between pathological gamblers and allele variants of polymorphisms at dopamine receptor genes, the serotonin transporter gene, and the monoamine-oxidase A gene. Although preliminary data suggest that some of these differences are gender-specific, more research needs to be performed to substantiate gender-specific genetic contributions to the development of pathological gambling. The review of the current findings on genetics of PG suggests that liability to PG is in part mediated by genetic factors. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend these findings, as well as to better understand the influence of specific allelic variants to differences in biological and behavioral functioning.


Ikeda, H., G. Akiyama, et al. (2003). "Role of AMPA and NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell in turning behaviour of rats: interaction with dopamine receptors." Neuropharmacology 44(1): 81-7.

            The role of AMPA and NMDA receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens in turning behaviour of rats was investigated. Unilateral injection of the AMPA receptor agonist, AMPA (0.25, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 microg), into the shell of the nucleus accumbens dose-dependently produced contraversive pivoting, namely tight head-to-tail turning marked by abnormal hindlimb backward stepping, while injection of AMPA (0.5 microg) into the core produced only a marginal effect. This shell-specific AMPA effect was dose-dependently inhibited by the AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX (1 and 10 ng), which alone did not produce turning behaviour. The AMPA-induced pivoting was also dose-dependently inhibited by the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.1 and 0.5 microg). Neither MK-801 (0.1, 0.5 and 5 microg) nor the NMDA receptor agonist, NMDA (0.5 and 1 microg), injected unilaterally into the shell, produced turning behaviour. Unilateral injection of a mixture of dopamine D(1) (SKF 38393, 5 microg) and D(2) (quinpirole, 10 microg) receptor agonists into the shell has been found to elicit contraversive pivoting. The dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor antagonist, cis-(Z)-flupentixol (1 and 10 microg), injected into the shell, in doses known to block dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor-mediated pivoting, also significantly inhibited AMPA (0.5 microg)-induced pivoting. Moreover, both NBQX (1 and 10 ng) and MK-801 (0.1 and 0.5 microg), injected into the shell, significantly inhibited dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor-mediated pivoting. It is therefore concluded that unilateral stimulation of AMPA receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens can elicit contraversive pivoting, and that both AMPA and dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptors play a critical role in shell-specific pivoting in contrast to NMDA receptors that at best play only a modulatory role.


Im, J. H., J. H. Ha, et al. (2003). "Ropinirole as an adjunct to levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: a 16-week bromocriptine controlled study." J Neurol 250(1): 90-6.

            BACKGROUND: and objectives Ropinirole is a non-ergoline, selective dopamine D(2) agonist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ropinirole as an adjunct to levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) complicated by motor fluctuations. METHODS: A total of 76 patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage II to IV) were included in this trial. Each patient was randomly allocated to receive either ropinirole (n = 37) or bromocriptine (n = 39) as an adjunct to levodopa over a 16-week period. Ropinirole and bromocriptine were titrated for optimal efficacy and tolerability. This optimal dose was then maintained for the rest of the study. Response rate was defined as the percentage of patients who achieved at least a 20 % reduction in levodopa dose. Clinical status was also assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and reduction in time spent 'off'. RESULTS: Ropinirole produced a significantly greater response rate than bromocriptine (odds ratio 2.995, 95 % C. I. (1.157, 7.751) p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference between the groups in the proportion of patients who were 'improved' on the CGI improvement scale (91.9 % for ropinirole, 74.3 % for bromocriptine, p = 0.046). Other measures, including at least a 20 % improvement in the UPDRS motor score (70 % for ropinirole and 63.3 % for bromocriptine), and a 20 % reduction in 'off' duration (81 % for ropinirole and 52.4 % for bromocriptine) showed a trend in favour of ropinirole. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the overall incidence of adverse effects (ropinirole, 59.5 %; bromocriptine, 59 %). In each group, the most common side-effects were dizziness, dyskinesia and nausea/vomiting. No patients were withdrawn from the study because of side-effects. CONCLUSION: Ropinirole was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Ropinirole as an adjunct to levodopa in the treatment of PD with motor fluctuation was associated with more significant reduction of levodopa dose and, on one form of analysis, with significantly greater improvement in CGI ratings than bromocriptine. On the other efficacy measures the two drugs were comparable.


Inazu, M., H. Takeda, et al. (2003). "Functional expression of the norepinephrine transporter in cultured rat astrocytes." J Neurochem 84(1): 136-44.

            We assessed the functional expression of the norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Specific [3H]NE uptake increased in a time-dependent manner, and this uptake involves temperature- and Na+-sensitive mechanisms. The Na+-dependent [3H]NE uptake was saturable, and the Km for the process was 539.3 +/- 55.4 nm and the Vmax was 1.41 +/- 0.03 pmol/mg protein/min. Ouabain, a Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, significantly inhibited Na+-dependent [3H]NE uptake. The selective NE uptake inhibitor nisoxetine, the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine and imipramine, and the serotonin and NE reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) milnacipran very potently inhibited Na+-dependent [3H]NE uptake. On the other hand, GBR-12935 (a selective dopamine uptake inhibitor), fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), venlafaxine (a SNRI) and cocaine had weaker inhibitory activities. RT-PCR demonstrated that astrocytes expressed mRNA for the cloned NET protein, which was characterized as neuronal NET. Western blots indicated that anti-NET polyclonal antibody recognized a major band of 80 kDa in astrocytes. These data indicate that the neuronal NET is functionally expressed in cultured rat astrocytes. Glial cells may exert significant control of noradrenergic activity by inactivating NE that escapes neuronal re-uptake in sites distant from terminals, and are thus cellular targets for antidepressant drugs that inhibit NE uptake.


Ind, P. W., L. Laitinen, et al. (2003). "Early clinical investigation of Viozan (sibenadet HCl), a novel D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms." Respir Med 97 Suppl A: S9-21.

            Viozan, (Sibenadet HCl, AR-C68397AA) is a dual D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist that combines bronchodilator activity with the sensory afferent modulating effects associated with D2-receptor agonism. Investigation in animal models of key chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms has demonstrated that sibenadet effectively inhibits sensory nerve activity, thereby reducing reflex cough, mucus production and tachypnoea. The results of the early clinical evaluation of this novel agent are reported. An initial proof of concept study (Study 1) aimed to determine the clinical potential of this novel agent by assessing the effects of three doses of sibenadet therapy relative to placebo, with two commonly used bronchodilators, intended to provide a benchmark against which sibenadet activity could be judged. In all, 701 patients were randomized to one of three sibenadet dose groups (400, 600 or 1000 microg ex valve), salbutamol 200 microg, ipratropium bromide (IB) 40 microg or placebo, all three times daily via pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) for 4 weeks. Once the results of Study 1 had been evaluated, a dose-ranging, study (Study 2) involving 872 patients randomized to receive sibenadet (45, 270, or 495 microg ex actuator), or placebo all three times daily via pMDI, for 6 weeks commenced. Both studies were preceded by a 2-week baseline phase and followed by a 2-week follow up period.The primary efficacy variable identified changes in key COPD symptoms over the treatment period (compared with baseline data) as determined by the novel Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS). In addition, data on lung function, health-related quality of life and adverse events were collected. Patients receiving sibenadet therapy three times daily exhibited statistically significantly greater improvements in BCSS total score than those receiving placebo or bronchodilator therapy alone. A clear dose-response was evident in Study 2. Symptom improvement in this study was also accompanied by improved lung function and health-related quality of life. Sibenadet therapy was well tolerated with an adverse events profile comparable to current bronchodilator therapy. These data were viewed as extremely encouraging, warranting further, large-scale clinical investigation.


Inoue-Matsuhisa, E., S. E. Moroi, et al. (2003). "5-HT(2) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine ciliary epithelium." J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 19(1): 55-62.

            The serotonin 2 (5-HT(2)) receptor antagonists, MCI-9042 (Anplag) and ketanserin, have been shown to lower intraocular pressure in rabbits (1) and humans (2). The mechanism of action of these drugs has not been determined, but it is hypothesized that 5-HT(2) receptors, and possibly alpha-adrenergic receptors, (3) may regulate in part aqueous humor production via an intracellular signal transduction pathway in the ciliary body. We therefore examined whether 5-HT(2) receptors were coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in an organ culture system of isolated bovine ciliary epithelium. 5-HT stimulated [(3)H]inositol phosphates ([(3)H]InsPs) accumulation in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum increase approximately twice over the basal level. The mean EC(50) value was 1.1 microM, which was calculated from four dose-response curves. The 5-HT stimulated accumulation of [(3)H]InsPs was inhibited by spiperone (5-HT(2A/1A) and dopamine 2 (D(2)) antagonists), M-1 (a major metabolite of MCI-9042), ketanserin (5-HT(2A) antagonist), SB-206553 (5- HT(2B/2C) antagonist), and mesulergine (5-HT(2C) antagonist and D(2) agonist). It was not inhibited by chlorpromazine, which is a D(2) receptor antagonist. Accordingly, our study demonstrates that 5-HT(2) receptors are coupled to phospholipase C in bovine ciliary epithelium.


Invernizzi, R. W., C. Garavaglia, et al. (2003). "The alpha(2)-Adrenoceptor Antagonist Idazoxan Reverses Catalepsy Induced by Haloperidol in Rats Independent of Striatal Dopamine Release: Role of Serotonergic Mechanisms." Neuropsychopharmacology.

            The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan may improve motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease and experimental Parkinsonism. We studied the effect of idazoxan on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats, an animal model of the drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects in man. Catalepsy was induced by a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) and measured by the bar test for a maximum of 5 min. At 3 h after haloperidol, rats were given 0.16-5.0 mg/kg s.c. idazoxan, and descent latency was measured 1 h later. Idazoxan potently reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy with an ED(50) of 0.25 mg/kg. This effect was mimicked by the selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist RS-15385-197 (0.3 and 1 mg/kg orally). We assessed how dopaminergic mechanisms were involved in the anticataleptic effect of idazoxan by studying its effect on dopamine (DA) release in the striatum, with the microdialysis technique in conscious rats. Idazoxan (0.3 and 2.5 mg/kg) had no effect on extracellular DA and did not modify the rise of extracellular DA induced by haloperidol, indicating that changes of striatal DA release were not involved in the reversal of catalepsy. The anticataleptic effect of 2.5 mg/kg idazoxan (haloperidol+vehicle 288+/-8 s, haloperidol+idazoxan 47+/-22 s) was attenuated in rats given an intraventricular injection of 150 &mgr;g of the serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (haloperidol+vehicle 275+/-25 s, haloperidol+idazoxan 137+/-28 s). The 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100 635 (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect the anticataleptic effect of idazoxan. The results suggest that idazoxan reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy by a mechanism involving blockade of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and, at least in part, 5-HT neurons.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 19 March 2003; doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300119


Ishida, H., K. Mitsui, et al. (2003). "Study of active substances involved in skin dysfunction induced by crowding stress. I. Effect of crowding and isolation on some physiological variables, skin function and skin blood perfusion in hairless mice." Biol Pharm Bull 26(2): 170-81.

            The effects of five levels of population density on various organs, the neuroendocrine system, skin function, skin blood perfusion, and blood parameters were studied in the hairless mouse. Skin barrier recovery was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss after tape stripping. Blood perfusion was measured by means of a laser Doppler imaging technique. The effect of a parasympathetic nerve stimulator, carpronium chloride, on skin function in the crowded animal model was also examined. A 7 d crowding (10, 15, 20 mice/cage) significantly increased the levels of corticosterone, catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine), glucose and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in circulating blood, induced atrophy of kidney, ovary and thymus and hypertrophy of adrenal glands, and decreased body weight gain in comparison with the control (5 mice/cage). Crowding also increased epidermal thickness and epidermal proliferative activity, and decreased corneocyte size, rate of barrier recovery and skin blood perfusion. Most of these changes became more marked with increasing population density and/or longer exposure to a crowded environment. Isolation (1 mouse/cage) increased the level of norepinephrine and rate of skin blood perfusion, and significantly delayed barrier recovery. Repeated topical applications of carpronium chloride for 7 d improved the changes in skin blood perfusion, barrier recovery, kidney and ovary, and epidermal morphology induced by crowding. The crowded animal model could be useful for quantifying objectively the influence of crowded environment-induced stress on cutaneous function and blood perfusion.


Ishiwata, K., Y. Koyanagi, et al. (2003). "No reduction of dopamine transporter binding sites in mice following treatment with the TIQ analogue 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline." Brain Res 960(1-2): 282-5.

            1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-BnTIQ) and TIQ are endogenous substances inducing bradykinesia, one of the symptoms of parkinsonism, in rodents and primates, and 2-methyl-TIQ is postulated to be an active form of TIQ. We investigated the effect of 1-BnTIQ-, TIQ- or 2-methyl-TIQ-treatment on the binding of 2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)-[N-methyl-11C]tropane to striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) in mice. Neither 1-BnTIQ (80 mg/kg, i.p., twice per day for 10 days) nor 2-methyl-TIQ (40 mg/kg, i.p., twice per day for 10 days) affected the radioligand-DAT binding, while TIQ (80 mg/kg, i.p., twice per day for 10 days) induced a 14% decrease. These results indicate that 1-BnTIQ does not affect the density of DATs on dopaminergic neurons, and that it is not clear whether or not 2-methyl-TIQ is an active form of TIQ.


Iskedjian, M. and T. R. Einarson (2003). "Cost analysis of ropinirole versus levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease." Pharmacoeconomics 21(2): 115-27.

            BACKGROUND: Not all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) respond to levodopa and others develop dyskinesias. Ropinirole, a dopamine agonist, is associated with fewer dyskinesias than levodopa. OBJECTIVE: To examine the economic impact of reducing dyskinesias using ropinirole instead of levodopa plus benserazide in PD was examined. The research question addressed was: is the added cost of ropinirole offset by savings due to avoided cases of dyskinesia? METHODS: A cost-minimisation analysis was performed from both the societal and Ministry of Health (MoH) of Ontario, Canada perspectives, using 5-year data from a study of dyskinesia outcomes comparing ropinirole with levodopa plus benserazide. A predictive model was developed to capture resource utilisation over 5 years, such as medication costs, medical consultations, hospital admissions, nursing home admissions, caregiver time and productivity loss. The model was based on a previously reported clinical trial which determined dyskinesia rates to be 20% for ropinirole and 45% for levodopa. Standard costing lists were used, and costs were discounted at various rates. Constant 1999 Canadian dollars ($Can) were applied, and no increases were assumed over the time horizon of the analysis. A multivariate sensitivity analysis with changes in key parameters was also performed. RESULTS: From a societal perspective, ropinirole was cost saving. From the MoH perspective, the analysis yielded an incremental expected daily cost/patient of $Can4.41 for substituting levodopa plus benserazide with ropinirole. Ropinirole resulted in daily savings/patient of $Can0.17 in non-drug healthcare costs. In the sensitivity analysis, the direction of results did not change despite changes of 15 to 20% in key parameters, suggesting robustness of the model. CONCLUSIONS: From the societal perspective, in comparison with levodopa plus benserazide, the added cost of ropinirole is offset by savings due to avoided cases of dyskinesia.


Ito, H., H. Nomoto, et al. (2003). "Neurotrophins facilitate synthesis of choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase in cultured mouse neural stem cells independently of their neuronal differentiation." Neurosci Lett 339(3): 231-4.

            Effects of three neurotrophins, i.e., nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin-3, on the expression of four neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes, i.e. choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), and glutamate decarboxylase 65 were investigated in cultured mouse neural stem cells. All three neurotrophins enhanced the mRNA expression of ChAT, TH, or DBH of the cells caused to differentiate by the removal of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from the culture medium, and increased the protein and mRNA levels of ChAT and TH of even the undifferentiated proliferating neural stem cells due to the presence of FGF-2. These results demonstrate that neurotrophins stimulate the synthesis of ChAT and TH of the neural stem cells prior to neuronal differentiation, and suggest that neurotrophins may play roles in the commitment to neuronal cells and choice of specific neurotransmitter phenotypes in early stages of neurogenesis.


Ivanova, T. and C. Beyer (2003). "Estrogen regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the neonate mouse midbrain." J Neurobiol 54(4): 638-47.

            Estrogen plays an important role during differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This is indicated by the presence of estrogen receptors and the transient expression of the estrogen-forming enzyme aromatase within the dopaminergic cell groups. We have previously shown that estrogen regulates the plasticity of dopamine cells through the stimulation of neurite growth/arborization. In this study, we have analyzed the capability of estrogen to influence the activity of developing mouse dopamine neurons. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was assessed by competitive RT-PCR and Western blotting. The developmental expression of TH in the ventral midbrain was studied from embryonic day 15 until postnatal day 15 and revealed highest TH levels early postnatally. This profile coincides with the transient aromatase expression in this brain area. Using cultured midbrain cells, we found that estrogen increased TH mRNA/protein levels. The application of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 resulted in a complete inhibition of estrogen effects. To verify these data in vivo, fetuses were exposed in utero from E15 until birth to the aromatase inhibitor CGS 16949A or to CGS supplemented with estrogen. CGS caused a robust reduction in TH mRNA/protein levels in the midbrain, which could be restored by estrogen substitution. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that estrogen controls dopamine synthesis in the developing nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and support the concept that estrogen is implicated in the regulation of ontogenetic steps but also in the function of midbrain dopamine neurons.


Iwamoto, T., S. Okumura, et al. (2003). "Motor dysfunction in type 5 adenylyl cyclase-null mice." J Biol Chem.

            Various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP, which regulates neuronal functions. Genetic disruption of the type 5 adenylyl cyclase isoform led to a major loss of adenylyl cyclase activity in a striatum-specific manner with a small increase in the expression of a few other adenylyl cyclase isoforms. D1 dopaminergic agonist-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was attenuated and this was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the D1 dopaminergic receptor and Gs-alpha. D2 dopaminergic agonist-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity was also blunted. Type 5 adenylyl cyclase-null mice exhibited motor dysfunction, i.e., abnormal coordination and bradykinesia detected by rotarod and pole test, respectively, to a lesser extent, locomotor impairment by open filed tests. Selective D1 or D2 dopaminergic stimulation improved a part of these disorders in this mouse model, suggesting the partial compensation of each dopaminergic receptor signal through the stimulation of remnant adenylyl cyclase isoforms. These findings extend our knowledge of the role of an effecter enzyme isoform in regulating receptor signaling and neuronal functions, and imply that this isoform provides a site of convergence of both D1 and D2 dopaminergic signals and balances various motor functions.


Iwata, Y., H. Matsumoto, et al. (2003). "Early-onset schizophrenia and dopamine-related gene polymorphism." Am J Med Genet 116(1 Suppl): 23-6.

            Schizophrenic patients with an onset before age 16 years (early-onset schizophrenia, EOS) would be a rare but attractive subpopulation for genetic studies. This study explored the relationship between the polymorphism of four dopamine-regulating-enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, catechol-O-methltransferase, monoamine oxidase-A) genes, four dopamine-receptors (dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4 receptors) genes and susceptibility to EOS in a Japanese sample. Subjects comprised 51 Japanese patients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia with an onset before age 16 (by age 15) and 148 Japanese healthy controls. DNA was extracted from whole blood and genotyping was carried out by PCR-RELP using each restriction endonuclease. No significant difference was found in the allele frequencies or genotype distributions of any of the eight genes examined between EOS and the control groups. We did not find the relationship between the polymorphism of eight dopamine-related genes and susceptibility to EOS in a Japanese sample.


Iwayama-Shigeno, Y., K. Yamada, et al. (2003). "Distribution of haplotypes derived from three common variants of the NR4A2 gene in Japanese patients with schizophrenia." Am J Med Genet 118B(1): 20-4.

            Dysregulation in dopaminergic neurotransmission might play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and therefore genetic components of the dopamine (DA) pathway may confer risk. The NR4A2 (Nurr1) gene is essential for the development and maintenance of mesencephalic DA-synthesizing neurons. Moreover, Nurr1 forms a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor and disturbances in the retinoid-signaling cascade may be involved in susceptibility to schizophrenia. To investigate the potential genetic contribution of NR4A2, we performed a case-control association study using three common variants in the gene [-2922(C)2-3, IVS6 + 17 approximately +18insG, EX8 + 657(CA)9-10] that were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. We did not detect a significant allelic or genotypic association. Haplotypes derived from all three polymorphisms generated similar results. These data do not support the notion that the NR4A2 gene plays a major role in risk for schizophrenia among Japanese individuals.


Jansen, A. S., E. D. Schmidt, et al. (2003). "Substance induced plasticity in noradrenergic innervation of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus." Eur J Neurosci 17(2): 298-306.

            Single administration of the cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1), or the psychostimulant amphetamine, enhanced adrenocorticotropin hormone and corticosterone responses to a stress challenge weeks later. This long-lasting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-sensitization is paralleled by an increase in electrically evoked release of noradrenaline in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). We hypothesized that these functional changes may be associated with morphological plasticity of noradrenergic projections to the PVN, a parameter that shows high reproducibility. Specific alterations in relative (nor)adrenergic innervation density were studied by using dopamine-alpha-hydroxylase (DBH) as a marker. An image analysis system was used to detect changes in the relative DBH innervation density of the PVN. Groups of adult male rats were given IL-1 (10 microg/kg i.p.), amphetamine (5 mg/kg i.p.), or saline. Three weeks later, IL-1 and amphetamine primed rats showed enhanced adrenocorticotropin hormone and corticosterone responses to an amphetamine challenge. In another set of experiments, the relative DBH innervation density was measured in different PVN subnuclei at four rostro-caudal levels. Single administration of either IL-1 or amphetamine causes three weeks later a selective decrease in relative DBH innervation density in those subnuclei of the PVN that contain high numbers of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) producing neurons: the dorsal parvocellular and medial parvocellular PVN. We conclude that (1) long-lasting sensitization induced by single exposure to IL-1 and amphetamine induces specific pattern of neuroplastic changes in (nor)adrenergic innervation in the PVN and (2) reduction of relative DBH innervation density in CRH-rich areas is associated with paradoxical increase of electrically evoked release of (nor)adrenaline.


Jarry, H., M. Metten, et al. (2003). "In vitro effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055." Maturitas 44 Suppl 1: S31-8.

            OBJECTIVES: Extracts of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa or CR) have been used for the treatment of climacteric complaints since decades. Efficacy, particularly concerning neurovegetative and psychic symptoms, has been proven in clinical trials. As active principle yet unknown substances with selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity are assumed. Recently, evidence arose that CR may also contain dopaminergic compounds, which may contribute to the therapeutic activity of the extract. METHODS: Two subtypes of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha and ERbeta) are known. To examine, whether active substances of CR extract BNO 1055 (which is contained in Klimadynon(R) and Menofem(R)) bind to either of the two estrogen receptors, subtype-specific estrogen receptor ligand-binding assays with recombinant ERalpha or ERbeta were conducted. A ligand-binding assay with recombinant dopamine D(2)-receptor protein was employed to assess possible dopaminergic activity in the CR extract BNO 1055. RESULTS: While a displacement of radiolabeled estradiol from binding sites of a cytosol preparation from procine and human endometrium by CR extract BNO 1055 was shown no such displacement was achieved when either ERalpha or ERbeta protein was used as ligands for tracer. Dopaminergic activity in the CR extract BNO 1055 could be demonstrated with the D(2)-receptor assay. A countercurrent chromatography resulted in a separation of estrogenic and dopaminergic activity in two distinct fractions. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that not yet identified substances in the CR extract BNO 1055 bind to a yet unknown estrogen-binding site in the endometrium. Also, yet unknown dopaminergic compounds may contribute to the pharmacological profile of CR extract BNO 1055.


Jasmin, L., A. Boudah, et al. (2003). "Long-term effects of decreased noradrenergic central nervous system innervation on pain behavior and opioid antinociception." J Comp Neurol 460(1): 38-55.

            Here we examine whether a permanent reduction in the noradrenergic (NA) innervation of the spinal cord leads to a chronic decreased nociceptive threshold. NA denervation of rats was achieved by intrathecal injection of dopamine beta-hydroxylase antibodies conjugated to the toxin saporin. A subset of animals also underwent unilateral L5 spinal nerve ligature to induce sustained neuropathic pain behavior. NA fibers and terminals were lost throughout the spinal cord 2 weeks after toxin application and were still absent 12 months later, indicating that regeneration did not occur. There was also a widespread loss of NA terminals in the cerebral cortex, whereas innervation of the hypothalamus and amygdala were close to normal and NA innervation of the brainstem was moderately reduced. There was extensive loss of NA cells in the locus coeruleus and A5 and A7 cell groups. Dopaminergic and serotoninergic innervation was normal. Intracerebroventricular injection of the toxin resulted in additional NA reduction in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and A1 and A2 cell groups. Long-term removal of NA afferents did not affect nociceptive thresholds. Neuropathic animals showed greater mechanical hyperalgesia in the affected hindpaw only during the first 60 days after toxin. Rats lacking NA spinal afferents were less responsive to the antinociceptive effects of morphine, especially in the neuropathic hindpaw, and did not display opioid-dependent stress analgesia. Finally, in the spinal cord of toxin-treated rats, immunoreactivity for substance P was decreased, whereas that of its receptor (NK1) was increased. These animals exhibited antinociception to a low dose of an NK1 receptor antagonist. Our results suggest that NA contributes only modestly to determining the nociceptive threshold and that its antinociceptive effects are closely linked to opioidergic and tachykinergic neurotransmission. J. Comp. Neurol. 460:38-55, 2003.


Jenner, P. (2003). "Oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease." Ann Neurol 53(3 Suppl 1): S26-38.

            Oxidative stress contributes to the cascade leading to dopamine cell degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, oxidative stress is intimately linked to other components of the degenerative process, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, nitric oxide toxicity and inflammation. It is therefore difficult to determine whether oxidative stress leads to, or is a consequence of, these events. Oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA occurs in PD, and toxic products of oxidative damage, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), can react with proteins to impair cell viability. There is convincing evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide that reacts with superoxide to produce peroxynitrite and ultimately hydroxyl radical production. Recently, altered ubiquitination and degradation of proteins have been implicated as key to dopaminergic cell death in PD. Oxidative stress can impair these processes directly, and products of oxidative damage, such as HNE, can damage the 26S proteasome. Furthermore, impairment of proteasomal function leads to free radical generation and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs in idiopathic PD and products of oxidative damage interfere with cellular function, but these form only part of a cascade, and it is not possible to separate them from other events involved in dopaminergic cell death. Ann Neurol 2003;53 (suppl 3):S26-S38


Jenner, P. (2003). "The contribution of the MPTP-treated primate model to the development of new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease." Parkinsonism Relat Disord 9(3): 131-7.

            Current research into Parkinson's disease (PD) is directed at developing novel agents and strategies for improved symptomatic management. The aim of this research is to provide effective and maintained symptom control throughout the course of the disease without loss of efficacy and without priming the basal ganglia for the onset of dyskinesia. To achieve these objectives, it is important to have relevant animal models of PD in which new pharmacological agents and treatment strategies can be assessed prior to clinical assessment. At present, the most effective experimental model of PD is the methyl phenyl tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primate. Primates treated with MPTP develop motor disturbances resembling those seen in idiopathic PD, including bradykinesia, rigidity and postural abnormalities. In addition, MPTP-treated primates are responsive to all commonly used antiparkinsonian agents and display treatment-associated motor complications such as dyskinesia, wearing-off and on-off, which occur during the long-term treatment of the illness.This review examines how studies conducted in MPTP-treated primates have contributed to the development of dopaminergic therapies. There is now accumulating evidence that the pulsatile manner in which short-acting agents stimulate striatal dopamine receptors is a key contributing factor to the priming of the basal ganglia for dyskinesia induction. It has been suggested that providing more continuous stimulation of dopamine receptors will avoid the development of motor complications, particularly dyskinesia. So far, the actions of all commonly used antiparkinsonian drugs assessed in MPTP-treated primates have proved to be highly predictive of drug action in PD. These primate studies have demonstrated that long-acting dopamine agonists and levodopa given in combination with a catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor (to increase its relatively short half-life), induce significantly less dyskinesia than occurs with standard levodopa therapy.


Joel, D. and J. Doljansky (2003). "Selective alleviation of compulsive lever-pressing in rats by D1, but not D2, blockade: possible implications for the involvement of D1 receptors in obsessive-compulsive disorder." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(1): 77-85.

            Rats undergoing extinction of lever-pressing for food after the attenuation of an external feedback for this behavior exhibit excessive lever-pressing unaccompanied by an attempt to collect a reward. This behavior may be analogous to the excessive and unreasonable behavior seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the compulsive behavior induced by signal attenuation is mediated via D(1) rather than D(2) receptors. Administration of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg of the D(1) antagonist SCH 23390 reduced the number of compulsive lever-presses without affecting the number of lever-presses followed by an attempt to collect a reward. In contrast, administration of 0.005, 0.01, 0.024, 0.036 and 0.05 of the D(2) antagonist haloperidol dose-dependently decreased both types of lever-presses. In addition, haloperidol at doses that decreased lever-pressing in the post-training signal attenuation procedure (0.036 and 0.05 mg/kg) had a similar effect in regular extinction, whereas an SCH 23390 dose that decreased compulsive lever-pressing in the post-training signal attenuation procedure (0.01 mg/kg) had no effect on regular extinction. On the basis of electrophysiological data on the response of dopamine neurons to the omission of an expected reward, these results were interpreted as suggesting that compulsive lever-pressing depends on a phasic decrease in the stimulation of D(1) receptors. The implications of these results for the pathophysiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder are discussed.


Jonsson, E. G., S. Cichon, et al. (2003). "Association between a promoter dopamine D(2) receptor gene variant and the personality trait detachment." Biol Psychiatry 53(7): 577-84.

            Personality traits have shown considerable heritable components. Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor density, as determined by positron-emission tomography, has been associated with detached personality, as assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality. A putative functional promoter polymorphism in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2), -141C ins/del, has been associated with dopamine D(2) receptor density.In this study healthy subjects (n = 235) who filled in at least one of several personality questionnaires (Karolinska Scales of Personality, Swedish Universities Scales of Personality, Health-relevant Five-factor Personality Inventory, and Temperament and Character Inventory) were analyzed with regard to the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant.There was an association (p =.001) between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and Karolinska Scales of Personality Detachment scale, indicating higher scores in subjects with the -141C del variant. There were also associations between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and a number of Karolinska Scales of Personality and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Neuroticism-related scales, but of these only Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Lack of Assertiveness scale (p =.001) survived correction for multiple testing.These results add further support for the involvement of dopamine D(2) receptor in certain personality traits. The results should be treated with caution until replicated.


Jonsson, E. G., G. C. Sedvall, et al. (2003). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) variants and schizophrenia: meta-analyses." Schizophr Res 61(1): 111-9.


Jonsson, E. G., L. Flyckt, et al. (2003). "Dopamine D3 receptor gene Ser9Gly variant and schizophrenia: association study and meta-analysis." Psychiatr Genet 13(1): 1-12.

            OBJECTIVE To further evaluate the controversial putative association between a Ser9Gly variant in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and schizophrenia.METHODS Swedish patients with schizophrenia ( =156) and control subjects ( =463) were assessed for the DRD3 Ser9Gly variant. Meta-analyses including previous and the present Swedish case-control results were performed.RESULTS No significant difference between the Swedish patients and controls were found, but there was an association between DRD3 Ser9Gly Ser/Ser and homozygous genotypes and response to anti-psychotic drugs. This finding was supported by an incomplete meta-analysis. In a meta-analysis of all case-control studies comprising 8761 subjects the association between DRD3 Ser9Gly homozygosity and schizophrenia ( =4.96, degree of freedom=1, <0.05, odds ratio=1.10, 95% confidence interval=1.01-1.20) persisted. However, the previously proposed association between the Ser/Ser genotype and schizophrenia was not significant ( =2.71, degree of freedom=1, >0.05, odds ratio=1.08, 95% confidence interval=0.99-1.17).CONCLUSIONS Whereas the present Swedish case-control analysis did not yield any evidence for association with the diagnosis, the present meta-analysis suggests that the DRD3 gene confer susceptibility to schizophrenia. Reasons for the discrepancies between prior studies are discussed.


Jonsson, E. G., E. Burgert, et al. (2003). "Association study between dopamine D3 receptor gene variant and personality traits." Am J Med Genet 117B(1): 61-5.

            Dopamine receptor gene variation has been hypothesized to influence personality traits characterized by novelty seeking and related traits. We analyzed a dopamine D(3) receptor gene (DRD3) variant in a Swedish population (n = 373) investigated with one or more of several personality questionnaires. No significant relationships were found between DRD3 genotypes and any of the 15 Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and five Health-relevant Personality 5 factor inventory (HP5i) scales. The DRD3 variant was associated with some scales related to novelty seeking: the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) Adventure Seeking and the revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) Fantasy (O1) and Order (C2) scales. There were also associations with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) Cooperativeness and Compassion (C4) scales. After correction for multiple testing, however, no significant difference remained. We conclude that the investigated DRD3 polymorphism does not have a major impact on personality in the investigated population.


Jordan-Sciutto, K. L., R. Dorsey, et al. (2003). "Expression patterns of retinoblastoma protein in Parkinson disease." J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62(1): 68-74.

            Cellular mechanisms implicated in Parkinson disease (PD) include oxidative stress, inflammatory response, excess dopamine, DNA damage, and loss of trophic support. These stimuli have been observed to induce changes in cell cycle proteins in several cell types. One of the key regulators of cell cycle progression is the retinoblastoma protein (pRb); therefore, we assessed the staining for pRb and its inactive hyperphosphorylated isoform, ppRb, in autopsy tissue from patients with PD. In PD we found abundant pRb staining in neuronal cytoplasm of the substantia nigra, mid-frontal cortex, and hippocampus by immunohistochemistry. In controls, pRb weakly stained nucleoli of neurons in the substantia nigra and exhibited no detectable staining in mid-frontal cortex and hippocampus. Staining for ppRb resulted in a shift from weak cytoplasmic staining in neurons from control cases to strong nuclear staining in PD cases, especially within the substantia nigra, mid-frontal cortex, and hippocampus. In the substantia nigra, ppRb also co-localized to Lewy bodies, which are a pathologic feature of PD. Lewy bodies are also found in diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) that do not consistently exhibit changes in pRb or ppRb. These results indicate that there are changes in pRb and its inactive phospho-isoform in neurons responding to neurodegenerative stimuli associated with PD.


Jose, P. A., G. M. Eisner, et al. (2003). "Dopamine and the kidney: a role in hypertension?" Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 12(2): 189-94.

            PURPOSE OF REVIEW Defective transduction of the dopamine receptor signal in the kidney has been shown to be important in the pathogenesis of hypertension This review will discuss the genetic mechanism for the defective renal dopaminergic function and the interaction with other gene variant products in the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity and essential hypertension.RECENT FINDINGS Single nucleotide polymorphisms of G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) phosphorylate, desensitize, and diminish the inhibitory action of D receptors on sodium transport in the kidney. Inhibition of GRK4 expression normalizes renal proximal tubule D receptor function in humans and rodents and ameliorates the hypertension in genetically hypertensive rats. Expression of the GRK4 variant, GRK4gammaA142V, produces hypertension and impairs the natriuretic effect of D receptor stimulation in mice. In humans, GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with essential hypertension, particularly salt sensitive hypertension. The prediction of the hypertensive phenotype is most accurate when elements of the renin-angiotensin system and GRK4 are included in the analysis.(1) (1) (1)SUMMARY GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, by preventing the natriuretic function of the dopaminergic system and by allowing the antinatriuretic function of angiotensin II type 1 receptors to predominate, may be responsible for salt sensitivity. Hypertension develops with additional perturbations caused by the variants of other genes (e.g., alpha-adducin, angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, aldosterone synthase, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2), the quantitative interaction of which may vary depending upon the genetic background.


Jourdan, D., I. Piec, et al. (2003). "Effect of fenfluramine on caloric intake and macronutrient selection in Lou/c rats during aging." Neurobiol Aging 24(1): 67-76.

            Previous studies have shown a shift of preferences from carbohydrate to fat and a decrease in protein intake in self-selected Lou/c rats with advancing age. This study investigated a potential neurochemical mechanism underlying age-related modifications by evaluating the effects of fenfluramine (dl-F), a drug that enhances 5-HT release and blocks its re-uptake by presynaptic terminals, on macronutrient selection. The drug dl-F (1.5 and 3mg/kg s.c.) induces a dose-related hypophagia with the oldest animals being the most sensitive. The main decrease is in fat consumption with minor changes in carbohydrate and protein consumptions. Young, but not old animals, compensate during the day the nocturnal intake decrease induced by dl-F. The plasma concentration of dexfenfluramine (d-F) was higher as the rats aged. The icv administrations of dl-F induced a caloric intake decrease in the oldest groups and a differential effect on protein intake between old and young rats. Metergoline induced a partial reversion of dl-F effect on food intake but this effect was not age related. These data suggest a possible implication of serotoninergic system in modifications of food behavior during aging. However, further studies are needed.


Jousselin-Hosaja, M., C. Tobin, et al. (2003). "Effects of adrenal medulla graft on recovery of GABAergic and dopaminergic neuron deficits in mice: behavioural, pharmacological and immunohistochemical study." Behav Brain Res 140(1-2): 185-93.

            We studied the capacity of adrenal medullary transplant to restore the deficits of GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in mice injected with quinolinic acid (QA), using an open field test as well as pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. We analysed behavioural traits-total locomotor activity, peripheral and central activities, grooming, leaning and rearing in the QA-lesioned mice and mice that had undergone adrenal medulla (AM) transplantation. We found that the adrenal transplant recovered a loss of GABAergic neurons. It reduced QA-induced hyperactivity in locomotion and improved emotional indices. In addition, immunohistochemical studies of catecholaminergic markers-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine (DA) and neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2- and a single post-trial injection of tetrabenazine (TBZ; 5 mg/kg) indicated that catecholamines-synthesising chromaffin cells in the AM grafts were also involved in the beneficial effects. A likely interpretation of this behavioural pattern of results is that adrenal medullary transplants set into play an interaction between GABAergic and DAergic factors. Our results may contribute to the clarification of the beneficial effects of AM transplants in striatal function.


Juhila, J., A. Haapalinna, et al. (2003). "The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole reduces the development and expression of d-amphetamine-induced behavioural sensitization." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 367(3): 274-80.

            The possible effect of atipamezole, a potent and specific alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, on the development and expression of d-amphetamine-induced behavioural sensitization was evaluated in mice. Male (C57Bl/6J) mice were given daily doses of d-amphetamine (2 mg/kg). In addition, groups of mice received injections of atipamezole (0.3 or 1 mg/kg) 20 min before d-amphetamine or vehicle administration. Idazoxan (1 mg/kg) was used in some experiments to extend the results to other alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Challenge doses of d-amphetamine were administered to the mice on days 7-9 to evaluate the effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists on the d-amphetamine sensitization, evidenced by increased locomotor activation.Mice treated repeatedly with d-amphetamine developed strong locomotor sensitization that was reduced by pretreatment with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Acute atipamezole at both doses attenuated the expression of d-amphetamine-induced sensitization. Atipamezole at 1 mg/kg alone had no effect on locomotor activity, but the lower dose (0.3 mg/kg) increased locomotor activity after repeated administration.These results indicate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists modulate the actions of d-amphetamine in a manner not explicable by their enhancing actions on noradrenaline and dopamine release, and may thus provide a novel approach to the treatment of motor complications caused by dopaminergic agents, such as dyskinesias, and perhaps also drug dependence.


Kalivas, P. W., S. Toda, et al. (2003). "The temporal sequence of changes in gene expression by drugs of abuse." Methods Mol Med 79: 3-11.


Kalkman, H. O. and E. Loetscher (2003). "alpha(2C)-Adrenoceptor blockade by clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs." Eur J Pharmacol 462(1-3): 33-40.

            The noradrenergic system may play a role in antipsychotic modulation of schizophrenia symptoms. Therefore, the antagonistic potencies of the antipsychotics clozapine, chlorpromazine, risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol, quetiapine, ziprasidone, iloperidone and aripiprazole were quantified using cell lines expressing the recombinant human alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor, alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor, or dopamine D(2L) receptor. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and idazoxan, were also tested. Alterations in cAMP were measured as changes in luminescence. In the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor cell line, the agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)quinoxaline (UK14,304) induced a concentration-dependent increase in luminescence. In cell lines expressing alpha(2C) and D(2L) receptors, agonists induced a concentration-dependent reduction in luminescence. Yohimbine and idazoxan were the most potent alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and iloperidone were the most potent alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor antagonists, and haloperidol and olanzapine were the most potent dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists. Clozapine had the highest alpha(2C)/D(2) selectivity, and iloperidone the highest alpha(2C)/alpha(2A) ratio. It is hypothesised that alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor blockade contributes to improvement of cognitive function.


Kamei, J., K. Morita, et al. (2003). "Effects of second generation of histamine H1 antagonists, cetirizine and ebastine, on the antitussive and rewarding effects of dihydrocodeine in mice." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166(2): 176-80.

            RATIONALE: Little information is available about the interaction between dihydrocodeine and second-generation antihistamine drugs such as cetirizine and ebastine, with particular reference to the rewarding effect of dihydrocodeine. OBJECTIVE: The effects of second generation histamine H(1) antagonists, such as cetirizine and ebastine on the antitussive and rewarding effect of dihydrocodeine were examined in mice. METHODS: Mice were exposed to a nebulized solution of capsaicin (30 micromol/l) under conscious and identical conditions, using a body plethysmograph. The coughs produced during a 3-min exposure period were counted. Effects of H(1) antagonists on the reinforcing effect of dihydrocodeine were assessed by using the conditioned place preference procedure in mice. RESULTS: The antitussive effect of dihydrocodeine was enhanced by the simultaneous administration of either cetirizine or ebastine. There was no statistical difference between the ED(50) of dihydrocodeine in combination with ebastine and that of dihydrocodeine in combination with cetirizine. Concurrent dosing of dihydrocodeine and ebastine produced a significant place preference. This behavioral potentiation was antagonized by SCH23390, a dopamine D(1) antagonist. Moreover, ebastine enhanced the central dopamine turnover ratio, but cetirizine could not, in this study. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the potentiation of place preference of dihydrocodeine with ebastine may be due, at least in part, to stimulation of the central dopaminergic system via D(1) receptors. However, combination of dihydrocodeine with cetirizine does not potentiate place preference at all, nor does it potentiate the central dopaminergic system. Thus, it is likely that cetirizine may be a useful constituent in opioid-containing, antitussive preparations that would not potentiate the development of psychological dependence.


Kamijo, Y., K. Soma, et al. (2003). "Acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with risperidone and conventional phenothiazines." Circ J 67(1): 46-8.

            To assess the contribution of antipsychotic medication in Japanese patients suffering acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism, records of patients with idiopathic pulmonary thromboembolism associated with antipsychotic medication who were seen in a Japanese Emergency Center from January 1996 to December 2000 were reviewed. Age, gender, physical status, clinical presentation, antiphospholipid antibody, outcome, psychiatric profile, and antipsychotic medication use were examined. Seven patients had acute pulmonary thromboembolism associated with antipsychotic drug use, representing 44% of all patients with idiopathic pulmonary thromboembolism. The 7 patients developed symptoms in the early morning. More women than men were affected. In 5 cases, chlorpromazine and other phenothiazines had been prescribed, whereas in 2 cases, risperidone, a mixed serotonin 5HT(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist, had been taken for 40 days and 6 days, respectively. In 4 cases, including the patients taking risperidone, antiphospholipid antibodies were not present. Although statistically significant conclusions can not be drawn from this study, the data suggest that patients receiving risperidone, as well as conventional phenothiazines, are at risk for acute pulmonary thromboembolism, even if otherwise healthy. Strong affinity for the 5HT(2A) receptor of the novel antipsychotic may increase coagulability and the risk of thromboembolism.


Kapur, S., S. C. VanderSpek, et al. (2003). "Antipsychotic dosing in preclinical models is often unrepresentative of the clinical condition - a suggested solution based on in vivo occupancy." J Pharmacol Exp Ther.

            What is the appropriate dose of an antipsychotic in an animal model? The literature reveals no standard rationale across studies. This study was designed to use in vivo dopamine D2 receptor occupancy as a cross-species principle for deriving clinically-comparable doses for animal models. The relationship between dose, plasma levels and in vivo dopamine D2 receptor occupancy was established in rats for a range of doses administered as a single dose or multiple doses [daily injections or osmotic minipump infusions] for five of the most commonly used antipsychotics. As a single dose, haloperidol 0.04-0.08mg/kg, clozapine 5-15mg/kg, olanzapine 1-2mg/kg, risperidone 0.5-1mg/kg and quetiapine 10-25mg/kg, reached clinically-comparable occupancies. However, when these "optimal" single doses were administered as multiple doses, either by injection or by a mini-pump, it led to no or inappropriately low trough (24 hour) occupancies. This discrepancy arises because the half-life of antipsychotics in rodents is 4-6 times faster than in humans. Only when doses five times higher than the optimal single dose were administered by pump were clinically-comparable occupancies obtained (e.g. haloperidol 0.25mg/kg/d; olanzapine 7.5mg/kg/d). This could not be achieved for clozapine or quetiapine due to solubility and administration constraints. The study provides a rationale as well as clinically-comparable dosing regimens for animal studies and raises questions about the inferences drawn from previous studies which have used doses unrepresentative of the clinical situation.


Kapur, S. (2003). "Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: a framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia." Am J Psychiatry 160(1): 13-23.

            OBJECTIVE: The clinical hallmark of schizophrenia is psychosis. The objective of this overview is to link the neurobiology (brain), the phenomenological experience (mind), and pharmacological aspects of psychosis-in-schizophrenia into a unitary framework. METHOD: Current ideas regarding the neurobiology and phenomenology of psychosis and schizophrenia, the role of dopamine, and the mechanism of action of antipsychotic medication were integrated to develop this framework. RESULTS: A central role of dopamine is to mediate the "salience" of environmental events and internal representations. It is proposed that a dysregulated, hyperdopaminergic state, at a "brain" level of description and analysis, leads to an aberrant assignment of salience to the elements of one's experience, at a "mind" level. Delusions are a cognitive effort by the patient to make sense of these aberrantly salient experiences, whereas hallucinations reflect a direct experience of the aberrant salience of internal representations. Antipsychotics "dampen the salience" of these abnormal experiences and by doing so permit the resolution of symptoms. The antipsychotics do not erase the symptoms but provide the platform for a process of psychological resolution. However, if antipsychotic treatment is stopped, the dysregulated neurochemistry returns, the dormant ideas and experiences become reinvested with aberrant salience, and a relapse occurs. CONCLUSIONS: The article provides a heuristic framework for linking the psychological and biological in psychosis. Predictions of this hypothesis, particularly regarding the possibility of synergy between psychological and pharmacological therapies, are presented. The author describes how the hypothesis is complementary to other ideas about psychosis and also discusses its limitations.


Karasawa, F., T. Okuda, et al. (2003). "Dopamine stabilizes milrinone-induced changes in heart rate and arterial pressure during anaesthesia with isoflurane." Eur J Anaesthesiol 20(2): 120-3.

            BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors and dobutamine effectively improve cardiac function in patients with cardiac failure, but they are limited by possible hypotensive effects. We tested the hypothesis that dopamine contributes to stabilizing milrinone-induced haemodynamic changes. METHODS: Nine patients undergoing major surgery were anaesthetized using nitrous oxide and oxygen supplemented with isoflurane 1-2%. After baseline haemodynamics were recorded, milrinone (25 or 50 microg kg(-1)) was administered over 10min, followed by a continuous infusion (0.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1). The second set of haemodynamic values was measured 50 min after beginning the continuous infusion of milrinone. Dopamine (4 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was then administered with milrinone. RESULTS: Milrinone significantly increased the heart rate from 81 +/- 8 to 102 +/- 16beats min(-1), but it decreased the mean arterial pressure from 83 +/- 10 to 66 +/- 10 mmHg and systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05 for each). The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance did not change significantly. The addition of dopamine to the milrinone infusion significantly decreased the heart rate (94 +/- 12 beats min(-1)) and increased the mean arterial pressure (82 +/- 11 mmHg). Dopamine and milrinone, but not milrinone alone, significantly increased the cardiac index and the rate-pressure product. CONCLUSIONS: The combination regimen of milrinone and dopamine improved cardiac function, and changes in heart rate and mean arterial pressure induced by milrinone were attenuated by dopamine. The results suggest that a combination regimen of milrinone and dopamine rather than milrinone alone should be used to maintain arterial pressure.


Katayama, J., N. Akaike, et al. (2003). "Characterization of pre- and post-synaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibitory responses in substantia nigra dopamine neurons." Neurosci Res 45(1): 101-15.

            Two inhibitory responses mediated by both pre- and post-synaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were investigated in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra using whole-cell patch recordings. (2R,4R)-APDC, a group II mGluR agonist, and L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4), a group III mGluR agonist, reversibly suppressed the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). However, (S)-3,5-DHPG, a group I mGluR agonist, exhibited less inhibitory action on the EPSCs. LY341495, a highly potent group II mGluR antagonist, antagonized the broad spectrum mGluR agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD-induced suppression of EPSCs. In acutely dissociated dopamine neurons, glutamate (Glu) in the presence of CNQX and AP-5 evoked an outward current accompanied by an increase in K(+) conductance. (S)-3,5-DHPG, but not (2R,4R)-APDC or L-AP4, also induced an outward current. Glu-induced outward current (I(Glu-out)) was partially inhibited by LY367385, a selective mGluR1 antagonist, but not by MPEP, a selective mGluR5 antagonist. Ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid blocked the I(Glu-out). In the presence of caffeine, Glu failed to induce a current. Charybdotoxin, but not apamin or iberiotoxin, inhibited the I(Glu-out). Taken together, both group II and III mGluRs are mainly involved in the presynaptic inhibition of Glu release to dopamine neurons, while group I mGluRs, including at least mGluR1, participate in the hyperpolarization of dopamine neurons mediated by the opening of charybdotoxin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels.


Kato, H., T. Araki, et al. (2003). "Protection of dopaminergic neurons with a novel astrocyte modulating agent (R)-(-)-2-propyloctanoic acid (ONO-2506) in an MPTP-mouse model of Parkinson's disease." J Neurol Sci 208(1-2): 9-15.

            We examined the neuroprotective effects of a novel astrocyte-modulating agent, (R)-(-)-2-propyloctanoic acid (ONO-2506), in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Male C57BL/6 mice received four intraperitoneal injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (10 mg/kg) at 1-h intervals. Dopamine content in the striatum, measured with HPLC 3 days after MPTP injection, was reduced to 23% of control. But this dopamine depletion was dose-dependently prevented by repeated treatments with ONO-2506 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 1, 6, 24 and 48 h after MPTP injection (51% of control in 30 mg/kg group, p<0.01). ONO-2506 treatment (30 mg/kg) started after 6 h, followed by treatments at 24 and 48 h, also prevented the reduction of dopamine content (42% of control vs. 11% of control in the saline-treated group, p<0.01). We also performed immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The MPTP injection resulted in a loss of TH-positive dopaminergic neurons (42% of control, p<0.01) in the substantia nigra after 7 days, but ONO-2506 treatment prevented this neuronal loss (70% of control, p<0.01). The MPTP injection led to reactive astrocytosis in the striatum after 7 days, but ONO-2506 induced earlier, moderate astrocytic activation after 3-7 days. These findings show that ONO-2506 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP neurotoxicity probably through facilitating astrocytic support for neuronal recovery from injury. Pharmacological modulation of astrocytes may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease.


Katzenschlager, R., D. Costa, et al. (2003). "[123I]-FP-CIT-SPECT demonstrates dopaminergic deficit in orthostatic tremor." Ann Neurol 53(4): 489-96.

            There is increasing evidence of a potential role of the dopaminergic system in orthostatic tremor (OT): Association with parkinsonism and treatment effects of L-dopa and dopamine agonists have been reported. Eleven patients with isolated OT had single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using (123)I-FP-CIT ([(123)I]-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(-4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nort ropane) as dopamine transporter tracer. Results were compared with 12 age-matched normal controls and 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A marked reduction in striatal tracer binding was found in OT compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). Tracer uptake was significantly higher and more symmetrical than in PD, and caudate and putamen were equally affected. L-dopa challenges, performed in seven patients, showed a small but non-significant improvement on EMG and a small but significant improvement in clinical parameters on blinded video rating. Two-month open-label L-dopa treatment (600 mg/day) led to a small improvement in two of five patients but no significant overall change. Olfactory function on University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was normal. Our finding of a marked tracer uptake reduction on dopamine transporter SPECT supports a role of the dopaminergic system in OT. Lack of evidence of a clinically relevant therapeutic response to L-dopa suggests that other mechanisms must also be involved in the pathogenesis. Ann Neurol 2003


Kauer, J. A. (2003). "Addictive drugs and stress trigger a common change at VTA synapses." Neuron 37(4): 549-50.

            In this issue of Neuron, Saal et al. find that exposure to any of five addictive drugs or exposure to a brief stressor produces a shared cellular modification of excitatory synapses in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This common response may represent a starting point for dissecting early changes that underlie addiction.


Kaufmann, H. (2003). "[The most common dysautonomias]." Rev Neurol 36: 93-6.

            Aims. To review the classification and the clinical and pathological characteristics of the most common dysautonomias. Method. Primary dysautonomia includes neurodegenerative diseases of unknown causes that are characterised by the intracytoplasmic accumulations of alpha synuclein that manifest with four different phenotypes: pure autonomic failure, Parkinson s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. Of the secondary dysautonomias, diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of autonomic neuropathy in developed countries. Familiar dysautonomia is a recessive autosomic disease; the gene responsible for it has been located in the long arm of chromosome 9 (9q31). Paraneoplasic dysautonomia is associated with cancer of the lungs, the pancreas, Hodgkin s disease and testicular cancer. In Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome and in botulism the release of acetylcholine is deficient in both the somatic and the autonomic neurons. There are other diseases that affect autonomic cholinergic neurotransmission without bringing about any disorders in neuromuscular transmission. Chagas disease affects the neurons of the parasympathetic ganglion and produces megaesophagus, megacolon and myocardiopathy. Dopamine beta hydroxylase enzyme deficiency is a congenital disease characterised by the failure to convert dopamine into noradrenaline which results in orthostatic hypotension. Conclusions. Dysautonomias can be classified, according to their aetiology, as primary or secondary; according to the deficient neurotransmitter, as cholinergic, adrenergic and mixed (pan dysautonomia) or, according to the anatomical distribution of the neurons that are affected, as central and peripheral.


Kawai, K., H. Ito, et al. (2003). "Changes in catecholamine metabolism by ascorbic acid deficiency in spontaneously hypertensive rats unable to synthesize ascorbic acid." Life Sci 72(15): 1717-32.

            We have previously reported the establishment of a novel rat strain, SHR-od, with both spontaneous hypertension and a defect of ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Blood pressure in mature SHR-od fed an ascorbic acid-supplemented diet is over 190-200 mmHg, while it decreased to around 120 mmHg at 4-5 weeks after the cessation of ascorbic acid supplementation. With regard to possible mechanisms of blood pressure lowering, we focused on catecholamine synthesis in adrenal glands, since catecholamine is a major factor for blood pressure regulation and ascorbic acid is a co-factor of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) in catecholamine biosynthesis. Male SHR-od (25-week-old) and normotensive ODS rats with a defect in ascorbic acid biosynthesis (25-week-old) were fed a Funabashi-SP diet with or without ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg diet) for 28 days or 35 days. In SHR-od, systolic blood pressure (191 +/- 6 mmHg) began to decrease from day 21 in the ascorbic acid-deficient group, whereas no significant difference was found in ODS rats. In spite of significant lowering of blood pressure, no significant differences were found in catecholamine levels in serum, adrenal glands and brain on day 28. On day 35, however, urinary excretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the ascorbic acid-deficient SHR-od were higher at 490% (P < 0.05) and 460% (P < 0.05) of the respective control. Serum catecholamine concentrations and the adrenal catecholamine content tended to be higher in the ascorbic acid-deficient SHR-od than the control of SHR-od and reached to similar level in ODS rats. The administration of ascorbic acid (intraperitoneal injection, 60 mg ascorbic acid/kg body weight, once a day) to the ascorbic acid-deficient SHR-od restored blood pressure to the range 180-190 mmHg within two days. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid deficiency affects catecholamine metabolism in the adrenal glands of SHR-od in response to blood pressure lowering, suggesting catecholamines are not involved in the mechanism for the remarkable reduction in blood pressure in response to ascorbic acid deficiency.


Keck Jr, P. E. and S. L. McElroy (2003). "Aripiprazole: a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist antipsychotic." Expert Opin Investig Drugs 12(4): 655-62.

            This paper reviews the clinical pharmacology, efficacy and safety of the novel antipsychotic drug aripiprazole. All published citations regarding aripiprazole were reviewed using a Medline((R)) search (completed for citations through mid-year, 2002). In addition, abstracts from recent scientific meetings presenting data not yet published (nor peer-reviewed) were reviewed. Aripiprazole has a unique mechanism of action as a dopamine D2 partial agonist, serotonin 5-HT(1A) partial agonist and serotonin 5-HT(2A) antagonist. Like other new antipsychotics, aripiprazole has the profile of an atypical agent, with efficacy in the treatment of positive and negative symptoms of psychosis as well as mood symptoms, a low rate of neurological side effects and no significant adverse effect on serum prolactin concentrations. In addition, aripiprazole was not associated with significant weight gain or QTc prolongation in both acute and long-term treatment trials.


Kelley, S. P. and C. W. Hodge (2003). "The 5-HT(3) antagonist Y-25130 blocks cocaine-induced lowering of ICSS reward thresholds in the rat." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74(2): 297-302.

            Serotonin-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonists have been shown to attenuate drug-induced increases in mesolimbic dopamine (DA), locomotor activation, and drug self-administration. In the present study, we tested whether the selective 5-HT(3) antagonist Y-25130 would attenuate cocaine-induced lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) reward thresholds. Rats (n=6) were surgically prepared with bipolar stimulation electrodes and trained to self-administer electrical stimulation delivered to the medial forebrain bundle-lateral hypothalamus (MFB-LH). A discrete-trial, rate-free threshold determination procedure was used to detect pharmacologically induced changes from baseline reward thresholds. Four doses of Y-25130 (0.0, 0.03, 0.3, and 3.0 mg/kg ip) were given alone and in combination with cocaine (4.0 mg/kg ip). Y-25130 did not significantly alter reward thresholds or response latencies when given alone as compared to baseline measures. While there were no significant effects at lower doses, the middle and highest doses of Y-25130 (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) did attenuate the threshold-lowering effect of cocaine. These findings suggest that the rewarding effects of cocaine are mediated through 5-HT(3) receptor activity.


Kemmel, V., O. Taleb, et al. (2003). "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor function determined by stimulation of rubidium and calcium movements from NCB-20 neurons." Neuroscience 116(4): 1021-31.

            Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate is derived from GABA in brain and plays specific functional roles in the CNS. It is thought to exert a tonic inhibitory control on dopamine and GABA release in certain brain areas, through specific gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptors. Apart from modifying certain calcium currents, the specific transduction mechanism induced by stimulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptors remains largely unknown. We investigated the possible contribution of K(+) channels to the hyperpolarization phenomena generally induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in brain, by monitoring (86)Rb(+) movements in a neuronal cell line (NCB-20 cells), which expresses gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptors. Physiological concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (5-25 microM) induce a slow efflux of (86)Rb(+), which peaks at 5-15 min and returns to baseline levels 20 min later after constant stimulation. This effect can be reproduced by the gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor agonist NCS-356 and blocked by the gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor antagonist 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-[H]-benzocycloheptene-5-ol-4-ylidene. The GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845 has no effect on gamma-hydroxybutyrate-induced (86)Rb(+) efflux. The pharmacology of this gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent efflux of (86)Rb(+) is in favor of the involvement of tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin insensitive, apamin sensitive Ca(2+) activated K(+) channels, identifying them as small conductance calcium activated channels. We demonstrated a gamma-hydroxybutyrate dose-dependent entry of calcium ions into NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells at resting potential. Electrophysiological data showed that this Ca(2+) entry corresponded mainly to a left-hand shift of the current/voltage relation of the T-type calcium channel. This process must at least partially trigger small conductance calcium activated channel activation leading to gamma-hydroxybutyrate-induced hyperpolarization.


Ketcham, C. J., T. L. Hodgson, et al. (2003). "Memory-motor transformations are impaired in Parkinson's disease." Exp Brain Res 149(1): 30-9.

            Parkinson's disease patients are known to suffer loss of dopaminergic input to the rostral caudate nucleus. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have implicated this structure in the transformation of spatial information in memory to guide action, suggesting that memory to motor transformations may be selectively impaired in Parkinson's disease. In order to investigate this possibility we tested a group of Parkinson's disease patients (PDs) using a memory-guided pointing task. Of interest was whether patients showed reduced accuracy in the task as a function of memory load. Twelve PD patients and 13 elderly controls were asked to recall single or four step target sequences with 2 time delays (500 and 3,500 ms). In all memory-guided conditions PD patients showed increased variability in memory-guided movement end-points. This effect was not affected by delay, number of items, or the sequence familiarity. The results are consistent with increased variability in memory-motor transformations in early PD, due to dopamine depletion within the rostral caudate nucleus.


Khaldy, H., G. Escames, et al. (2003). "Synergistic effects of melatonin and deprenyl against MPTP-induced mitochondrial damage and DA depletion." Neurobiol Aging 24(3): 491-500.

            Previous studies showed a synergistic effect of melatonin and deprenyl against dopamine (DA) autoxidation in vitro. Since oxidative stress is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), we explored the effects of melatonin plus deprenyl administration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD in C57/Bl6 mice. Melatonin, but not deprenyl prevents the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and the oxidative damage in nigrostriatal neurons induced by MPTP. With the dose used deprenyl recovers 50% DA levels and tyrosine hydroxylase activity depressed by the neurotoxin, normalizing locomotor activity of mice. Melatonin, which was unable to counteract MPTP-induced DA depletion and inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity, potentiates the effect of deprenyl on catecholamine turnover and mice ambulatory activity. These results suggest a dissociation of complex I inhibition from DA depletion in this model of Parkinson's disease. The data also support that a combination of melatonin, which improves mitochondrial electron transport chain and reduces oxidative damage, and deprenyl, which promotes the specific function of the rescued neurons, i.e. DA turnover, may be a promising strategy for the treatment of PD.


Khoshbouei, H., H. Wang, et al. (2003). "Amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. A voltage-sensitive and intracellular Na+-dependent mechanism." J Biol Chem 278(14): 12070-7.

            Amphetamine (AMPH) elicits its behavioral effects by acting on the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) to induce DA overflow into the synaptic cleft. Facilitated exchange diffusion is the classical model used to describe AMPH-induced DA efflux. This model hypothesizes that AMPH-induced DA efflux is mediated by DAT and results from the transport of AMPH into the cell followed by a counter movement of DA out to the extracellular compartment. To further characterize the action of AMPH, we used the patch clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration combined with amperometry on human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells stably transfected with the human DAT (DAT cells). In DAT cells, AMPH-induced DAT-mediated currents were blocked by cocaine. We demonstrate that DA efflux mediated by DAT is voltage-dependent, electrogenic, and dependent on intracellular Na(+) concentration in the recording electrode. Intracellular Na(+) fluorescence, as measured by confocal microscopy using a Na(+)-sensitive dye, was enhanced by AMPH application. Furthermore, the ability of AMPH to induce DA efflux was regulated by intracellular Na(+) concentration and correlated with the size of the DAT-mediated, AMPH-induced ion flux across the plasma membrane. In the absence of intracellular Na(+) but the presence of high intracellular Cl(-), AMPH-induced inward currents elicited DA efflux proportionally to their dimension and duration. Thus, we propose that AMPH-induced DA efflux depends on two correlated transporter processes. First, AMPH binds to the DAT and is transported, thereby causing an inward current. Second, because of this AMPH-induced inward current, Na(+) becomes more available intracellularly to the DAT, thereby enhancing DAT-mediated reverse transport of DA.


Khoury, V. K., B. Haluska, et al. (2003). "Effects of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on chronic ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction." Heart 89(1): 61-5.

            BACKGROUND: Glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) infusion improves cardiac function and outcome during acute ischaemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether GIK infusion benefits patients with chronic ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction, and if so whether this is related to the presence and nature of viable myocardium. METHODS: 30 patients with chronic ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction had dobutamine echocardiography and were given a four hour infusion of GIK. Segmental responses were quantified by improvement in wall motion score index (WMSI) and peak systolic velocity using tissue Doppler. Global responses were assessed by left ventricular volume and ejection fraction, measured using a three dimensional reconstruction. Myocardial perfusion was determined in 15 patients using contrast echocardiography. RESULTS: WMSI (mean (SD)) improved with dobutamine (from 1.8 (0.4) to 1.6 (0.4), p < 0.001) and with GIK (from 1.8 (0.4) to 1.7 (0.4), p < 0.001); there was a similar increment for both. Improvement in wall motion score with GIK was observed in 55% of the 62 segments classed as viable by dobutamine echocardiography, and in 5% of 162 classed as non-viable. There was an increment in peak systolic velocity after both dobutamine echocardiography (from 2.5 (1.8) to 3.2 (2.2) cm/s, p < 0.01) and GIK (from 3.0 (1.6) to 3.5 (1.7) cm/s, p < 0.001). The GIK effects were not mediated by changes in pulse, mean arterial pressure, lactate, or catecholamines, nor did they correlate with myocardial perfusion. End systolic volume improved after GIK (p = 0.03), but only in 25 patients who had viable myocardium on dobutamine echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with viable myocardium and chronic left ventricular dysfunction, GIK improves wall motion score, myocardial velocity, and end systolic volume, independent of effects on haemodynamics or catecholamines. The response to GIK is observed in areas of normal and abnormal perfusion assessed by contrast echocardiography.


Khroyan, T. V., D. M. Platt, et al. (2003). "Attenuation of relapse to cocaine seeking by dopamine D(1) receptor agonists and antagonists in non-human primates." Psychopharmacology (Berl).

            RATIONALE. Dopamine D(1) receptor agonists and antagonists attenuate reinstatement of cocaine seeking in a non-human primate model of relapse. The mechanisms by which these different classes of D(1) receptor drugs produce these similar effects on cocaine seeking are unknown. OBJECTIVES. This study investigated how D(1) receptor agonists and antagonists alter the shape and position of the dose-response function for reinstatement of drug seeking induced by a cocaine prime accompanied by restoration of the cocaine-paired stimulus. METHODS. Squirrel monkeys were given extensive histories of cocaine self-administration under a second-order fixed-interval, fixed-ratio schedule of i.v. drug injection. Drug seeking was then extinguished by replacing cocaine with vehicle and eliminating the cocaine-paired stimulus. In subsequent test sessions, in which the cocaine-paired stimulus was re-introduced, priming injections of cocaine alone or combined with the different D(1) receptor high- and low-efficacy agonists and antagonists (SKF 82958, SKF 81297, SKF 83959, ecopipam; n=3-4 per drug condition) were tested for their ability to reinstate extinguished cocaine seeking. RESULTS. Cocaine priming accompanied by the restoration of the cocaine-paired stimulus induced a dose-dependent reinstatement of drug seeking. When combined with cocaine, all D(1) receptor agonists and antagonists produced rightward and downward shifts in the cocaine dose-response function. However, combined pretreatment of SKF81297 (agonist) and ecopipam (antagonist) inhibited cocaine seeking less than either drug individually. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that D(1) receptor high- and low-efficacy agonists as well as antagonists attenuate reinstatement of cocaine seeking in part via pharmacologically opposing actions at a common population of D(1) receptors.


Kiianmaa, K., P. Hyytia, et al. (2003). "New neuronal networks involved in ethanol reinforcement." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(2): 209-19.

            This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 ISBRA/RSA meeting in San Francisco. The organizers were Kalervo Kiianmaa and Andrey E. Ryabinin. The chairs were Kalervo Kiianmaa and Jorgen A. Engel. The presentations were (1) The role of opioidergic and dopaminergic networks in ethanol-seeking behavior, by Kalervo Kiianmaa and Petri Hyytia; (2) Interaction between the dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens during ethanol self-administration, by Herman H. Samson; (3) Neurochemical and behavioral studies on ethanol and nicotine interactions, by Jorgen A. Engel, Lennart Svensson, Bo Soderpalm, and Anna Larsson; (4) Involvement of the GABA receptor in alcohol reinforcement in sP rats, by Giancarlo Colombo and Giovanni Vacca; (5) Neuroactive steroids and ethanol reinforcement, by Deborah A. Finn, and (6) Potential contribution of the urocortin system to regulation of alcohol self-administration, by Andrey E. Ryabinin and Ryan K. Bachtell.(B)


Kim, D. I., M. M. Schweri, et al. (2003). "Synthesis and Pharmacology of Site Specific Cocaine Abuse Treatment Agents: 8-Substituted Isotropane (3-Azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors." J Med Chem 46(8): 1456-64.

            A series of 8-substituted-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes (isotropanes) were synthesized and tested for inhibitor potency using [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding at the dopamine (DA) transporter, [(3)H]citalopram binding at the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, and [(3)H]DA uptake assays. The synthesis started with a Mannich condensation of cyclopentanone, benzylamine, and fomaldehyde to afford N-benzyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-one (6). The 8-phenyl group was introduced by Grignard addition to ketone 6 or nucleophilic displacement via a triflate of the corresponding alcohol 7a. The 8beta-phenyl-8alpha-alcohols from Grignard addition generally have low affinity for the two transporters and do not effectively inhibit the uptake of [(3)H]DA. The 8beta-phenyl compound (14) without the hydroxyl group at C-8 was much more potent (22-fold) for [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding inhibition than the corresponding 8beta-phenyl-8alpha-hydroxy compound (7a). The 8alpha-phenyl compound 8a was almost as potent as cocaine in binding to the DA transporter (IC(50) = 234 nM vs 159 nM for cocaine), whereas the C-8 epimer, compound 14, was somewhat less potent (IC(50) = 785 nM). The lower potency of 14 (beta-orientation of 8-phenyl group) as compared to 8a (alpha-orientation) was unexpected, based on modeling studies comparing the new compounds to WIN 35,065-2, an analogue of cocaine. The benzhydryl ethers at C-8 (17), analogous to the benztropines, had better selectivity than the corresponding phenyl compounds, 8a and 14, for the DA transporter as compared to the 5-HT transporter. The isotropane and benzisotropine analogues seem to bind in a manner that is more similar to that of the benztropine compounds 5 rather than those of cocaine and WIN 35,065-2.


Kim, D., H. J. Choi, et al. (2003). "Upregulation of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes by nitric oxide." J Neurosci Res 72(1): 98-104.

            Nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as an essential intercellular messenger in central and peripheral nervous systems. In the present study, whether NO exerts effects on catecholamine (CA) biosynthetic enzymes was determined in primary cultured bovine chromaffin cells. The NO generators sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine, in a dose-dependent manner, upregulated transcript levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, accompanied by long-term increases in their enzyme activities and the intracellular CA levels. The SNP effect was diminished by co-treatment with LY83583, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, or H-8, a cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor. Co-treatment with 8-Br-cGMP did not increase further the expression of these enzyme genes induced by SNP. Taken together, the data suggest that NO leads to long-term upregulation of the CA system via induction of the genes involved and that this is mediated by cGMP-dependent signaling pathway.


Kim, J. S., K. S. Lee, et al. (2003). "Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding in a patient with extrapontine myelinolysis." Mov Disord 18(3): 342-5.

            We describe the case of a 61-year-old woman who developed extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM) with parkinsonism. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding assessed by [(123)I]N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane and single photon emission computed tomography ([(123)I]IPT) SPECT) were observed in the patient, suggesting that osmotic injury causes the demyelination of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and that such injury may be involved in the pathogenesis of EPM with parkinsonism.


Kim, D. S. and R. D. Palmiter (2003). "Adenosine receptor blockade reverses hypophagia and enhances locomotor activity of dopamine-deficient mice." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(3): 1346-51.

            Adenosine receptors modulate dopaminergic function by regulating dopamine release in presynaptic neurons and intracellular signaling in postsynaptic striatal neurons. To investigate how adenosine impinges on the action of dopamine in feeding and locomotion, genetically altered, dopamine-deficient mice were treated with adenosine receptor antagonists. Acute administration of the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine (5-25 mgkg i.p.), reversed the hypophagia of mutant mice and induced hyperactivity in both control and mutant animals. However, caffeine treatment elicited much less hyperactivity in dopamine-deficient mice than did l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) administration, which partially restores dopamine content. Caffeine treatment enhanced feeding of l-dopa-treated mutants but, unexpectedly, it reduced their hyperlocomotion. Caffeine administration induced c-Fos expression in the cortex of dopamine-deficient mice but had no effect in the striatum by itself. Caffeine attenuated dopamine agonist-induced striatal c-Fos expression. An antagonist selective for adenosine A(2A) receptors induced feeding and locomotion in mutants much more effectively than an A(1) receptor antagonist. l-dopa-elicited feeding and hyperlocomotion were reduced in mutants treated with an A(1) receptor agonist, whereas an A(2A) receptor agonist decreased l-dopa-induced feeding without affecting locomotion. The observations suggest that the hypophagia and hypoactivity of mutants result not only because of the absence of dopamine but also because of the presence of A(2A) receptor signaling. This study of a genetic model of dopamine depletion provides evidence that A(2A) receptor antagonists could ameliorate the hypokinetic symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease patients without inducing excessive motor activity.


Kimberg, D. Y. and M. D'Esposito (2003). "Cognitive effects of the dopamine receptor agonist pergolide." Neuropsychologia 41(8): 1020-7.

            Although dopamine has been closely associated with prefrontal function, and with working memory in monkeys, the effects of dopamine agonists on human cognitive performance are poorly understood. We report the effects of a single dose of pergolide on young healthy subjects performing a variety of cognitive tests, including tests of memory and of frontal/executive function. Across this battery of tasks, the only tasks reliably affected by pergolide were delayed response tasks. Across four variants, we observed that the effect of pergolide was more beneficial for subjects with greater working memory capacities. We discuss this in light of the variable results obtained from previous studies of dopamine agonists in human subjects.


Kimmel, H. L., F. I. Carroll, et al. (2003). "Withdrawal from repeated cocaine alters dopamine transporter protein turnover in the rat striatum." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304(1): 15-21.

            Several studies have shown that repeated cocaine administration, followed by withdrawal, alters dopamine transporter (DAT) levels in the rat. These changes must arise from changes in either transporter protein production or degradation, or both. Previously, our laboratory developed an approach to measure the synthesis rate, degradation rate constant, and half-life of DAT in the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens after administration of the irreversible dopamine transporter ligand, RTI-76 [3beta-(3-p-chlorophenyl)tropan-2beta-carboxylic acid p-isothiocyanatophenylethyl ester hydrochloride]. Transporter binding was measured with [(3)H]GBR12935 [1-(2-[diphenylmethoxy]ethyl)-4-[3-phenylpropyl]piperazine]. These initial studies showed that: 1) the half-life of the transporter was between 2 and 3 days in these two brain regions; 2) pretreatment with dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists over several days differentially altered DAT half-lives in the striatum and nucleus accumbens; and 3) pretreatment with cocaine for several days increased the half-life of DAT by decreasing the degradation rate constant in both brain regions. In the present study, we determined that repeated pretreatment (10 days) with 20 mg/kg cocaine (i.p.) and a subsequent withdrawal period (10 days) alters the dopamine transporter turnover in the rat striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens. Cocaine pretreatment and withdrawal reduced the half-life of the transporter protein from 2.1 days to 0.94 day in the striatum, but did not alter the half-life of 2.2 days in the nucleus accumbens. The results indicate the complex and long-lasting effects of cocaine administration on cellular processes. The mechanism(s) of these effects remains to be elucidated.


Kimura, M., T. Masuda, et al. (2003). "Syntheses of novel diphenyl piperazine derivatives and their activities as inhibitors of dopamine uptake in the central nervous system." Bioorg Med Chem 11(8): 1621-30.

            A new series of diphenyl piperazine derivatives containing the phenyl substituted aminopropanol moiety, which were modified at sites between the diphenyl and piperazine moieties, was prepared and evaluated for dopamine transporter binding affinity with [(3)H]GBR12935 in rat striatal membranes. These synthesized compounds showed apparent dopamine transporter binding affinities (IC(50)<30 nM) and some of them were approximately equivalent in activity to GBR12909 known as a potent dopamine uptake inhibitor, showing the activities with IC(50) values of nanomolar range. Among them, 1-[4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]-4-[2-hydroxy-3-(phenylamino)propyl]pipera zine 2 was evaluated for extracellular dopamine levels in rat striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis. The intraperitoneal administration of 2 (0.01, 0.03, or 0.1 mmol/kg) induced dose-dependent increases of dopamine levels in rat striatal dialysates. The maximum increases in dopamine levels induced by 2 were greater than those by GBR12909. The pharmacological data of these novel diphenyl piperazine derivatives show that the compounds have potent dopamine uptake inhibitory activities in the central nervous system.


King, H., P. Corry, et al. (2003). "Probable dystonic reaction after a single dose of cyclizine in a patient with a history of encephalitis." Anaesthesia 58(3): 257-60.

            A patient underwent an emergency Caesarean section under general anaesthesia for an antepartum haemorrhage. Following delivery of a live infant, cyclizine was administered in accordance with departmental anti-emetic protocol. On awakening she was confused, slow to articulate and had slurred speech. A computed tomography (CT) scan, which was performed to exclude an intracranial event, was normal. Her symptoms were suggestive of a lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia as seen with dopamine antagonists. A presumptive diagnosis of a dystonic reaction to cyclizine was made. She received two doses of procyclidine before her symptoms completely resolved. Cyclizine has had a resurgence in popularity owing to the recent withdrawal of droperidol and anaesthetists should be aware that, although extremely rare, dystonic reactions may occur with this agent.


Kirik, D., L. E. Annett, et al. (2003). "Nigrostriatal alpha-synucleinopathy induced by viral vector-mediated overexpression of human alpha-synuclein: a new primate model of Parkinson's disease." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(5): 2884-9.

            We used a high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector to express WT or mutant human alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra of adult marmosets. The alpha-synuclein protein was expressed in 90-95% of all nigral dopamine neurons and distributed by anterograde transport throughout their axonal and dendritic projections. The transduced neurons developed severe neuronal pathology, including alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and granular deposits; swollen, dystrophic, and fragmented neuritis; and shrunken and pyknotic, densely alpha-synuclein-positive perikarya. By 16 wk posttransduction, 30-60% of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons were lost, and the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive innervation of the caudate nucleus and putamen was reduced to a similar extent. The rAAV-alpha-synuclein-treated monkeys developed a type of motor impairment, i.e., head position bias, compatible with this magnitude of nigrostriatal damage. rAAV vector-mediated alpha-synuclein gene transfer provides a transgenic primate model of nigrostriatal alpha-synucleinopathy that is of particular interest because it develops slowly over time, like human Parkinson's disease (PD), and expresses neuropathological features (alpha-synuclein-positive inclusions and dystrophic neurites, in particular) that are similar to those seen in idiopathic PD. This model offers new opportunities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms and exploration of new therapeutic targets of particular relevance to human PD.


Kishida, I., C. Kawanishi, et al. (2003). "Lack of association in Japanese patients between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and the TaqI A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene." Psychiatr Genet 13(1): 55-7.

            OBJECTIVE The molecular basis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is unclear, but clinical studies have noted a genetic predisposition. A recent genetic study suggested an association between NMS and the I A polymorphism in the dopamine D receptor (DRD ) gene. We further examined the association in a larger number of subjects.(2) (2)METHODS We studied 49 Japanese patients previously diagnosed with NMS, and 123 schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics without occurrence of NMS. PCR and RFLP analyses were performed to screen the I A polymorphism.RESULTS The I A1 allele frequency was 0.408 in NMS patients and 0.415 in patients without NMS. No significant differences in allelic or genotypic frequencies were observed between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS We cannot conclude that the I A polymorphism is associated with development of NMS.


Kiss, T., L. Hiripi, et al. (2003). "Dopamine and serotonin receptors mediating contractions of the snail, helix pomatia, salivary duct." Neuroscience 116(3): 775-90.

            The combination of high performance liquid chromatography, bioassay and immunocytochemistry was applied to study the regulation of the salivary duct muscle of the snail, Helix pomatia. The major function of the duct appears to be to propel the saliva toward the buccal cavity during feeding. It has been established that serotonin and dopamine applied exogenously mimic the effect on the duct exerted by the stimulation of the salivary nerve. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of serotonin, but not dopaminergic nerve elements in the nerve and along the duct surface. However, both serotonin (14.9-15.5 pmol/mg) and dopamine (0.38-0.58 pmol/mg), as well as the synthesizing enzymes (tyrozine hydroxylase 0.28 pmol/mg tissue/h and DOPA 0.32 nmol synthesized DA/mg tissue/h) could regularly be assayed in the salivary duct by high performance liquid chromatography. When released following the stimulation of the salivary nerve, both monoamines were shown to interact with distinct membrane receptors. Dopamine elicited a sustained increase of the muscle tone in concentration-dependent manner (K(d)=1.5 microM). Mammalian D(1) receptor antagonist flupenthixol and fluphenazine attenuated, whereas the D(1) receptor agonist SKF-38393 mimicked the effect elicited by exogenous dopamine. Serotonin had a double effect on the salivary duct: a relaxing and a contracting one with different K(d) values 76 nM and 2.4 microM, respectively. 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ritanserin and ketanserin attenuated the serotonin-induced relaxation. In contrast 5-HT(3) antagonist metoclopramide and MDL2222 decreased and 5-HT(3) receptor agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide mimicked the serotonin-induced contraction, suggesting that serotonin exerted its action on two different receptor subtypes. The release of radiolabeled serotonin and dopamine upon nerve stimulation was found to be Ca-dependent. Furthermore, the increase in serotonin concentration induced a decrease of the potency of dopamine to elicit sustained contraction.These results provide evidence for the transmitter role of serotonin and dopamine in salivary duct. It is concluded that receptors reveal a pharmacological profile related to vertebrate D(1), 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(3) receptor subtypes. Moreover, it was found that the process of conveying the saliva is modulated by an interaction of dopamine and serotonin.


Kiyatkin, E. A. and P. L. Brown (2003). "Naloxone depresses cocaine self-administration and delays its initiation on the following day." Neuroreport 14(2): 251-5.

            While dopamine mechanisms play a crucial role in cocaine-taking behavior, the contribution of endogenous opioid systems is less clear. We assessed the effects of opioid receptor blockade by naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) on the daily performance and subsequent initiation of cocaine self-administration in trained rats. Naloxone decreased self-administration rate by approximately half, with the effect varying from complete blockade to no change. On the day following naloxone treatment, the latencies from the drug availability cue to the first self-administration were consistently longer than before naloxone treatment. Measurement of brain temperature and behavioral observations suggested a lower than normal level of motivational arousal as a factor for slow initiation of cocaine-taking behavior. After the first drug infusion, however, performance was uniformly normal. These data suggest endogenous opioid systems play a role in cocaine-taking behavior and indicate a residual inhibitory consequence of naloxone treatment on the initiation of this behavior.


Klein, A. and W. J. Schmidt (2003). "Catalepsy intensifies context-dependently irrespective of whether it is induced by intermittent or chronic dopamine deficiency." Behav Pharmacol 14(1): 49-53.

            It is well known that neuroleptic-induced catalepsy in rats intensifies upon repeated testing. Here, the question is addressed whether intensification of catalepsy results from intermittent drug administration or from intermittent context exposure. In experiment 1, rats were treated with intermittent haloperidol injections (0.25 mg/kg) followed by the catalepsy test (descent latency from the horizontal bar). In experiment 2, rats were lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine injections into the striatum, resulting in a 45% reduction of dopamine concentration. Catalepsy was tested intermittently for several weeks. In both experiments we found a very stable intensification of catalepsy over 9 (haloperidol rats) and 11 (lesioned rats) days, showing that intensification is not due to intermittent dopamine depletion. In both experiments, intensification of catalepsy was very stable and was observed 18 days later in haloperidol-treated rats and 101 days later in lesioned animals. However, a change of the environmental context abolished the intensified catalepsy in both experiments. It is concluded that intensification of catalepsy is due to intermittent context exposure rather than intermittent drug administration. It is generally accepted that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions represent an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Given the results above, context-dependent intensification of parkinsonian symptoms might also occur in Parkinson's disease, and its prevention should be taken into consideration for future therapy of the disease.


Klintenberg, R., J. Arts, et al. (2003). "Motor effects of a dopamine stabilizer (GMC1111) in primate models of Parkinson and hemiparkinsonism." Eur J Pharmacol 459(2-3): 231-7.

            THE EFFECTS ON MOTOR BEHAVIOR OF A NEW POTENTIAL DOPAMINE STABILIZER: 2-amino-6-(N,N-di-n-propylamino)thiazolo[4,5-f]indan (GMC1111) were investigated in common marmosets with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions within the median forebrain bundle (12 unilateral, 6 bilateral). GMC1111 was administered orally or subcutaneously (s.c.) to unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned monkeys, either alone or together with s.c. injections of apomorphine (0.2 mg/kg) and the effect on rotational behavior was examined. GMC1111 (0.03-3.0 mg/kg) alone, orally or s.c., did not induce rotational behavior. When apomorphine and GMC1111 were injected simultaneously, rotations were nearly abolished in three monkeys with a baseline apomorphine-induced rotation rate below 13/min, whereas GMC1111 did not modify the rotations in three high-rotating animals (>17/min). Oral administration of GMC1111 (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) abolished the apomorphine-induced rotations in another six unilaterally dopamine-denervated monkeys, indicating a good oral bioavailability. A low dose of GMC1111 (0.3 mg/kg) administered s.c. to marmosets with bilateral nigrostriatal lesions produced a reduction of Parkinson symptoms of approximately the same degree as with levodopa/benserazide (15/3.75 mg/kg), while higher doses of GMC1111 were less effective. When levodopa/benserazide was administered together with various doses of GMC1111 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg), the levodopa-induced peak-dose dyskinesias were reduced with the highest dose of GMC1111 (3 mg/kg). Taken together, GMC1111 modifies dopaminergic activity in a normalizing direction. Parkinson symptoms, as well as levodopa-induced dyskinesias are both reduced. This suggests the arrival of another member of the new dopamine stabilizer family.


Klockgether, T. (2003). "[Medicinal treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease]." Nervenarzt 74 Suppl 1: S12-21.

            Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) results from a largely selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.Therefore, compounds which strengthen dopaminergic transmission in the striatum are the most important therapeutic approach.These include L-dopa, dopamine receptor agonists, selegeline, and entacapon.Since nigrostriatal degeneration leads to secondary alterations of cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission to the basal ganglia,nondopaminergic compounds such as anticholinergics and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are also used in the management of IPD.L-dopa is the most effective substance but after 3-5 years of L-dopa treatment, approximately half of all IPD patients develop fluctuations.Therefore, initial treatment with a dopamine receptor agonist is recommended.


Knegtering, H., A. E. van der Moolen, et al. (2003). "What are the effects of antipsychotics on sexual dysfunctions and endocrine functioning?" Psychoneuroendocrinology 28 Suppl 2: 109-23.

            The literature is reviewed and preliminary results of new studies are presented showing that treatment with classical antipsychotics, as well as risperidone, induces sexual dysfunctions in 30-60% of the patients. These antipsychotics also frequently induce amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea.Although comparative studies are rare, it is likely that prolactin-sparing antipsychotics, as recently shown in a randomized trial of olanzapine versus risperidone, induce less sexual side effects.From these studies, it becomes apparent that prolactin elevation induced by classical antipsychotics and risperidone is probably a factor in inducing sexual dysfunctions, amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. The role of other factors inducing sexual dysfunctions like sedation, proportional, variant -blockade, testosterone, dopamine, and serotonin is discussed. Finally, it is concluded that sexual and hormonal effects of antipsychotics, although clearly important, are often neglected in research as in clinical practice. Lowering the dosage or switching to a prolactin-sparing antipsychotic often reduces sexual side effects, amenorrhoea, and galactorrhoea.


Kobayashi, T., S. Kuroda, et al. (2003). "Calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release in the brain: its biochemical characteristics and implication in ischemic neuronal injury." Brain Res 960(1-2): 62-70.

            The objective of the present study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling (mitochondrial permeability transition; mPT) and cytochrome c release in the brain, and to clarify its role in neuronal injury following transient forebrain ischemia. Mitochondria were isolated from rat brain and liver. Changes in mitochondrial volume were measured via light absorbance at 540 nm. Using Western blot analysis, we examined the in vitro release of mitochondrial cytochrome c under these conditions. Transient forebrain ischemia was induced by 5 min occlusion of the common carotid arteries in the gerbil. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a specific mPT blocker, and/or trifluoperazine, a blocker of phospholipase A(2), were given before and 24 h after ischemia. The number of surviving neurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector was counted 7 days after ischemia. Calcium induced a moderate decrease of light absorbance in brain mitochondria, which was inhibited by CsA. However, calcium induced a much larger decrease of light absorbance in liver mitochondria. Calcium induced a moderate release of cytochrome c from brain mitochondria, which was not inhibited by CsA. However, calcium induced the release of a larger amount of cytochrome c from liver mitochondria. Selective neuronal injury due to transient forebrain ischemia was significantly ameliorated by treatment with high-dose CsA. The biochemical properties of Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling in the brain are different from those in the liver. Cytochrome c is released from brain mitochondria through an mPT-independent mechanism. CsA potentially ameliorates delayed neuronal injury in the hippocampus due to transient forebrain ischemia.


Koch, H. J., A. Szecsey, et al. (2003). "Successful therapy of tardive dyskinesia in a 71-year-old woman with a combination of tetrabenazine, olanzapine and tiapride." Int J Clin Pract 57(2): 147-9.

            There is no generally accepted treatment for tardive dyskinesia following intake of neuroleptics. Many compounds with effects on serotonine, GABA, cholinergic or dopamine receptors have been clinically useful. We report on a 71-year-old female patient suffering from orofacial tardive dyskinesia after treatment with haloperidol, which did not respond to monotherapy with antidyskinetic drugs. The syndrome disappeared almost completely within two weeks after a multidrug approach consisting of tetrabenazine, olanzapine and tiapride. A combination of antidyskinetic drugs should be considered in patients with severe tardive dyskinesia.


Koeltzow, T. E., J. D. Austin, et al. (2003). "Behavioral sensitization to quinpirole is not associated with increased nucleus accumbens dopamine overflow." Neuropharmacology 44(1): 102-10.

            This study assessed the relationship between extracellular nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) concentrations and sensitized locomotor activation following repeated administration of the DA D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole. Locomotor activity measures and nucleus accumbens microdialysis samples were collected concurrently in response to the first (acute) and tenth (repeated) quinpirole injection (0.5 mg/kg s.c., every other day). Results indicate that acute quinpirole produced locomotor activation and that repeated quinpirole resulted in locomotor sensitization. Acute quinpirole significantly decreased the detection of extracellular concentrations of DA and the DA metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the NAc. Following repeated quinpirole, basal NAc DA levels were decreased, whereas basal DOPAC levels were increased. Nevertheless, quinpirole challenge elicited a significant decrease in DA, DOPAC and HVA following repeated treatment. In addition, although acute quinpirole did not affect NAc levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), quinpirole challenge produced a significant increase in 5-HIAA levels following repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that functional DA autoreceptor subsensitivity is not a necessary condition for the expression of behavioral sensitization to quinpirole. Instead, it appears that behavioral sensitization to quinpirole occurs predominantly as a consequence of neuroadaptations that are post-synaptic to DA release.


Koga, T., M. Kobashi, et al. (2003). "Area postrema mediates gastric motor response induced by apomorphine in rats." Brain Res 960(1-2): 122-31.

            The effects of apomorphine administration on the autonomic responses were investigated in rats. Distinctive gastric motor responses were observed after the intravenous administration of apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg body weight). Gastric motor responses in the distal stomach induced by apomorphine administration were classified into two types. One type involved inhibition of phasic contractions which appeared just after the administration of apomorphine. The other involved an increase in the frequency of small phasic contractions accompanied by increased gastric tone appearing with a relatively longer delay. No relaxation was observed in either the proximal or distal stomach. These gastric motor responses showed a dose-response effect to the amount of apomorphine administered (0.002-0.1 mg/kg body weight). In addition, submandibular salivary secretion was observed in response to the intravenous administration of apomorphine at a dose of 3 or 10 mg/kg body weight. Pretreatment with domperidone (1 or 2 mg/kg body weight) or the ablation of the area postrema (AP) abolished the gastric motor response and salivary secretion induced by the administration of apomorphine. In conclusion, rats showed definitive autonomic phenomena in response to the administration of apomorphine. Dopamine 2-like receptors situated in the AP mediate apomorphine-induced autonomic phenomena in rats.


Koh, P. O., C. Bergson, et al. (2003). "Up-regulation of the D1 dopamine receptor-interacting protein, calcyon, in patients with schizophrenia." Arch Gen Psychiatry 60(3): 311-9.

            BACKGROUND: The dopamine hypothesis remains a prominent influence on research into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, yet the presence of consistent schizophrenia-linked abnormalities in the presynaptic components of the dopamine system or in dopamine receptors still remains a matter of debate. The present study focuses on a recently recognized group of dopamine receptor-interacting proteins as possible novel sites of dysfunction in schizophrenia. Specifically, we examined whether the D1 dopamine receptor-interacting protein calcyon and the D2 dopamine receptor-interacting proteins filamin-A and spinophilin are affected in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Slot blots of dorsolateral prefrontal cortical tissue were used to compare the levels of the 3 proteins of interest in control, schizophrenic, bipolar, and major depression groups (n = 15 per group). The nonschizophrenic psychiatric groups were included to determine the specificity of the detected abnormalities. RESULTS: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenic patients displayed nearly twice the normal levels of calcyon, whereas filamin-A and spinophilin levels were unaltered. Patients with bipolar disorder or major depression showed no changes in all 3 proteins examined. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide the first evidence that abnormalities in the dopamine system of patients with schizophrenia may lie in altered levels of dopamine receptor-interacting proteins.


Koh, P. O., A. S. Undie, et al. (2003). "Up-regulation of neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic and bipolar patients." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(1): 313-7.

            The delineation of dopamine dysfunction in the mentally ill has been a long-standing quest of biological psychiatry. The present study focuses on a recently recognized group of dopamine receptor-interacting proteins as possible novel sites of dysfunction in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. We demonstrate that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar cases from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium display significantly elevated levels of the D2 dopamine receptor desensitization regulatory protein, neuronal calcium sensor-1. These levels of neuronal calcium sensor-1 were not influenced by age, gender, hemisphere, cause of death, postmortem period, alcohol consumption, or antipsychotic and mood stabilizing medications. The present study supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be associated with abnormalities in dopamine receptor-interacting proteins.


Kohnke, M. D., G. Wiatr, et al. (2003). "Plasma Homovanillic Acid: A Significant Association with Alcoholism is Independent of a Functional Polymorphism of the Human Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene." Neuropsychopharmacology.

            The central dopamine system seems to influence addictive disorders. Plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) is an indicator of central dopaminergic activity. In this study the hypothesis that plasma HVA is associated with alcoholism or with delirium tremens (DT) during alcohol withdrawal was tested. A functional genetic polymorphism of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that participates in converting dopamine into its final metabolite HVA was investigated for an association with alcoholism or DT during alcohol withdrawal. In addition, a relation between the functional polymorphism of COMT and plasma HVA concentrations was studied. Plasma HVA concentrations and COMT genotypes were determined in 142 German alcoholics and 101 German healthy controls. Alcoholic patients were examined after a minimum of 3 weeks after cessation of drinking. Mean plasma HVA concentrations were significantly lower in alcoholic patients compared to healthy controls. A group of alcoholics with a history of DT during alcohol withdrawal (n=62) did not differ significantly in plasma HVA concentrations from alcoholics with a history of only mild withdrawal symptoms (n=67). The functional polymorphism of the human COMT gene was neither significantly associated with the diagnosis of alcoholism or DT during alcohol withdrawal nor with plasma HVA concentrations.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 19 March 2003; doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300107


Koks, S., U. Abramov, et al. (2003). "CCK(2) receptor-deficient mice have increased sensitivity of dopamine D(2) receptors." Neuropeptides 37(1): 25-9.

            The present study supports a role of CCK(2) receptors in the regulation of dopamine neurones. In pharmacological studies conducted on male CCK(2) receptor-deficient mice the changes in the activity of dopamine system were established. A low dose of dopamine agonist apomorphine (0.1mg/kg), stimulating the pre-synaptic dopamine receptors, induced significantly stronger suppression of locomotor activity in mutant mice (-/-) compared to their wild-type littermates (+/+). The administration of amphetamine (3-6mg/kg), a drug increasing dopamine release, caused a dose-dependent stimulation of locomotor activity in wild-type mice. In mice lacking CCK(2) receptors, a lower dose of amphetamine (3mg/kg) tended to suppress the motor activity, whereas the higher dose (6mg/kg) induced the significantly stronger motor stimulation in mutant mice. Moreover, in the CCK(2) receptor-deficient mice the affinity of dopamine D(2) receptors, but not 5-HT(2) receptors, was increased. Altogether, the targeted genetic suppression of CCK(2) receptors increased the sensitivity of pre- and post-synaptic dopamine D(2) receptors.


Kombian, S. B., K. V. Ananthalakshmi, et al. (2003). "Substance P depresses excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus accumbens through dopaminergic and purinergic mechanisms." J Neurophysiol 89(2): 728-37.

            Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide that is co-localized with conventional transmitters in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Its neurochemical and behavioral effects resemble those of cocaine and amphetamine. How SP accomplishes these effects is not known, partly because its cellular and synaptic effects are not well characterized. Using whole cell and nystatin-perforated patch recording in rat forebrain slices, we show here that SP, an excitatory neuropeptide, depresses evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and potentials (EPSPs) in NAc through intermediate neuromodulators. SP caused a partially reversible, dose-dependent decrease in evoked EPSCs. This effect was mimicked by a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor-selective agonist, [Sar(9), Met (O(2))(11)]-SP and blocked by a NK1 receptor-selective antagonist, L 732 138. Both the SP- and [Sar(9), Met (O(2))(11)]-SP-induced synaptic depressions were accompanied by increases in paired pulse ratio (PPR), effects that were also blocked by L 732 138. In contrast to its effect on PPR, SP did not produce significant changes in the holding current, input resistance, EPSC decay rate (tau), and steady-state I-V curves of the recorded cells. The SP-induced synaptic depressions were prevented by dopamine receptor blockade using SCH23390 and haloperidol, but not by sulpiride. In addition, the SP-induced synaptic depression was blocked by an adenosine A1 receptor blocker 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (8-CPT) but not the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D-APV. These data show that SP, by activating presynaptic NK1 receptors, depresses excitatory synaptic transmission indirectly by enhancing extracellular dopamine and adenosine levels. Since the cellular and synaptic effects of SP resemble those of cocaine and amphetamine, it may serve as an endogenous psychogenic peptide.


Koob, G. F. (2003). "Alcoholism: allostasis and beyond." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(2): 232-43.

            Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drinking, loss of control over intake, and impaired social and occupational function. Animal models have been developed for various stages of the alcohol addiction cycle with a focus on the motivational effects of withdrawal, craving, and protracted abstinence. A conceptual framework focused on allostatic changes in reward function that lead to excessive drinking provides a heuristic framework with which to identify the neurobiologic mechanisms involved in the development of alcoholism. Neuropharmacologic studies in animal models have provided evidence for specific neurochemical mechanisms in specific brain reward and stress circuits that become dysregulated during the development of alcohol dependence. The brain reward system implicated in the development of alcoholism comprises key elements of a basal forebrain macrostructure termed the extended amygdala that includes the central nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and a transition zone in the medial (shell) part of the nucleus accumbens. There are multiple neurotransmitter systems that converge on the extended amygdala that become dysregulated during the development of alcohol dependence, including gamma-aminobutyric acid, opioid peptides, glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine. In addition, the brain stress systems may contribute significantly to the allostatic state. During the development of alcohol dependence, corticotropin-releasing factor may be recruited, and the neuropeptide Y brain antistress system may be compromised. These changes in the reward and stress systems are hypothesized to maintain hedonic stability in an allostatic state, as opposed to a homeostatic state, and as such convey the vulnerability for relapse in recovering alcoholics. The allostatic model not only integrates molecular, cellular, and circuitry neuroadaptations in brain motivational systems produced by chronic alcohol ingestion with genetic vulnerability but also provides a key to translate advances in animal studies to the human condition.


Korczyn, A. D. (2003). "Dopaminergic drugs in development for Parkinson's disease." Adv Neurol 91: 267-71.


Korotkova, T. M., O. A. Sergeeva, et al. (2003). "Excitation of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons by orexins/hypocretins." J Neurosci 23(1): 7-11.

            Orexins/hypocretins are involved in mechanisms of emotional arousal and short-term regulation of feeding. The dense projection of orexin neurons from the lateral hypothalamus to mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is likely to be important in both of these processes. We used single-unit extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to examine the effects of orexins (A and B) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) on neurons in this region. Orexins caused an increase in firing frequency (EC(50) 78 nm), burst firing, or no change in firing in different groups of A10 dopamine neurons. Neurons showing oscillatory firing in response to orexins had smaller afterhyperpolarizations than the other groups of dopamine neurons. Orexins (100 nm) also increased the firing frequency of nondopaminergic neurons in the VTA. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microm), orexins depolarized both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, indicating a direct postsynaptic effect. Unlike the orexins, MCH did not affect the firing of either group of neurons. Single-cell PCR experiments showed that orexin receptors were expressed in both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons and that the calcium binding protein calbindin was only expressed in neurons, which also expressed orexin receptors. In narcolepsy, in which the orexin system is disrupted, dysfunction of the orexin modulation of VTA neurons may be important in triggering attacks of cataplexy.


Kosten, T. A., X. Y. Zhang, et al. (2003). "Chronic neonatal isolation stress enhances cocaine-induced increases in ventral striatal dopamine levels in rat pups." Brain Res Dev Brain Res 141(1-2): 109-16.

            Cocaine-induced increases in ventral striatal dopamine levels are enhanced in adult rats previously exposed to chronic stress. In neonatal rats, isolation from dam, nest, and siblings is stressful as evidenced by elevated corticosterone levels, an effect that increases with chronic isolation. Whether chronic neonatal isolation cross-sensitizes to cocaine leading to greater increases in ventral striatal dopamine levels was assessed in this study. Litters were assigned to isolate or non-handled conditions. After culling on postnatal Day 1 (PN1), pups in the neonatal isolation condition were isolated individually for 1 h/day on PN days 2-9 while pups in the non-handled condition were left undisturbed. On PN10, pups were implanted with probes aimed at the ventral striatum. Baseline measures of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC, were obtained. Separate groups of male and female pups were then administered 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10 mg/kg cocaine and samples were collected for 2-h. Isolate pups showed greater cocaine-induced increases in ventral striatal dopamine levels than non-handled pups. However, DOPAC levels did not differ by isolation condition or gender. Neonatal isolation-induced increases in the effects of cocaine on ventral striatal dopamine levels are consistent with our previous study using amphetamine in 10-day-old pups and show that chronic stress sensitizes the dopamine response to psychostimulants in infant rats.


Kotake, Y., S. Ohta, et al. (2003). "Neurotoxicity of an endogenous brain amine, 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, in organotypic slice co-culture of mesencephalon and striatum." Neuroscience 117(1): 63-70.

            Organotypic slice co-culture of the ventromedial portion of the mesencephalon and striatum was used to evaluate the neurotoxicity of 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, an endogenous brain amine related to Parkinson's disease. 1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is specifically increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease and induces parkinsonian features in the monkey and mouse. Here, it decreased the dopamine content of the cultured mesencephalon in both dose- (10-100 microM) and time- (24 h to 7 days) dependent manners. This result suggests that the neurotoxicity of 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is correlated with the overall exposure (concentration multiplied by exposure time). Culture with 100 microM 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline for 24 h irreversibly reduced the dopamine content. Furthermore, culture with 100 microM 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline for 10 days caused morphological changes, including cell body shrinkage and distortion of dendritic morphology, in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the mesencephalon and reduced the number of cells by half. The increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in the media produced by 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline was significant in culture of the mesencephalon alone or its co-culture with striatum, but not in cultures of other brain regions. We suggest that 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is toxic to tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the ventral mesencephalon and that it is correlated with the integral of the concentration by time of exposure. Thus a low concentration of 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may first induce a decrease in the dopamine content then shrinkage of the cell body, followed by the slow death of dopaminergic neurons over a long period. This is the first report that indicates 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline exerts neurotoxicity at the cellular level, and reveals in part the character of its neurotoxicity.


Kozell, B. and K. Meshul (2003). "Alterations in nerve terminal glutamate immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area following single and repeated doses of cocaine." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165(4): 337-45.

            RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that sensitization to repeated doses of cocaine results in prolonged changes in glutamate transmission. However, little is known about long-term changes in glutamate transmission following a single dose of cocaine. Our laboratory has previously reported that a single dose of cocaine, but not repeated cocaine, decreased the density of presynaptic nerve terminal glutamate immunolabeling in the nucleus accumbens when measured 3 days later. This study extends the results of our previous work by examining nerve terminal glutamate immunoreactivity 17 days after the last dose of cocaine. METHODS: Quantitative electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry was used to determine the density of presynaptic nerve terminal glutamate immunoreactivity in rats that received single or repeated doses of cocaine followed by 17 days of withdrawal. Animals that received repeated cocaine were separated into behaviorally sensitized and non-sensitized groups based on individual differences between cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity on the first and last days of cocaine administration. RESULTS: There were significant decreases in the density of presynaptic nerve terminal glutamate immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens core of the group that received a single dose of cocaine. The repeat cocaine groups had significant decreases in nerve terminal glutamate immunolabeling in the ventral tegmental area. CONCLUSIONS: Acute cocaine administration resulted in a significant loss of nerve terminal glutamate immunoreactivity that was persistent in the nucleus accumbens core, but there were only transient changes in the shell. Nerve terminal glutamate immunoreactivities in the behaviorally sensitized and non-sensitized groups were not significantly different from one another, which suggests that cocaine-induced alterations in presynaptic glutamate immunoreactivity may not be sufficient for the expression of behavioral sensitization.


Kozicz, T. (2003). "Dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein immunoreactive neurons are innervated by axon terminals immunopositive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala." Brain Res 962(1-2): 237-43.

            The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are highly heterogeneous structures, which play a central role in the modulation and/or regulation of stress responses. The oval nucleus of the anterior division of BST (BSTov) and the CeA exhibit several dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) immunoreactive (ir) neurons. It has been demonstrated that DARPP-32, if phosphorylated, can inhibit protein-phophatase-1, thereby controlling other neuropeptide/neurotransmitter actions. In addition, a dense network of vasoactive polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive axon terminals was also observed here. VIP, via its receptors, increases intracellular cAMP levels, therefore it can play an important role in regulating the phosphorylation of DARPP-32. Since the localization of DARPP-32- and VIP-ir neuronal structures overlaps in the BSTov and CeA, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible synaptic innervation of DARPP-32-ir neurons by fiber terminals immunopositive for VIP, to provide anatomical evidence for the interaction between a neuropeptide and a phosphoprotein. In summary, this study for the first time demonstrated that VIP-ir axon terminals innervate DARPP-32 perikarya and dendrites in the BSTov and CeA, which play an important role in the central autonomic regulation of stress responses. In addition, morphological evidence for possible interaction between neuropeptides and phosphoproteins was also provided at the electron microscopic level.


Kozikowski, A. P., K. M. Johnson, et al. (2003). "Mixed Cocaine Agonist/Antagonist Properties of (+)-Methyl 4beta-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-methylpiperidine-3alpha-carboxylate, a Piperidine-Based Analog of Cocaine." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305(1): 143-50.

            The present study investigated the pharmacological properties of a piperidine-based novel cocaine analog, namely, (+)-methyl 4beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methylpiperidine-3alpha-carboxylic acid [(+)-CPCA]. Like cocaine, (+)-CPCA inhibited rat synaptosomal dopamine and norepinephrine uptake with high affinity, but was 33-fold less potent than cocaine in inhibiting serotonin uptake. Like cocaine, (+)-CPCA is a locomotor stimulant, although it was less potent and efficacious than cocaine. Importantly, pretreatment with (+)-CPCA dose dependently blocked the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine in rats. (+)-CPCA completely substituted for cocaine in drug discrimination tests, although it was about 3 times less potent than cocaine. It was also self-administered by rats. Unexpectedly, (+)-CPCA did not enhance cocaine-induced convulsions in mice. As expected from rodent studies, rhesus monkeys readily self-administered (+)-CPCA. However, compared with cocaine, (+)-CPCA showed limited reinforcing properties in rats as assessed by both fixed and progressive ratio intravenous drug self-administration tests. These results collectively suggest that (+)-CPCA has an atypical pharmacological profile having both cocaine-like "agonist" and some cocaine "antagonist" properties. These properties of (+)-CPCA suggest that it may have utility in the treatment of cocaine craving and dependence.


Kozikowski, A. P., K. M. Johnson, et al. (2003). "Mixed Cocaine Agonist/Antagonist Properties of (+)-Methyl 4{beta}-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-Methylpiperidine-3{alpha}-Car boxylate [[!LB]](+)-CPCA[[!RB]], a Piperidine Based Analog of Cocaine." J Pharmacol Exp Ther.

            The present studies investigated the pharmacological properties of a piperidine-based novel cocaine analog, namely (+)-methyl 4beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methylpiperidine-3alpha-car boxylic acid [(+)-CPCA]. Like cocaine, (+)-CPCA inhibited rat synaptosomal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine uptake with high affinity, but was 33-fold less potent than cocaine in inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) uptake. Like cocaine, (+)-CPCA is a locomotor stimulant, though it was less potent and efficacious than cocaine. Importantly, pretreatment with (+)-CPCA dose-dependently blocked the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine in rats. (+)-CPCA completely substituted for cocaine in drug discrimination tests, although it was about three times less potent than cocaine. It was also self-administered by rats. Unexpectedly, (+)-CPCA did not enhance cocaine-induced convulsions in mice. As expected from rodent studies, rhesus monkeys readily self-administered (+)-CPCA. However, compared to cocaine, (+)-CPCA showed limited reinforcing properties in rats as assessed by both fixed- and progressive-ratio intravenous drug self-administration tests. These results collectively suggest that (+)-CPCA has an atypical pharmacological profile having both cocaine-like "agonist" and some cocaine "antagonist" properties. These properties of (+)-CPCA suggest that it may have utility in the treatment of cocaine craving and dependence.


Krause, M., W. E. Hoffmann, et al. (2003). "Auditory sensory gating in hippocampus and reticular thalamic neurons in anesthetized rats." Biol Psychiatry 53(3): 244-53.

            Auditory gating is thought to reflect sensory information processing and is absent or diminished in schizophrenic patients. Although abnormal thalamic sensory processing has been proposed in schizophrenia, sensory gating of thalamic neurons has not been demonstrated experimentally. The aim of the present study was to establish whether auditory gating is present in the rat thalamus using a well-characterized animal model of auditory gating and schizophrenia.Hippocampal electroencephalogram and single-unit activity in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) were recorded in anaesthetized rats. Evoked potentials in the hippocampus and neuronal activity in the nRT were monitored in response to bilateral auditory stimuli. The effects of the psychostimulant D-amphetamine and the antipsychotic haloperidol on auditory gating were evaluated.Thalamic reticular nucleus neurons showed gated responses to paired-tone auditory stimuli, resembling hippocampal auditory gating. D-amphetamine disrupted auditory gating of nRT neurons and abolished their burst activity. D-amphetamine also disrupted hippocampal auditory gating and induced hippocampal theta activity. The amphetamine-induced gating deficit was reversed by haloperidol in both regions.Our findings provide the first experimental evidence for auditory gating of nRT neurons. We demonstrated that amphetamine disrupts sensory processing of nRT neurons, indicating similarities between hippocampal and thalamic sensory gating. These findings support the presumed connection between dopamine hyperfunction and abnormal thalamic filtering in schizophrenia.


Kritzer, M. F. (2003). "Long-term gonadectomy affects the density of tyrosine hydroxylase- but not dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-, choline acetyltransferase- or serotonin-immunoreactive axons in the medial prefrontal cortices of adult male rats." Cereb Cortex 13(3): 282-96.

            The rat prefrontal cortices participate in cognitive, affective and mnemonic functions. The importance of dopamine innervation for these computations is illustrated in studies showing that both supranormal levels and chemical lesions of prefrontal dopamine induce severe behavioral deficits. Observed hormone effects on some of these same behaviors suggest that the prefrontal cortices are also sensitive to gonadal steroids. These two influences seem to converge in recent evidence of increased dopamine axon density in representative prefrontal but not sensory or motor cortices in gonadectomized adult male rats. The seeming selectivity of these effects was further explored here using immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-b-hydroxylase, serotonin and choline acetyltransferase to label neurochemically identified afferents in remaining, unstudied prefrontal fields of rat cortex in animals that were sham-operated or gonadectomized and given placebo, testosterone propionate, estradiol or dihydrotestosterone 28 days before being killed. Group comparisons revealed that across prefrontal zones, gonadectomy produced androgen-sensitive increases in presumed dopamine axon density, but did not affect the other afferents. These findings thus bolster evidence for a targeted gonadal steroid influence involving the prefrontal cortices and a neurotransmitter essential for their normal operations and implicated in their dysfunction in disorders such as schizophrenia as well.


Krugel, U., H. Kittner, et al. (2003). "Purinergic modulation of neuronal activity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in vivo." Synapse 47(2): 134-42.

            ATP and its metabolite adenosine activate membrane receptors, termed P2 and P1, respectively. In the present study, the modulation of the mesolimbic neuronal circuit by ATPergic and adenosinergic mechanisms was investigated by microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and by telemetrically recorded EEG from both the NAc and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of freely moving rats. The basal extracellular dopamine concentration was enhanced after accumbal perfusion with the ATP analog 2-methylthio ATP (2-MeSATP; 100 microM); by contrast, adenosine (100 microM) caused a reduction of extracellular dopamine. When given alone, the P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS; 20 microM) decreased the concentration of dopamine, whereas the P1 receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT; 100 microM) increased it. In the same animals, P2 receptor stimulation by 2-MeSATP caused neuronal activation, indicated by an elevation of the absolute power in the EEG of the NAc mainly by enhancement of the relative power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) of the EEG spectrum. By contrast, adenosine led to a depression of the absolute power in the VTA accompanied by an elevation of the delta-band power (0.4-6 Hz) in the NAc corresponding to a slowing of neuronal activity. When given alone, PPADS reduced the absolute EEG power in the NAc accompanied by a decrease in the high-frequency power, but had no effects on the VTA. 8-SPT on its own enhanced the total power in both the NAc and the VTA, reflected by an enhancement in the slow and the high-frequency bands. Whereas the 8-SPT-evoked changes of EEG pattern as well as of dopamine concentration in the NAc were abolished by the co-application of PPADS, the 8-SPT-induced EEG changes in the VTA persisted under these conditions. In conclusion, the accumbal neuronal output, reflected by both dopamine release and neuronal electrical activity, is modulated in a functionally antagonistic manner by P2 and P1 receptor stimulation. It is suggested that an inhibitory GABAergic feedback projection to the VTA is stimulated by adenosine, either directly or indirectly via glutamate release.


Kruse, M. S., S. Adachi, et al. (2003). "Recruitment of renal dopamine 1 receptors requires an intact microtubulin network." Pflugers Arch 445(5): 534-9.

            Renal dopamine1 receptor (D1R) can be recruited from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane by D1R agonists and endogenous dopamine. This study examines the role of the cytoskeleton for renal D1R recruitment. The studies were performed in LLCPK-1 cells that have the capacity to form dopamine from L-dopa. In approximately 50% of the cells treated with L-dopa the D1R was found to be translocated from intracellular compartments towards the plasma membrane. Disruption of the microtubulin network by nocodazole significantly prevented translocation. In contrast, depolymerization of actin had no effect. In control cells D1R colocalized with NBD-C(6)-ceramide, a trans-Golgi fluorescent marker. This colocalization was disrupted in L-dopa-treated cells. Tetanus toxin, an inhibitor of exocytosis, prevented L-dopa-induced receptor recruitment. L-Dopa treatment resulted in activation of protein kinase C (PKC). To test the functional effect of D1R recruitment, the capacity of D1R agonists to activate PKC was studied. Activation of D1R significantly translocated PKC-alpha from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. Disruption of microtubules abolished D1R-mediated - but not phorbol-ester-mediated - translocation of PKC. We conclude that renal D1R recruitment requires an intact microtubulin network and occurs via Golgi-derived vesicles. These newly recruited receptors couple to the PKC signaling pathway.


Kuchel, O. (2003). "Mental stress and hypertension, an evolutionary framework: some historical perspectives of the 1960 World Health Organization Prague Hypertension Meeting." J Hypertens 21(3): 639-41.

            Emotional stress acutely and repetitively causing blood pressure increase or aggravating existing hypertension is usually not reflected by norepinephrine and epinephrine increase but by a sudden rise of dopamine, the third 'defensive' catecholamine coping with the damaging neuropsychological and cardiovascular actions of the first two. This double-edged sympathetic response to emotional stress evolves during human lifespan and long-term evolution of hypertension. In the course of philogenesis it carries a potential mismatch between the normal physiology of the human dopaminergic system and current environmental (emotional particularly) conditions in industrialized countries. This offers a rational support to a mental stress-cardiovascular diseases relationship proposed 40 years ago in a WHO report which followed a memorable 1960 Prague Hypertension Meeting.


Kugaya, A., N. M. Seneca, et al. (2003). "Changes in Human In vivo Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Availabilities during Chronic Antidepressant Administration." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(2): 413-20.

            Few studies have demonstrated in vivo alterations of human serotonin and dopamine transporters (SERTS and DATS) during antidepressant treatment. The current study measured these transporter availabilities with [(123)I]beta-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or a non-SSRI, bupropion. A total of 17 healthy human subjects were randomly assigned to two different treatment protocols: (1) citalopram (40 mg/day) followed by augmentation with bupropion (100 mg/day) or (2) bupropion (100-200 mg/day) for 16 days. Citalopram significantly inhibited [(123)I]beta-CIT binding to SERT in brainstem (51.4%) and diencephalon (39.4%) after 8 days of administration, which was similarly observed after 16 days. In contrast, citalopram significantly increased striatal DAT binding by 15-17% after 8 and 16 days of administration. Bupropion and its augmentation to citalopram did not have a significant effect on DAT or SERT. In 10 depressed patients who were treated with paroxetine (20 mg/day), a similar increase in DAT and inhibition of SERT were observed during 6 weeks treatment. The results demonstrated the inhibition of SERT by SSRI in human in vivo during the chronic treatment and, unexpectedly, an elevation of DAT. This apparent SSRI-induced modulation of the dopamine system may be associated with the side effects of these agents, including sexual dysfunction.Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) 28, 413-420. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300036


Kuhn, K., J. Wellen, et al. (2003). "The mouse MPTP model: gene expression changes in dopaminergic neurons." Eur J Neurosci 17(1): 1-12.

            Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although valuable animal models have been developed, our knowledge of the aetiology and pathogenic factors implicated in PD is still insufficient to develop causal therapeutic strategies aimed at halting its progression. The neurotoxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is one of the most valuable models for analysing pathological aspects of PD. In this paper we studied the gene expression patterns underlying the pathogenesis of MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. We treated young and old C57BL/6 mice with different schedules of MPTP to induce degenerative processes that vary in intensity and time-course. During the first week after intoxication we used nonradioactive in situ-hybridization to investigate the expression patterns of genes associated with (i) dopamine metabolism and signalling; (ii) familial forms of PD; (iii) protein folding and (iv) energy metabolism. MPTP injections induced different severities of neuronal injury depending on the age of the animals and the schedule of administration as well as a significant degeneration in the striatum. In situ hybridization showed that MPTP intoxication initiated a number of gene expression changes that (i) were restricted to the neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta; (ii) were correlated in intensity and number of changes with the age of the animals and the severity of histopathological disturbances; (iii) displayed in each a significant down-regulation by the end of one week after the last MPTP injection, but (iv) varied within one MPTP regimen in expression levels during the observation period. The subacute injection of MPTP into one-year-old mice induced the most severe changes in gene expression. All genes investigated were affected. However, alpha-synuclein was the only gene that was exclusively up-regulated in MPTP-treated animals displaying cell death.


Kulkarni, S. K. and P. S. Naidu (2003). "Pathophysiology and drug therapy of tardive dyskinesia: Current concepts and future perspectives." Drugs Today (Barc) 39(1): 19-49.

            Nearly 1% of the world population suffers from schizophrenia, and neuroleptics are the major class of drugs used to treat this disorder. Neuroleptics are associated with wide variety of extrapyramidal side effects, such as akathesia, dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Parkinson-ism and tardive dyskinesia. Despite the awareness that neuroleptics could cause extrapyramidal side effects, these drugs remain the most effective means of treating schizophrenia and Tourette's syndrome, as well as for the management of behavioral disorders in developmentally disabled individuals. Tardive dyskinesia is a complex hyperkinetic syndrome consisting of choriform, athetoid or rhythmically abnormal involuntary movements. Estimates of the prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia in patients receiving neuroleptics range from 0.5-70%, with an average prevalence rate of 24%. Despite much research, the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia remains elusive. So far, various neurochemical hypotheses have been proposed for the development of tardive dyskinesia. These include dopaminergic hypersensitivity, disturbed balance between dopamine and cholinergic systems, dysfunctions of striatonigral GABAergic neurons and excitotoxicity. Similarly, different suppressive agents have been tried with limited success. Recently, the role of oxidative stress and structural abnormality in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia has gained much impetus. Induction of free radicals by neuroleptic drugs leading to the oxidative stress and resultant structural abnormality could be the key factor in the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia. This hypothesis has been supported by numerous reports that chronic neuroleptic treatment increases free radical production and causes structural damage. More recently, the genetic vulnerability for the predisposition for the development of tardive dyskinesia, i.e., pharmacogenetic aspect of tardive dyskinesia, is also gaining impetus as a research area, and is discussed in detail in this article. (c) Prous Science 2003. All rights reserved.


Kumar, C., R. J. McIvor, et al. (2003). "Estrogen administration does not reduce the rate of recurrence of affective psychosis after childbirth." J Clin Psychiatry 64(2): 112-8.

            BACKGROUND: High rates of postpartum relapse occur in women with histories of bipolar or schizoaffective disorder. These relapses may be triggered by the postdelivery fall in circulating estrogen through alteration of central neurotransmitter (especially dopaminergic) systems. This study tested the hypothesis that estrogen administration after childbirth would prevent postpartum relapse and would alter dopamine receptor sensitivity. METHOD: Twenty-nine pregnant women with a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of hypomania (bipolar II), mania (bipolar I), or schizoaffective disorder participated in an open clinical trial. Three transdermal dose regimens of estrogen (17beta-estradiol) were tested. Starting doses were 200 (N = 13), 400 (N = 3), and 800 (N = 13) micro g/day, beginning within 48 hours after delivery and reduced by one half every 4 days for a total of 12 days. On the fourth day after starting estradiol therapy (before relapse occurred), subjects participated in a neuroendocrine challenge test that measured the sensitivity of the central nervous system (tubero-infundibular) dopaminergic system (plasma prolactin and growth hormone responses to apomorphine). RESULTS: Estradiol at all dose regimens did not reduce the rate of relapse. However, of the 12 women who relapsed, those who had taken the highest dose of estradiol (800 micro g/day) needed less subsequent psychotropic medication (fewer chlorpromazine equivalents) and were discharged sooner than those who had taken either of the 2 lower doses. No differences in neuroendocrine responses to apomorphine were detected between women receiving the high-dose and the lower-dose regimens. CONCLUSION: The results do not support the hypothesis that a fall in circulating concentrations of estrogens precipitates relapse in subjects at risk of postpartum affective psychosis. The use of prophylactic estrogen in such circumstances is therefore highly questionable.


Kumar, A., Z. Huang, et al. (2003). "Mechanisms of motor complications in treatment of Parkinson's disease." Adv Neurol 91: 193-201.


Kumarathasan, P. and R. Vincent (2003). "New approach to the simultaneous analysis of catecholamines and tyrosines in biological fluids." J Chromatogr A 987(1-2): 349-58.

            New high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods with amperometric-CoulArray detection were developed for simultaneous analyses of norepinephrine, epinephrine, L-DOPA, dopamine, 3-nitrotyrosine, m-, o-, and p-tyrosines. Overall, detection limit was in the low pmol range with amperometry, and in the low fmol range for the CoulArray method. Linear (r2 = 0.99) detector performances were observed in the ranges of 2-200 pmol with amperometry, and 0.2-20 pmol for the CoulArray method. Analytical precision values were better than 80 and 95% for HPLC-amperometry and HPLC-CoulArray method, respectively. These methods offer sensitivity, specificity, minimal sample requirement, and especially the HPLC-CoulArray method allows simultaneous assessment of various similar biomolecules.


Kung, H. F., M. P. Kung, et al. (2003). "Radiopharmaceuticals for single-photon emission computed tomography brain imaging." Semin Nucl Med 33(1): 2-13.

            In the past 10 years, signi.cant progress on the development of new brain-imaging agents for single-photon emission computed tomography has been made. Most of the new radiopharmaceuticals are designed to bind speci.c neurotransmitter receptor or transporter sites in the central nervous system. Most of the site-speci.c brain radiopharmaceuticals are labeled with (123)I. Results from imaging of benzodiazepine (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors by [(123)I]iomazenil are useful in identifying epileptic seizure foci and changes of this receptor in psychiatric disorders. Imaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptors ([(123)I]iodobenzamide and [(123)I]epidepride) and transporters [(123)I]CIT (2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta(4-iodophenyl)tropane) and [(123)I]FP-beta-CIT (N-propyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta(4-iodophenyl)-nortropane has proven to be a simple but powerful tool for differential diagnosis of Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases. A (99m)Tc-labeled agent, [(99m)Tc]TRODAT (technetium, 2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo [3,2,1]oct-2-yl]methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)amino]ethyl]amino] ethanethiolato(3-)]oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)]-), for imaging dopamine transporters in the brain has been successfully applied in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Despite the fact that (123)I radiopharmaceuticals have been widely used in Japan and in Europe, clinical application of (123)I-labeled brain radiopharmaceuticals in the United States is limited because of the dif. culties in supplying such agents. Development of (99m)Tc agents will likely extend the application of site-specific brain radiopharmaceuticals for routine applications in aiding the diagnosis and monitoring treatments of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.


Kunwar, A. R. and J. L. Megna (2003). "Resolution of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia with substitution of quetiapine." Ann Pharmacother 37(2): 206-8.

            OBJECTIVE: To report a case of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia that was successfully managed with quetiapine. CASE SUMMARY: A 30-year-old white woman with schizoaffective disorder, depressive type, and comorbid alcohol and cocaine abuse was treated successfully for her psychotic symptoms with risperidone until she developed adverse effects consistent with hyperprolactinemia. This was confirmed by laboratory blood tests, as her prolactin level was 186.9 ng/mL (normal for nonpregnant women 2.8-29.2). The woman had experienced similar effects in the past, which had led to noncompliance and subsequent psychotic relapse. Normalization of prolactin levels and associated adverse effects were achieved upon switching to quetiapine. No psychotic symptoms reoccurred. DISCUSSION: Dopamine type 2 (D(2)) receptor blockade in the mesolimbic tract is thought to mediate the therapeutic effects of antipsychotics. This action in the tuberoinfundibular system produces prolactin level elevation. Risperidone has a relatively higher affinity for the D(2) receptor in comparison with other atypical antipsychotics, which may explain why it is associated with a higher incidence of hyperprolactinemia. Quetiapine, which has one of the lowest D(2) receptor affinities, is not known to increase prolactin levels to any significant degree. This pharmacologic property allows quetiapine to be a reasonable treatment option for patients who develop risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. CONCLUSIONS: Quetiapine may be a suitable substitute when a patient taking risperidone develops hyperprolactinemia.


Kurachi, M. (2003). "Pathogenesis of schizophrenia: Part II. Temporo-frontal two-step hypothesis." Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 57(1): 9-15.

            The objective of the present study was to provide a pathophysiological model of the development of schizophrenia. The method used was the selective review of recent findings, including those of animal models from our own department, to clarify the relationship between morphological brain changes and dopamine metabolism, and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The results showed that entorhinal cortex-lesioned animals had increased concentrations of dopamine in the amygdala, and methamphetamine-induced dopamine release in the amygdala of lesioned rats was significantly enhanced compared with sham-operated rats. These results and the morphological findings in schizotypal disorder patients support the view that temporal lobe changes may underlie a vulnerability to schizophrenia. Latent dysfunction in these regions may become clinically apparent as positive psychotic symptoms due to additional frontal lobe changes in schizophrenia. For the emergence of positive Schneiderian symptoms, aberrant activity of sociality-related circuits, including the amygdala was postulated. In conclusion, a temporo-frontal two-step hypothesis for the development of schizophrenia was suggested.


Kurosaki, R., M. Akasaka, et al. (2003). "Effects of Ca2+ antagonists on motor activity and the dopaminergic system in aged mice." Neurobiol Aging 24(2): 315-9.

            We investigated the effects of the Ca(2+) antagonist nilvadipine on the dopaminergic system and motor activity in aged mice, in comparison with an other Ca(2+) antagonist, amlodipine. Furthermore, we examined the close correlation between the dopaminergic system and motor activity during the aging process. Striatal dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) contents were measured in 2-, 4-, 8-, 18- and 36-week-old mice. Behavioral tests (pole and catalepsy test) were performed with 4- and 36-week-old mice. Nilvadipine or amlodipine was administered intraperitoneally twice a day for 3 consecutive days to 30-36-week-old mice. The striatal dopamine, DOPAC and HVA contents were examined and behavioral tests were performed 1h after the last injection of each Ca(2+) antagonist. The dopamine, DOPAC and HVA contents in 2-week-old mice were significantly decreased in the striatum, as compared with 4-week-old animals. Thereafter, age-related increases in the dopamine, DOPAC and HVA contents were observed from 4 to 18 weeks old. However, in 36-week-old mice, the dopamine and DOPAC contents were reduced in the striatum, as compared with 18-week-old animals. Age-related decreases in motor function between 5- and 36-week-old mice were observed in both pole test and catalepsy tests. On the other hand, nilvalipine treatment produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in the striatal dopamine and DOPAC contents in 30-36-week-old mice. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the striatal dopamine content in amlodipine-treated mice, although this drug showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the striatal DOPAC and HVA content. In our behavioral study, nilvadipine also showed a significant and dose-dependent inhibition against motor deficits in 30-36-week-old mice. In contrast, amlodipine showed no significant effect on motor deficits in 30-36-week-old mice.The present study demonstrated that nilvadipine has a protective effect against the deficits in both the striatal dopaminergic system and motor activity in aged mice. Our study also suggested that the beneficial effect of nilvadipine against motor abnormalities may be mediated by a protective effect against the reduced activity of the dopaminergic system in aged mice. These results suggested that nilvadipine may offer a new approach for the treatment of hypobulia in aged humans.


Kurup, R. K. and P. A. Kurup (2003). "Hypothalamic digoxin - central role in conscious perception, neuroimmunoendocrine integration and coordination of cellular function - relation to hemispheric dominance." Med Hypotheses 60(2): 243-57.

            A family with a high prevalence of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, neoplasms, syndrome-X, rheumatoid arthritis and epilepsy has been described. The psychological behavioural patterns of the family were as follows - creativity and high IQ, hypersexual behaviour, reduced appetite and eating behaviour, insomnia and reduced sleep patterns, increased tendency for spirituality, increased tendency for addiction, less of bonding and affectionate behaviour and left handedness. Digoxin, an endogenous Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor secreted by the hypothalamus, was found to be elevated and RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was found to be reduced in all the disorders and in the indexed family studied. Hypothalamic digoxin can modulate conscious perception and its dysfunction may lead to schizophrenia. Digoxin can also preferentially upregulate tryptophan transport over tyrosine resulting in increased levels of depolarising tryptophan catabolites - serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine and nicotine and decreased levels of hyperpolarising tyrosine catabolites dopamine, noradrenaline and morphine contributing to membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition in all the above disorders and the indexed family. Digoxin induced membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition can result in increased intracellular Ca(2+) and reduced Mg(++) levels leading to glutamate excitotoxicity, oncogene activation and immune activation. Digoxin induced altered Ca(++)/Mg(++) ratios, reduced ubiquinone and increased dolichol can affect glycoconjugate metabolism, membrane formation and structure and mitochondrial function leading to the diverse disorders described above including those in the indexed family. The isoprenoid pathway and neurotransmitter patterns were compared in right-handed/left hemispheric dominant and left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals. The biochemical patterns in the indexed family and the diverse disorders studied correlated with those obtained in right hemispheric dominance. The hyperdigoxinemic state indicates right hemispheric dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin can thus function as the master conductor of the neuroimmunoendocrine orchestra and co-ordinate the functions of various cellular organelles.


Labaune, J. M., M. J. Boutroy, et al. (2003). "Age-related modulation of dopamine d1 receptor mRNA level by hypoxia in rabbit adrenal gland." Biol Neonate 83(3): 217-23.

            In the perinatal period, the fetus and the neonate may be exposed to hypoxic conditions. The adrenal gland responds to systemic hypoxia by releasing catecholamines. Dopamine and dopamine D1 receptor are present in the adrenal medulla and are liable to be affected by exposure to hypoxia. We used a rabbit model to determine whether hypoxia modulates the dopamine D1 receptor (DA D1-R) mRNA expression in adrenal glands during development. Rabbits were investigated according to four different hypoxic conditions: 15% O(2) for 6 h, 15% O(2) for 24 h, 8% O(2) for 6 h, and 8% O(2) for 24 h. Control groups were maintained in normoxic conditions (21% O(2)). For each O(2) condition, animals were studied at three different ages: 1-day old newborns, 25-day-old pups, and 6-month-old adults. We compared the hypoxic groups to their respective age normoxic group. We have shown that hypoxia decreases DA D1-R mRNA expression level, evaluated using Northern blot analysis, in newborn rabbits, whatever the duration and severity of hypoxia. This downmodulation was not observed in 25-day-old and in adult rabbits. This age-related modulation of adrenal DA D1-R mRNA could be linked to the age-related transition from the non-neurogenic to the neurogenic regulation of the adrenal function.


Lacroix, L. P., M. E. Hows, et al. (2003). "Selective Antagonism at Dopamine D(3) Receptors Enhances Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Neurotransmission in the Rat Anterior Cingulate Cortex." Neuropsychopharmacology.

            Recent neuroanatomical and functional investigations focusing on dopamine (DA) D(3) receptors have suggested a potential role of this receptor in psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and drug dependence. In line with the key role of the prefrontal cortex in psychiatric disorders, the present study aimed at assessing the effects of the acute systemic administration of the selective DA D(3) receptor antagonist SB-277011-A on the in vivo extracellular levels of monoamines (DA, norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT)) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the anterior cingulate subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex. The in vivo neurochemical profile of SB-277011-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the anterior cingulate cortex was compared with both typical and atypical antipsychotics including clozapine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), olanzapine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), sulpiride (10 mg/kg, s.c.), and haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). The acute administration of SB-277011-A, clozapine, and olanzapine produced a significant increase in extracellular levels of DA, NE, and ACh without affecting levels of 5-HT. Sulpiride also significantly increased extracellular DA, but with a delayed onset over SB-277011-A, clozapine, and olanzapine. In contrast, haloperidol failed to alter any of the three monoamines and ACh in the anterior cingulate cortex. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting a differentiation between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in the anterior cingulate cortex and a role of DA D(3) receptors in desired antipsychotic drug profile. Similar to their effects on DA and NE, SB-277011-A, clozapine, and olanzapine increased extracellular levels of ACh, whereas haloperidol and sulpiride did not alter ACh. The results obtained in the present study provide evidence of the important role of DA D(3) receptors in the effect of pharmacotherapeutic agents that are used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and drug dependence.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 12 March 2003; doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300114


LaForge, K. S., V. Yuferov, et al. (2003). ""Binge" cocaine differentially alters preproenkephalin mRNA levels in guinea pig brain." Brain Res Bull 59(5): 353-7.

            Male Hartley guinea pigs were administered i.p. injections of cocaine or saline for 2 or 7 days in a "binge" paradigm. RNA was isolated from dissected brain regions and levels of preproenkephalin mRNA and total RNA were quantified by RNase protection assays. Following 2 days of "binge" cocaine administration, no significant alterations in preproenkephalin mRNA levels were detected in six brain regions. Following 7 days of cocaine administration, however, lower levels of preproenkephalin mRNA were observed in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus of cocaine-treated animals and higher levels in the frontal cortex and amygdala. These findings differed from previous studies in the rat, so an additional experiment was performed with animals treated at the 7 day time point. For increased statistical power, data from the two experiments were combined and examined by two-way ANOVAs; in this combined analysis, increases in preproenkephalin mRNA were observed in frontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, decreases were found in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus, with no change in thalamus, caudate putamen, or cerebellum. These observed differences between guinea pigs and rats make this species an interesting model for neurobiological studies of cocaine-induced alterations in neuropeptide gene expression in the mammalian brain.


Lafuente, A., A. Gonzalez-Carracedo, et al. (2003). "Effect of cadmium on 24-h variations in hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin metabolism in adult male rats." Exp Brain Res 149(2): 200-6.

            This study was designed to analyze the possible cadmium effects on time-of-day variations of anterior, mediobasal, and posterior hypothalamic contents of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) content in adult male rats. Also DA and 5-HT metabolism, as expressed by the ratio 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) to DA and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) to 5-HT, respectively, were studied. Adult male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 25 ppm of cadmium chloride in drinking water for 1 month. Age-matched rats having access to cadmium-free water were used as controls. Weight gain for the whole period was not changed by cadmium exposure. The metal accumulated in the hypothalamus of rats. In the three hypothalamic regions, significant 24-h variations of NE and 5-HT concentration were found in controls, while DA content changed rhythmically in mediobasal hypothalamus only. Mean content of NE, 5-HT, and DA of anterior, mediobasal, and posterior hypothalamus decreased after cadmium exposure. After cadmium the 24-h pattern of NE changed only in mediobasal hypothalamus, whereas the metal changed significantly the pattern of 5-HT in all regions. DOPAC to DA and 5-HIAA to 5-HT ratios decreased and were differentially changed in all hypothalamic regions analyzed in cadmium-treated rats. There was a statistically significant relationship between time of administration of metal and time that the change took place in biogenic amines in the hypothalamus. These results indicate that cadmium may depress hypothalamic biogenic amine release.


Lahlou, S. (2003). "Mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular responses to spinal dopamine receptor stimulation by apomorphine in anesthetized rats." Neurosci Lett 335(3): 187-91.

            The present study investigated the mechanisms by which intrathecal (i.t.) apomorphine affects mean aortic pressure and heart rate in anesthetized rats. In saline-pretreated rats, upper thoracic (T2-T4) i.t. administration of apomorphine (48 microg/rat) induced immediate and significant hypotension and bradycardia. These responses were unaffected by intravenous (i.v.) methylatropine (1 mg/kg) or bilateral vagotomy, while they were prevented by i.t. lidocaine (25 microl at 1%) or i.v. hexamethonium (30 mg/kg). However, i.v. atenolol (1.5 mg/kg) suppressed the apomorphine-induced bradycardia without affecting the hypotension in either intact or bivagotomized rats. Bilateral adrenalectomy had no effect upon both maximal hypotensive and bradycardic responses to apomorphine (48 microg/rat at the T9-T10 level). These results suggest that hypotensive and bradycardic responses to i.t. apomorphine are due to an action in the spinal cord, presumably on sympathetic preganglionic neurons. These responses are dissociated and seem to result from withdrawal of sympathetic outflow to the vasculature and to the heart, respectively.


Lakatos, K., Z. Nemoda, et al. (2003). "Association of D4 dopamine receptor gene and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms with infants' response to novelty." Mol Psychiatry 8(1): 90-7.

            Effects of DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR length polymorphisms have been reported on neonatal and infant temperament as well as adult personality traits. The 7-repeat form of the DRD4 III exon VNTR polymorphism has been associated with childhood ADHD, and recently we have reported its link with attachment disorganization in a nonclinical population of infants. Here, we report associations of these polymorphisms with infant temperament at 12 months of age. Maternal accounts of temperament and observed response to novelty were investigated for 90 infants, who were independently genotyped for the DRD4 III exon, and for 5-HTT-linked promoter region length polymorphisms. Maternal rating of temperament was not affected by these polymorphisms, but we found combined genotype effects for infants' observed responses to a novel, anxiety-provoking stimulus: the appearance of, and approach by, a stranger. Infants with at least one copy of both the 7-repeat DRD4 allele and the long variant of 5-HTTLPR (7(+), l/l&l/s) responded with significantly less anxiety than infants with other genotypes. However, infants with the 7-repeat DRD4 allele and homozygous for the short form of 5-HTTLPR (7(+), s/s) showed more anxiety and resistance to the stranger's initiation of interaction. These genotype effects were not redundant with the previously reported association between the 7-repeat DRD4 allele and disorganized attachment behavior. Although both temperament and attachment behavior were affected by the DRD4 repeat polymorphism, the effect on temperament measures was modified by the infants' 5-HTTLPR genotype.Molecular Psychiatry (2003) 8, 90-97. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001212


Lang, A. E., G. Kleiner-Fisman, et al. (2003). "Subthalamic DBS replaces levodopa in Parkinson's disease: two-year follow-up." Neurology 60(1): 154-5; author reply 154-5.


Lapiz, M. D., A. Fulford, et al. (2003). "Influence of postweaning social isolation in the rat on brain development, conditioned behavior, and neurotransmission." Neurosci Behav Physiol 33(1): 13-29.

            There is substantial evidence that early life events influence brain development and subsequent adult behavior and play an important role in the causation of certain psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. The underlying mechanism of the effects of these early environmental factors is still not understood. It is a challenge to attempt to model early environmental factors in animals to gain understanding of the basic mechanisms that underlie the long-term effects. This paper reviews the effects of rearing rats from weaning in social isolation and reports some recent results indicating hippocampal dysfunction. Isolation rearing in rats from weaning produces a range of persistent behavioral changes in the young adult, including hyperactivity in response to novelty and amphetamine and altered responses to conditioning. These are associated with alterations in the central aminergic neurotransmitter functions in the mesolimbic areas and other brain regions. Isolation-reared rats have enhanced presynaptic dopamine (DA) and 5-HT function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) associated with decreased presynaptic 5-HT function in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Isolation-reared rats have reduced presynaptic noradrenergic function in the hippocampus, but have enhanced presynaptic DA function in the amygdala. These neurochemical imbalances may contribute to the exaggerated response of the isolated rat to a novel stimulus or to stimuli predictive of danger, and isolation-induced behavioral changes. These changes have neuroanatomical correlates, changes which seem to parallel to a certain degree those seen in human schizophrenia. A greater understanding of the processes that underlie these changes should improve our knowledge of how environmental events may alter brain development and function, and play a role in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders.


Lara, J., K. Kusano, et al. (2003). "Interactions of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor treatment on the survival and growth of postnatal mesencephalic dopamine neurons in vitro." Exp Neurol 180(1): 32-45.

            The survival of rat postnatal mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons in dissociated cell cultures was studied by examining the combinatorial effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as selective inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Postnatal DA neurons were maintained for 14 days in vitro, and were identified by immunohistochemistry using tyrosine hydroxylase antibody. The survival and growth of DA neurons was significantly increased by the inclusion of either >100 &mgr;M db-cAMP or 10 &mgr;M Forskolin plus 100 &mgr;M IBMX in the culture medium. Neither 10-50 ng/ml GDNF nor 50 ng/ml BDNF alone significantly increased DA neuron survival in vitro. However, the combined use of GDNF and BDNF did increase DA neuron survival, and the addition of either db-cAMP or IBMX/Forskolin to media containing these neurotrophins markedly increased DA neuron survival and growth. The cAMP inhibitor Rp-cAMP, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor H89, and the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitor PD98059 significantly reduced the survival of DA neurons when applied alone in the absence of added growth factors. Application of GDNF plus BDNF, or db-cAMP significantly protected the DA neurons from the deleterious effects on survival of either 20 &mgr;M H89 or 20 &mgr;M PD 98059. The results suggest that BDNF, GDNF, and cAMP produce convergent signals to activate PKA and MAPK pathways which are involved in the survival of postnatal mesencephalic DA neurons in vitro.


Larm, J. A., P. J. Shen, et al. (2003). "Differential galanin receptor-1 and galanin expression by 5-HT neurons in dorsal raphe nucleus of rat and mouse: evidence for species-dependent modulation of serotonin transmission." Eur J Neurosci 17(3): 481-93.

            Galanin and galanin receptors are widely expressed by neurons in rat brain that either synthesize/release and/or are responsive to, classical transmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, histamine, dopamine and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains approximately 50% of the 5-HT neurons in the rat brain and a high percentage of these cells coexpress galanin and are responsive to exogenous galanin in vitro. However, the precise identity of the galanin receptor(s) present on these 5-HT neurons has not been previously established. Thus, the current study used a polyclonal antibody for the galanin receptor-1 (GalR1) to examine the possible expression of this receptor within the DRN of the rat and for comparative purposes also in the mouse. In the rat, intense GalR1-immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in a substantial population of 5-HT-immunoreactive neurons in the DRN, with prominent receptor immunostaining associated with soma and proximal dendrites. GalR1-IR was also observed in many cells within the adjacent median raphe nucleus. In mouse DRN, neurons exhibited similar levels and distribution of 5-HT-IR to that in the rat, but GalR1-IR was undetectable. Consistent with this, galanin and GalR1 mRNA were also undetectable in mouse DRN by in situ hybridization histochemistry, despite the detection of GalR1 mRNA (and GalR1-IR) in adjacent cells in the periaqueductal grey and other midbrain areas. 5-HT neuron activity in the DRN is primarily regulated via 5-HT1A autoreceptors, via inhibition of adenylate cyclase and activation of inward-rectifying K+ channels. Notably, the GalR1 receptor subtype signals via identical mechanisms and our findings establish that galanin modulates 5-HT neuron activity in the DRN of the rat via GalR1 (auto)receptors. However, these studies also identify important species differences in the relationship between midbrain galanin and 5-HT systems, which should prompt further investigations in relation to comparative human neurochemistry and which have implications for studies of animal models of relevant neurological conditions such as stress, anxiety and depression.


Larsen, J. P. (2003). "Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease." Adv Neurol 91: 329-34.


Larson, E. T., D. O. Norris, et al. (2003). "Monoamines stimulate sex reversal in the saddleback wrasse." Gen Comp Endocrinol 130(3): 289-98.

            Monoamine neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) play an important role in reproduction and sexual behavior throughout the vertebrates. They are the first endogenous chemical signals in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In teleosts with behavioral sex determination, much is known about behavioral cues that induce sex reversal. The cues are social, processed via the visual system and depend on the ratio of females to males in the population. The mechanisms by which these external behavioral cues are converted to an internal chemical regulatory process are largely unknown. The protogynous Hawaiian saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey, was used to investigate the biological pathway mediating the conversion of a social cue into neuroendocrine events regulating sex reversal. Because monoamines play an important role in the regulation of the HPG axis, they were selected as likely candidates for such a conversion. To determine if monoamines could affect sex reversal, drugs affecting monoamines were used in an attempt to either induce sex reversal under non-permissive conditions, or prevent sex reversal under permissive conditions. Increasing norepinephrine or blocking dopamine or serotonin lead to sex reversal in experimental animals under non-permissive conditions. Increasing serotonin blocked sex reversal under permissive conditions, while blocking dopamine or norepinephrine retarded the process. The results presented here demonstrate that monoamines contribute significantly to the control sex reversal. Norepinephrine stimulates initiation and completion of gonadal sex of reversal as well as color change perhaps directly via its effects on the HPG axis. Dopamine exercises inhibitory action on the initiation of sex reversal while 5-HT inhibits both initiation and completion of sex reversal. The serotonergic system appears to be an integral part of the pathway mediating the conversion of a social cue into a neuroendocrine event. The complex organization of neurochemical events controlling the psychosocial, physiological, and anatomical events that constitute reversal of sexual identity includes monoamine neurotransmitters.


Lastres-Becker, I., R. de Miguel, et al. (2003). "Compounds acting at the endocannabinoid and/or endovanilloid systems reduce hyperkinesia in a rat model of Huntington's disease." J Neurochem 84(5): 1097-109.

            We have recently reported that the administration of AM404, an inhibitor of the endocannabinoid re-uptake process, which also has affinity for the vanilloid VR1 receptors, is able to reduce hyperkinesia, and causes recovery from neurochemical deficits, in a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD) generated by bilateral intrastriatal injections of 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP). In the present study, we wanted to explore the mechanism(s) by which AM404 produces its antihyperkinetic effect in 3NP-lesioned rats by employing several experimental approaches. First, we tried to block the effects of AM404 with selective antagonists for the CB1 or VR1 receptors, i.e. SR141716A and capsazepine, respectively. We found that the reduction caused by AM404 of the increased ambulation exhibited by 3NP-lesioned rats in the open-field test was reversed when the animals had been pre-treated with capsazepine but not with SR141716A, thus suggesting a major role of VR1 receptors in the antihyperkinetic effects of AM404. However, despite the lack of behavioral effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist, the pretreatment with this compound abolished the recovery of neurochemical [gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine] deficits in the caudate- putamen caused by AM404, as also did capsazepine. In a second group of studies, we wanted to explore the potential antihyperkinetic effects of various compounds which, compared to AM404, exhibit more selectivity for either the endovanilloid or the endocannabinoid systems. First, we tested VDM11 or AM374, two selective inhibitors or the endocannabinoid re-uptake or hydrolysis, respectively. Both compounds were mostly unable to reduce hyperkinesia in 3NP-lesioned rats, although VDM11 produced a certain motor depression, and AM374 exhibited a trend to stimulate ambulation, in control rats. We also tested the effects of selective direct agonists for VR1 (capsaicin) or CB1 (CP55,940) receptors. Capsaicin exhibited a strong antihyperkinetic activity and, moreover, was able to attenuate the reductions in dopamine and GABA transmission provoked by the 3NP lesion, whereas CP55,940 had also antihyperkinetic activity but was unable to cause recovery of either dopamine or GABA deficits in the basal ganglia. In summary, our data indicate a major role for VR1 receptors, as compared to CB1 receptors, in the antihyperkinetic effects and the recovery of neurochemical deficits caused in 3NP-lesioned rats by compounds that activate both CB1 and VR1 receptors, either directly or via manipulation of the levels of endogenous agonists.


Lau, Y. S. (2003). "Measurement of dopamine uptake in neuronal cells and tissues." Methods Mol Med 79: 465-71.


Lau, Y. S. and G. E. Meredith (2003). "From drugs of abuse to parkinsonism. The MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease." Methods Mol Med 79: 103-16.


Laursen, L. C., A. Lindqvist, et al. (2003). "The role of the novel D2/beta2-agonist, Viozan (sibenadet HCl), in the treatment of symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results of a large-scale clinical investigation." Respir Med 97 Suppl A: S23-33.

            Viozan (sibenadet HCl, AR-C68397AA) is a novel dual D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, developed specifically to treat the key symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), breathlessness, cough and sputum. The dual sensory nerve modulation and bronchodilator effects of sibenadet have been demonstrated in initial dose-ranging studies of patients with COPD and large-scale clinical evaluation has now been completed. Sibenadet efficacy was determined by assessing symptomatic changes, as defined by the novel assessment tool, the Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS). The findings of two placebo-controlled studies are reported. These multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies recruited over 2000 patients with stable COPD, randomized to receive sibenadet (500 microg) or placebo, pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) (three times daily) for a period of 12 or 26 weeks. Diary cards were completed daily by patients throughout the study to record BCSS scores, peak expiratory flow (PEF), study drug and rescue bronchodilator usage, changes in concomitant medication and adverse events. The primary endpoints were defined as change from baseline to the final 4 weeks of the treatment period in mean BCSS total score, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measured 1 hour after administration of the final dose of study drug and expressed as a percentage of the predicted FEV1. In addition, clinic assessments were made to determine changes in pulmonary function, health-related quality of life, perception of treatment efficacy and adverse events. Despite initial improvements in mean daily BCSS total scores in patients receiving sibenadet, the difference in the change from baseline to the final 4 weeks of the treatment period between the two treatment groups was neither statistically significant, nor considered to be of clinical importance. Although marked bronchodilator activity was seen early on with sibenadet treatment, the duration of effect diminished as the studies progressed. Sibenadet use was not associated with any safety concerns. These studies, utilizing the novel BCSS, have clearly illustrated that, despite initial symptomatic improvement with sibenadet therapy, this clinical benefit was not sustained over the course of the study.


Lavenstein, B. L. (2003). "Treatment Approaches for Children with Tourette's Syndrome." Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 3(2): 143-8.

            Tourette's syndrome has been of neurologic and psychiatric interest since the original description of this condition by Gilles de la Tourette in 1885, and it has been associated with a wide variety of treatments over the years. With the advent of advances in neurochemistry and neuropharmacology, a neurobiologic approach has emerged with the application of many drugs from the fields of neurology and psychiatry. In addition, many of the comorbid conditions that coexist, such as attention deficit disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), are amenable to both pharmacologic and behavioral approaches. Drug treatment has included dopamine receptor blockers for tics, dopamine agonists, dopamine depletors, and stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), noradrenergic drugs for tics and ADHD, serotonergic drugs for OCD, and chemical denervation for involuntary movements with the use of botulinum toxin and stereotactic surgery. It is the purpose of this review to outline the various approaches that are currently available as treatments, realizing that as new drugs are introduced in neurology and psychiatry, they too will find their way into treatment options.


Laviolette, S. R. and D. Van Der Kooy (2003). "Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine transmission dramatically increases sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in the ventral tegmental area." Mol Psychiatry 8(1): 50-9.

            Nicotine produces rewarding and aversive motivational effects in humans and other animal species. Here, we report that the mammalian ventral tegmental area (VTA) represents a critical neural substrate for the mediation of both the rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine. We demonstrate that direct infusions of nicotine into the VTA can produce both rewarding and aversive motivational effects. While the rewarding effects of higher doses of nicotine were not attenuated by dopamine (DA) receptor blockade, blockade of mesolimbic DA signalling with either systemic or intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) neuroleptic pretreatment potentiated the sensitivity to nicotine's rewarding properties over a three-order-of-magnitude dose range. Furthermore, the behavioural effects of lower doses of intra-VTA nicotine were reversed, switching the motivational valence of nicotine from aversive to rewarding. Our results suggest that blockade of mesolimbic DA signalling induced by neuroleptic medications may block selectively the aversive properties of nicotine, thus increasing the vulnerability to nicotine's rewarding and addictive properties by inducing a unique, drug-vulnerable phenotype.Molecular Psychiatry (2003) 8, 50-59. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001197


Lawrence, A. D., J. Dowson, et al. (2003). "Impaired visual discrimination learning in anorexia nervosa." Appetite 40(1): 85-9.

            The primate dopamine system is involved in appetitively motivated behaviours, including certain forms of learning, for example, visual discrimination learning. Furthermore, food restriction in animals and anorexia in humans is associated with impaired dopamine signaling. Based on this, we hypothesized that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) would show a deficit in visual discrimination learning. In a dynamic categorization task involving the learning of a series of two-alternative forced-choice visual discriminations, conceptually identical to one shown to activate dopamine neurons in primates, and sensitive to dopaminergic manipulations in humans, patients with AN showed a deficit in learning that was most pronounced in the early stages of acquisition. In contrast, AN showed spared performance on a pattern recognition memory test sensitive to medial temporal lobe lesions, but insensitive to dopaminergic manipulations. We conclude that impaired appetitive function in patients with AN extends to include deficits in visual discrimination learning, and that this deficit represents indirect evidence for altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in AN.


Le Foll, B., J. C. Schwartz, et al. (2003). "Disruption of nicotine conditioning by dopamine D(3) receptor ligands." Mol Psychiatry 8(2): 225-30.

            Tobacco smoking is the first cause of preventable death in modern countries. Nicotine replacement therapy or sustained release bupropion helps smoking cessation, but relapse rates are still very high. Nicotine, like other drugs of abuse, activates the dopamine mesolimbic system, which originates in the ventral tegmental area and projects notably to the nucleus accumbens. Situations or environmental stimuli previously associated with cigarette smoking, for example, smell of cigarette smoke, can elicit craving in abstinent smokers and promote relapse. Reducing the effects of nicotine-associated cues might therefore have potential therapeutic utility for smoking cessation. Such an approach has been validated for cocaine in animals, by using the dopamine D(3) receptor-selective partial agonist BP 897, which inhibits cocaine cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. Here we show that rats repeatedly injected with nicotine in a particular environment develop nicotine-conditioned locomotor responses, accompanied by an increase in D(3) receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens. This conditioned behavior was inhibited by BP 897 or a selective D(3) receptor antagonist, suggesting that antagonizing dopamine selectively at the D(3) receptor disrupts nicotine-conditioned effects and might represent a novel therapeutic approach for smoking cessation.Molecular Psychiatry (2003) 8, 225-230. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001202


Le Foll, B., J. Diaz, et al. (2003). "Increased dopamine D3 receptor expression accompanying behavioral sensitization to nicotine in rats." Synapse 47(3): 176-83.

            Behavioral sensitization to nicotine, which appears following repeated nicotine administration, has been suggested to take part in the development of smoking habit in humans. The mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a role in this process and a hypersensitivity of postsynaptic neurons of the nucleus accumbens as been proposed as a mechanism, but changes in dopamine D(1) or D(2) receptors have not been demonstrated to date. A challenge administration of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) produced a strong increase in locomotor activity in rats repeatedly pretreated with nicotine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), but not saline, once a day for 5 days. This behavioral sensitization was accompanied by an increase in D(3) receptor binding and mRNA in the shell of nucleus accumbens. D(3) receptor expression was unchanged in the core of nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum, as it was in the shell of nucleus accumbens after an acute administration of nicotine to naive rats. In contrast, no changes were noticed in D(1) and D(2) receptor expressions in any brain region examined after chronic or acute treatment with nicotine. In addition, nicotine challenge decreased preprodynorphin and preprotachykinin mRNA levels in naive rats, but only preprotachykinin mRNA levels in rats pretreated with nicotine. These biochemical changes resemble those occurring during behavioral sensitization to levodopa of dopamine-denervated rats, which had been causally related to the induction of D(3) receptor expression. We propose that a similar mechanism is responsible for behavioral sensitization to nicotine.


Lee, H. J., H. S. Lee, et al. (2003). "Allelic variants interaction of dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism correlate with personality traits in young Korean female population." Am J Med Genet 118B(1): 76-80.

            Polymorphism in exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been implicated to be associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking (NS). For this study, we have investigated the possible association between 48-bp VNTR in exon III and -521 C/T SNP of the DRD4 and personality traits among young ( approximately 14 years of age) Korean female population. We found that the interaction between the two alleles of DRD4 polymorphism, 48-bp VNTR and -521 C/T, were significantly high on NS (F = 4.88, P = 0.029) and persistence (P) (F = 5.05, P = 0.027) personality scores, suggesting that the variants of DRD4 gene influence the NS and P (persistent) personality traits. When analyzed independently, however, the two different alleles of DRD4 polymorphisms, 48-bp VNTR and -521 C/T, there was no direct correlation with the personality traits.


Lee, H. S. (2003). "Gender-specific molecular heterosis and association studies: Dopamine D2 receptor gene and smoking." Am J Med Genet 118B(1): 55-9.

            If the concept of the gender-specific molecular heterosis is not considered and tested, incorrect conclusions would easily be drawn in association studies. Therein, heterosis and its gender effect in the genetic effect of DRD2 gene for smoking were examined with 187 healthy Korean individuals. The male smokers showed a higher A1 allele frequency (P = 0.016) and prevalence (P = 0.049) than those of the male non-smokers, and the female smokers showed a lower frequency of heterozygotes (P = 0.018) than the female non-smokers. However, the association of DRD2 gene with smoking found in each gender disappeared when both males and females were considered as one group because of the opposite genetic effect of DRD2 gene for smoking: (1) while 75% of heterozygotes males were smokers, only 22% of female heterozygotes were; (2) males showed an excess of heterozygotes and the deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations in smokers, while these were true in the female non-smokers; and (3) in non-smokers, females were different from the males exhibiting a significantly higher prevalence (P = 0.005) and frequency (P = 0.015) of A1 allele, and significantly different genotype (P = 0.017) distribution, and higher frequency of heterozygotes (P = 0.055). Meanwhile, in smokers, males showed higher frequency of heterozygotes (P = 0.019) compared to females. The results indicate that gender-specific molecular heterosis at DRD2 gene for smoking is also applicable in healthy individuals as well as schizophrenics. Moreover, this concept has general applicability to other candidate genes and biological phenotypes.


Lee, C. S., E. H. Song, et al. (2003). "Combined effect of dopamine and MPP(+) on membrane permeability in mitochondria and cell viability in PC12 cells." Neurochem Int 43(2): 147-54.

            The present study examined the combined effect of dopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) on the membrane permeability in isolated brain mitochondria and on cell viability in PC12 cells. MPP(+) increased effect of dopamine against the swelling, membrane potential, and Ca(2+) transport in isolated mitochondria, which was not inhibited by the addition of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase). Dopamine or MPP(+) caused the decrease in transmembrane potential, increase in reactive oxygen species, depletion of GSH, and cell death in PC12 cells. Antioxidant enzymes reduced each effect of dopamine and MPP(+) against PC12 cells. Co-addition of dopamine and MPP(+) caused the decrease in the transmembrane potential and increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells, in which they showed an additive effect. Dopamine plus MPP(+)-induced the depletion of GSH and cell death in PC12 cells were not decreased by the addition of antioxidant enzymes, rutin, diethylstilbestrol, and ascorbate. Melanin caused a cell viability loss in PC12 cells. The N-acetylcysteine, N-phenylthiourea, and 5-hydroxyindole decreased the cell death and the formation of dopamine quinone and melanin induced by co-addition of dopamine and MPP(+), whereas deprenyl and chlorgyline did not show an inhibitory effect. The results suggest that co-addition of dopamine and MPP(+) shows an enhancing effect on the change in mitochondrial membrane permeability and cell death, which may be accomplished by toxic quinone and melanin derived from the MPP(+)-stimulated dopamine oxidation.


Lee, J., J. Son, et al. (2003). "Rapid analysis of metabolic stability of dopamine receptor antagonists and detection of their metabolites by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry." Anal Biochem 313(2): 292-300.

            In vitro metabolic stability of dopamine D(3)/D(4) receptor antagonists and identification of their metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ion-trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) were assessed in rat liver microsomes. The compounds were divided into three cassette groups for rapid quantitative analysis of multiple drugs and simultaneous detection of their metabolites. The samples from incubation with rat liver microsomes were pooled into designed cassette groups and analyzed by HPLC/electrospray ITMS in full-scan mode. The metabolic stability of the drugs was determined by comparing their signals after incubation for 0 and for 30min. The metabolic stability of the examined dopamine receptor antagonists was in the range of 9.9-84.4%. In addition, the present cassette analysis allowed the simultaneous detection of metabolites formed during the same incubation without having to reanalyze the samples. The metabolites were first characterized by nominal mass measurement of the corresponding protonated molecules. Subsequent multistage tandem mass spectrometry on the ion-trap instrument allowed characterization of the structure of the detected metabolites. N,O-dealkylation and ring hydroxylation reactions were identified as major metabolic reactions in piperazinylalkylisoxazole derivatives. These results suggested that the present approach is useful for the rapid evaluation of metabolic stability and structural characterization of metabolites within a short period in new drug discovery.


Lee, S. H., Y. M. Kim, et al. (2003). "Genomic organization and promoter characterization of the murine dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF) gene." Gene 304: 193-9.

            To study the transcriptional mechanisms by which expression of the dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF) gene is regulated, a murine genomic clone was isolated using a DRRF cDNA as probe. A 24 kb genomic fragment which comprises 13 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site was sequenced. The promoter region lacks a TATA box and CAAT box, is rich in G+C content, and has multiple putative binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. The DRRF gene also has consensus sequences for AP1 and AP2 binding sites. The transcriptional activity of five deletion mutants of a 1.5 kb fragment was analyzed by modulating transcription of the heterologous chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene in the promoterless plasmid pCAT-Basic. All mutants showed significant transcriptional activity in the murine neuroblastoma cell line NB41A3, except the construct stretching from -901 to +17. These transient expression assays suggested the presence of positive regulators between -1153 and -901 and between -118 and -93 while a negative regulator was found in the region between -901 and -118. Comparison among cell types revealed strong transcriptional activity of the DRRF promoter in neuronal NB41A3 cells and moderate activity in hepatic HepG2 and renal OK cells, but none in skeletal muscle C2C12 or glial C6 cells. These findings confirm the tissue-specific activity of the DRRF promoter and suggest that this gene shares structural and functional similarities with the dopamine receptor genes that it regulates.


Leon-Velarde, F., A. Gamboa, et al. (2003). "Plasticity in Respiratory Motor Control: Selected Contribution: Peripheral chemoreflex function in high-altitude natives and patients with chronic mountain sickness." J Appl Physiol 94(3): 1269-78.

            Peripheral chemoreflex function was studied in high-altitude (HA) natives at HA, in patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) at HA, and in sea-level (SL) natives at SL. Results were as follows. 1) Acute ventilatory responses to hypoxia (AHVR) in the HA and CMS groups were approximately one-third of those of the SL group. 2) In CMS patients, some indexes of AHVR were modestly, but significantly, lower than in healthy HA natives. 3) Prior oxygenation increased AHVR in all subject groups. 4) Neither low-dose dopamine nor somatostatin suppressed any component of ventilation that could not be suppressed by acute hyperoxia. 5) In all subject groups, the ventilatory response to hyperoxia was biphasic. Initially, ventilation fell but subsequently rose so that, by 20 min, ventilation was higher in hyperoxia than hypoxia for both HA and CMS subjects. 6) Peripheral chemoreflex stimulation of ventilation was modestly greater in HA and CMS subjects at an end-tidal Po(2) = 52.5 Torr than in SL natives at an end-tidal Po(2) = 100 Torr. 7) For the HA and CMS subjects combined, there was a strong correlation between end-tidal Pco(2) and hematocrit, which persisted after controlling for AHVR.


Leri, F., J. Bruneau, et al. (2003). "Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use." Addiction 98(1): 7-22.

            The use of cocaine by heroin-dependent individuals, or by patients in methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment, is substantial and has negative consequences on health, social adjustment and outcome of opioid-addiction treatment. The pharmacological reasons for cocaine use in opioid-dependent individuals, however, are poorly understood and little is known about the patterns of heroin and cocaine co-use. We reviewed anecdotal evidence suggesting that cocaine is co-used with opioid drugs in a variety of different patterns, to achieve different goals. Clinical and preclinical experimental evidence indicates that the simultaneous administration of cocaine and heroin (i.e. 'speedball') does not induce a novel set of subjective effects, nor is it more reinforcing than either drug alone, especially when the doses of heroin and cocaine are high. There is mixed evidence that the subjective effects of cocaine are enhanced in individuals dependent on opioids, although it is clear that cocaine can alleviate the severity of symptoms of withdrawal from opioids. We also reviewed preclinical studies investigating possible neurobiological interactions between opioids and cocaine, but the results of these studies have been difficult to interpret mainly because the neurochemical mechanisms mediating the motivational effects of cocaine are modified by dependence on, and withdrawal from, opioid drugs. Our analysis encourages further systematic investigation of cocaine use patterns among opioid-dependent individuals and in laboratory animals. Once clearly identified, pharmacological and neuroanatomical methods can be employed in self-administering laboratory animals to uncover the neurobiological correlates of specific patterns of co-use.


Levant, B. (2003). "Dopamine receptor binding and quantitative autoradiographic study." Methods Mol Med 79: 297-313.


Levkowitz, G., J. Zeller, et al. (2003). "Zinc finger protein too few controls the development of monoaminergic neurons." Nat Neurosci 6(1): 28-33.

            The mechanism controlling the development of dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5HT) neurons in vertebrates is not well understood. Here we characterized a zebrafish mutant--too few (tof)--that develops hindbrain 5HT and noradrenergic neurons, but does not develop hypothalamic DA and 5HT neurons. tof encodes a forebrain-specific zinc finger transcription repressor that is homologous to the mammalian Fezl (forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like protein). Mosaic and co-staining analyses showed that fezl was not expressed in DA or 5HT neurons and instead controlled development of these neurons non-cell-autonomously. Both the eh1-related repressor motif and the second zinc finger domain were necessary for tof function. Our results indicate that tof/fezl is a key component in regulating the development of monoaminergic neurons in the vertebrate brain.


Levy, M. J., M. S. Matharu, et al. (2003). "Prolactinomas, dopamine agonists and headache: two case reports." Eur J Neurol 10(2): 169-73.

            Headache is a common problem in patients with pituitary tumours. Small pituitary lesions can cause debilitating headache, suggesting that the size of the pituitary tumour may not be the only causal factor in pituitary-related headache. We present two cases of prolactinoma-associated headache. The first case has a clinical diagnosis of short-lasting unilateral headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT). The second case has a clinical diagnosis of hemicrania continua and idiopathic stabbing headache. In each case, the administration of dopamine agonists has led to an exacerbation of symptoms. We review the relevant literature to understand the pathophysiological implications of these cases.


Lewis, D., Y. Zhang, et al. (2003). "Further exploration of 1-{2-[Bis-(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl}piperazine (GBR 12909): role of N-aromatic, N-heteroaromatic, and 3-oxygenated N-phenylpropyl substituents on affinity for the dopamine and serotonin transporter." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13(7): 1385-1389.

            A series of N-aromatic, N-heteroaromatic, and oxygenated N-phenylpropyl derivatives of 1-(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)-piperazine and 1-{2-[bis-(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl}piperazine, analogues of GBR 12909 (1a) and 12935 (1b), was synthesized and examined for their dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporter binding properties. One of these compounds, racemic 3-[4-(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-1-(3-fluorophenyl)-propan-1-ol (33), had DAT affinity as good as, or better than, GBR 12909 and 12935, and was more selective for DAT over SERT than the GBR compounds. Both trans- (43) and cis- (47) (+/-)-2-(4-{2-[bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-methoxy]ethyl}piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-6- methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ol had relatively good SERT selectivity and, as well, showed high affinity for SERT.


Li, Z., J. Ichikawa, et al. (2003). "A comparison of the effects of loxapine with ziprasidone and thioridazine on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens." Psychopharmacology (Berl).

            RATIONALE. Atypical, but not typical, antipsychotic drugs (APDs), produce preferential increases in dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) release in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to the nucleus accumbens (NAC). The increase in DA release has been attributed, in part, to their greater serotonin (5-HT)(2A) relative to D(2) receptor occupancy, while the basis for the increase in ACh has not yet been determined. Loxapine, a dibenzoxazepine congener of clozapine, is generally considered to be a typical APD because it produces significant extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in humans, at generally recommended clinical doses (60-100 mg/day), and catalepsy in rodents, although several studies have found it to be effective at lower doses which do not produce significant EPS. Moreover, loxapine, like its congener clozapine, has higher affinity for serotonin (5-HT)(2A) than dopamine D(2) receptors, in vitro, suggesting the possibility it could be an atypical APD with clozapine-like potential. OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of loxapine on DA and ACh release in the mPFC and NAC with those of ziprasidone, a novel atypical APD, and thioridazine, which is generally classified as a typical APD. RESULTS. Loxapine, 0.03-10 mg/kg, increased prefrontal dopamine release with the magnitude of this increase exceeding that in the NAC, at all doses, other than the 10 mg/kg dose. The effect of loxapine (0.3 mg/kg) on DA release in the prefrontal cortex was attenuated by WAY 100635 (0.2 mg/kg), a 5-HT(1A) antagonist, as is the case for other atypical APDs. Ziprasidone (0.1-3 mg/kg) also preferentially increased DA release in the mPFC compared to NAC. Thioridazine (5 and 20 mg/kg) did not increase DA release in either the mPFC or NAC. Loxapine (3 mg/kg) and ziprasidone (1 and 3 mg/kg), but not thioridazine (10 and 20 mg/kg), significantly increased cortical ACh release. CONCLUSION. Loxapine has effects on cortical and NAC DA and ACh release which are comparable to those of known atypical APDs. Ziprasidone and thioridazine have effects on cortical DA and ACh characteristic of atypical and typical APDs, respectively. It is concluded that further clinical studies of the atypical APD properties of loxapine are indicated.


Li, F. Q., X. X. Cheng, et al. (2003). "Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of tripchlorolide, an extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, on dopaminergic neurons." Exp Neurol 179(1): 28-37.

            It has been reported recently that the immunosuppressant FK506 produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether tripchlorolide, an immunosuppressive extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, could exert similar neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of FK506. It was found that tripchlorolide promoted axonal elongation and protected dopaminergic neurons from a neurotoxic lesion induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) at concentrations of as low as 10(-12) to 10(-8) M. In situ hybridization study revealed that tripchlorolide stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. In vivo administration of tripchlorolide (1 microg/kg, ip) for 28 days effectively attenuated the rotational behavior challenged by D-amphetamine in the model rats by transection of the medial forebrain bundle. In addition, tripchlorolide treatment (0.5 or 1 microg/kg/day for 28 days) increased the survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta by 50 and 67%, respectively. Moreover, tripchlorolide markedly prevented the decrease in amount of dopamine in the striatum of model rats. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that tripchlorolide acts as a neuroprotective molecule that rescues MPP+ or axotomy-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, which may imply its therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease. The underlying mechanism may be relevant to its neurotrophic effect and its efficacy in stimulating the expression of BDNF.


Lidow, M. S., P. O. Koh, et al. (2003). "D1 dopamine receptors in the mouse prefrontal cortex: Immunocytochemical and cognitive neuropharmacological analyses." Synapse 47(2): 101-8.

            Dopamine D1 receptors have critical neuromodulatory influences on the working memory functions of the prefrontal cortex, a brain region affected in many neuropsychiatric disorders. When D1 receptor agents are administered to rats or monkeys performing working memory tasks, an "inverted U" dose/response function is typically observed, whereby either too little or too much D1 receptor stimulation impairs working memory. There are two subtypes of D1 receptors, the D1A and the D1B (also known as the D1 and D5, respectively), but the relative contributions of these subtypes to prefrontal cortical function are not known, as there are no pharmacological agents that can distinguish between these receptors. Thus, genetically altered mice are needed to address this question. However, it is not known whether the mouse prefrontal cortex contains both D1A and D1B receptor subtypes, nor is it known whether mice will exhibit responses to D1 receptor agonists similar to those seen in rats and monkeys. The current study examined these issues by immunostaining the mouse brain with specific antibodies directed at the D1A and D1B receptor subtypes and by assessing the effects of increasing doses of a D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297, on spatial working memory performance in mice. Results indicate that mice are generally similar to monkeys and rats, expressing both D1A and D1B receptors in the prefrontal cortex and exhibiting an inverted "U" dose/response curve when administered SKF81297.


Lin, J. J., K. C. Yueh, et al. (2003). "The homozygote 10-copy genotype of variable number tandem repeat dopamine transporter gene may confer protection against Parkinson's disease for male, but not to female patients." J Neurol Sci 209(1-2): 87-92.

            We investigated the role of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Taiwanese. A case-control study was carried out to examine the association of the VNTR polymorphism within the DAT between 193 sporadic PD patients and 254 controls, matched by age and sex. Six alleles of VNTR polymorphism in the DAT, consisting of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 copies of the 40-base-pair (bp) repeat sequence, were detected in the study. There were no differences of allele frequency (chi(2)=5.239, p=0.387) and genotype polymorphism of the DAT VNTR (chi(2)=11.873, p=0.157) in PD patients from the controls. Further analysis stratified by sex and age at onset did not show associations. However, PD patients carrying homozygote 10-copy genotype of the DAT VNTR polymorphism were 0.67 times fewer than controls (chi(2)=4.569, odds radio (OR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.45-0.97, p=0.033). The reduced risk of the homozygosity with PD genotype was only in male PD patients (chi(2)=2.923, OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.25-0.93, p=0.026), but not in female PD patients (chi(2)=0.002, OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.49-2.11, p=0.966). In conclusion, the results of our study show that homozygote 10-copy genotype of the VNTR polymorphism within the DAT may confer a protective factor for male PD patients, but not for female PD patients.


Lin, Z., P. W. Zhang, et al. (2003). "PI3, PKC and MEK1/2 kinase regulation of dopamine transporters (DAT) requires N-terminal DAT phosphoacceptor sites." J Biol Chem.

            DAT modulates dopamine neurotransmission and is a primary target for psychostimulant influences on locomotion and reward. Selective DAT expression by dopaminergic neurons has led to use of cocaine analog DAT radioligands to assess rates of progression of dopamine neuronal degeneration in Parkinsons disease. We have documented that DAT is a phosphoprotein that is regulated by phosphorylation through pathways that include protein kinase C cascades. We now extend this work using drugs selective for PI3, protein kinase C, MEK1/2, p38 kinase, and Ca++/CAMK II. We compare drug effects on wildtype DAT to effects on 20 DAT mutants and a DAT deletion. PI3 and MEK1/2 modulators exert strong effects on DAT expression patterns and dopamine uptake Vmax. PKC principally modulates Vmax. Neither p38- nor Ca++/CAMK II agents exert significant influences on wildtype DAT. Several mutants and a DAT with an N-terminal deletion display alterations that interact with effects of kinase modulators, especially S7A for PKC effects; T62A, S581A and T612A for PI3 kinase effects; and S12A and T595A mutants for MEK1/2 effects. [32P] labeling studies confirm several of these effects of kinase pathway modulators on DAT phosphorylation. DAT expression and activities can be regulated by kinase cascades that require phosphoacceptor sites most concentrated in its N-terminus. These results have a number of implications for DAT regulation and mandate caution in using DAT radioligand binding to infer changes in dopaminergic neuronal integrity after treatments that alter activities of these kinase pathways.


Lin, C. Y., M. G. Varma, et al. (2003). "Conserved motifs in somatostatin, D2-dopamine, and Alpha2B-adrenergic receptors for inhibiting the Na-H exchanger NHE1." J Biol Chem.

            Receptor subtypes within families of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by similar ligands can regulate distinct intracellular effectors. We identified conserved motifs within intracellular domains 2 and 3 of selective subtypes of several G protein-coupled receptor families that confer coupling to the Na-H exchanger NHE1. A T(S,P)V motif within intracellular domain 2 and a QQ(R) motif within intracellular domain 3 are shared by the somatostatin receptor subtypes SSTR1, 3, and 4, which couple to the inhibition of NHE1, but not by SSTR2 and 5, which do not signal to NHE1. Only the collective substitution of cognate SSTR2 residues with these two motifs conferred the ability of mutant SSTR2 to inhibit NHE1. Both motifs are present in D2-dopamine receptors, which inhibit NHE1, and in alpha2B-adrenergic receptors, which couple to the inhibition of NHE1, but not in alpha2A-adrenergic receptors, which do not regulate NHE1. These findings indicate that motifs shared by different subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptors, but not necessarily by receptor subtypes within a subfamily, can confer coupling to a common effector.


Lin, S., X. Wei, et al. (2003). "Minocycline blocks 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity and free radical production in rat cerebellar granule neurons." Life Sci 72(14): 1635-41.

            Neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is believed to be due, in part, to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Anti-oxidants by inhibiting free radical generation, protect neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether or not minocycline, a neuroprotective compound, could directly protect neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and inhibit 6-OHDA-induced free radical production in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). We now report that exposure of CGN to 6-OHDA (100 microM) resulted in a significant increase in free radical production with death of 86% of CGN. Pretreatment with minocycline (10 microM) for 2 h prevented 6-OHDA-induced free radical generation and neurotoxicity. Furthermore, minocycline also attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that minocycline blocks 6-OHDA-induced neuronal death possibly by inhibiting 6-OHDA-induced free radical generation in CGN. Both the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of minocycline may be beneficial in the therapy of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.


Lin, Y. S., Q. Gu, et al. (2003). "Activation of Dopamine D2-like Receptors Attenuates Pulmonary C-Fiber Hypersensitivity in Rats." Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167(8): 1096-1101.

            This study was performed to determine whether activation of dopamine D2-like receptors inhibits the hyperresponsiveness of pulmonary C fibers induced by inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In anesthetized, open-chest rats, constant infusion of PGE2 (1.5-4.5 &mgr;g/kg per minute, 2 minutes) significantly enhanced the C-fiber response to capsaicin injection. At 20 minutes after pretreatment with quinpirole (3 mg/kg, intravenous), a D2-like receptor agonist, the hyperresponsiveness to capsaicin of the same C fibers induced by PGE2 infusion was markedly attenuated, and this inhibitory effect lasted for more than 90 minutes. The effect of quinpirole was dose dependent and was antagonized by pretreatment with domperidone (5 mg/kg, intravenous), a D2-like receptor antagonist, administrated 10 minutes before the quinpirole injection. In a separate series of experiments, C-fiber responses to injections of phenyl biguanide and lactic acid and to constant-pressure lung inflation were augmented by PGE2; these potentiating responses were also significantly reduced by quinpirole. Furthermore, the effect of quinpirole was equally effective in inhibiting the increase in excitability of pulmonary C fibers induced by alveolar hypercapnia or constant infusion of adenosine. In conclusion, these results clearly show that activation of the dopamine D2-like receptors attenuates the hyperresponsiveness of pulmonary C fibers to both chemical stimuli and lung inflation.


Lin, J., M. Ozeki, et al. (2003). "Identification of gene expression profiles in rat ears with cDNA microarrays." Hear Res 175(1-2): 2-13.

            The physiological processes of hearing implicate thousands of molecules acting in harmony; however, their identities are only partially understood. We used cDNA microarrays containing 1,176 genes to identify >150 genes expressed in rat middle and inner ear tissue. Expressed genes covered several gene families and biological pathways, many of which have previously not been described. Transcription factor genes that were expressed included inhibitors of DNA binding protein (Id). These were localized to the spiral ganglion, organ of Corti and stria vascularis, and they are possibly involved in neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Transcriptional factors that were highly expressed included Gax (homeobox) and I-kappaB, which inhibit cellular proliferation. Their presence suggests that inhibitory programs for cell proliferation are enforced in the ear. Ion channel genes that were expressed included voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels (LTCC) and proton-gated cation channels (PGCC). Genes involved in neurotransmitter production and release included glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1). Genes involved in postsynaptic inhibition included neuropeptide Y5 receptors (NPY5) and GAD1. Due to the existence of receptors and/or enzymes involved in their biochemical synthesis, neurotransmitters associated with these might include serotonin, glutamide, acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), neurotensin, and dopamine.


Lin, J. Y., R. Dubey, et al. (2003). "Receptor subtype-specific modulation by dopamine of glutamatergic responses in striatal medium spiny neurons." Brain Res 959(2): 251-62.

            The output of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the dorsal striatum is controlled in part by glutamatergic input from the neocortex and the thalamus, and dopaminergic input from ventral midbrain. We acutely isolated these neurons from juvenile (P14-24) rats to study the consequences of the interaction between glutamate and dopamine for neuronal excitability. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis was used to identify the expression patterns of dopamine receptors. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA was detected in 11/22 and 3/22 of isolated neurons, respectively. Receptor mRNA co-expression was detected in 1/22 cells tested. Whole-cell voltage clamp recording (V(h)=-70 mV) was combined with local or bath application of dopaminergic and glutamatergic agonists to explore dopamine receptor modulation of glutamatergic excitation. Glutamate-evoked inward currents (5 microM, Mg(2+)-free, 1 microM glycine) were attenuated by dopamine (5 microM) to 83.2+/-3.6% (n=31). NMDA-evoked (20 microM), APV-sensitive currents were attenuated by dopamine to 80.9+/-4.5% (n=24). NMDA-induced responses were also attenuated by the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 (1 microM; n=28), while the D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole (10 microM) had no effect. The currents evoked by application of AMPA (5 microM) displayed a steady rundown. Application of dopamine abolished or significantly reduced the rundown in the cells tested (n=17). A similar effect was observed after the application of SKF 38393 (1 microM), while quinpirole (10 microM) had no significant effect. Our results provide direct evidence for modulation by dopamine of glutamatergic responses of striatal medium spiny neurons, and demonstrate that the effects of this neuromodulator are receptor subtype specific. Disruption of this modulatory effect is likely to contribute to movement disorders associated with Parkinson's disease.


Lindgren, N., A. Usiello, et al. (2003). "Distinct roles of dopamine D2L and D2S receptor isoforms in the regulation of protein phosphorylation at presynaptic and postsynaptic sites." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(7): 4305-9.

            Dopamine D2 receptors are highly expressed in the dorsal striatum where they participate in the regulation of (i) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in nigrostriatal nerve terminals, and (ii) the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), in medium spiny neurons. Two isoforms of the D2 receptor are generated by differential splicing of the same gene and are referred to as short (D2S) and long (D2L) dopamine receptors. Here we have used wild-type mice, dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice (D2 KO mice; lacking both D2S and D2L receptors) and D2L receptor-selective knockout mice (D2L KO mice) to evaluate the involvement of each isoform in the regulation of the phosphorylation of TH and DARPP-32. Incubation of striatal slices from wild-type mice with quinpirole, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, decreased the state of phosphorylation of TH at Ser-40 and its enzymatic activity. Both effects were abolished in D2 KO mice but were still present in D2L KO mice. In wild-type mice, quinpirole inhibits the increase in DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr-34 induced by SKF81297, a dopamine D1 receptor agonist. This effect is absent in D2 KO as well as D2L KO mice. The inability of quinpirole to regulate DARPP-32 phosphorylation in D2L KO mice cannot be attributed to decreased coupling of D2S receptors to G proteins, because quinpirole produces a similar stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in wild-type and D2L KO mice. These results demonstrate that D2S and D2L receptors participate in presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic transmission, respectively.


Lindvall, O. (2003). "Stem cells for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease." Pharmacol Res 47(4): 279-87.

            Clinical studies with intrastriatal transplants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue have provided proof-of-principle for the cell replacement strategy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The grafted dopaminergic neurons can reinnervate the denervated striatum, restore regulated dopamine (DA) release and movement-related frontal cortical activation, and give rise to significant symptomatic relief. However, there are several problems linked to the use of primary embryonic tissue: (i) lack of sufficient amounts of tissue for transplantation in a large number of patients; (ii) variability of functional outcome, with some patients showing major improvement and others modest if any clinical benefit; (iii) occurrence of troublesome dyskinesias in a significant proportion of patients after transplantation. Stem cells could be useful to generate large numbers of DA neurons in standardized and quality-controlled preparations. So far, neurons with at least some dopaminergic characteristics have been generated from stem cells. However, in most cases their survival after grafting in animal PD models has been poor and it is also unclear if they function as normal mesencephalic DA neurons. For the development of a clinically useful cell therapy in PD, it is also necessary to define better criteria for patient selection and how graft placement should be optimized in each patient. Several scientific issues need to be addressed before stem cell-based therapies can be tested in PD patients.


Lingford-Hughes, A. and D. Nutt (2003). "Neurobiology of addiction and implications for treatment." Br J Psychiatry 182: 97-100.


Little, K. Y., D. M. Krolewski, et al. (2003). "Loss of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter protein (VMAT2) in human cocaine users." Am J Psychiatry 160(1): 47-55.

            OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis that human cocaine users lose vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) protein was tested in striatal samples from cocaine users and age-, sex-, and postmortem interval-matched comparison subjects. METHOD: Striatal samples were retrieved at autopsy; immunoblot assays were then performed by using a highly specific VMAT2 antibody. Striatal radioligand binding to VMAT2 was assessed with dihydrotetrabenazine ([(3)H]DTBZ) and dopamine levels employing high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Cocaine users displayed a marked reduction in VMAT2 immunoreactivity as well as reduced [(3)H]DTBZ binding and dopamine levels. It did not appear that the reduction in VMAT2 immunoreactivity was related to ethanol use, but dopamine levels were lower in subjects with only ethanol diagnoses. Subjects suffering from cocaine-induced mood disorders displayed a greater loss of VMAT2 immunoreactivity that approached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Human cocaine users lose VMAT2 protein, which might reflect damage to striatal dopamine fibers. These neuronal changes could play a role in causing disordered mood and motivational processes in more severely dependent patients.


Liu, P. C., D. M. Koeller, et al. (2003). "Genomic organization of ATOX1, a human copper chaperone." BMC Genet 4(1): 4.

            BACKGROUND: Copper is an essential trace element that plays a critical role in the survival of all living organisms. Menkes disease and occipital horn syndrome (OHS) are allelic disorders of copper transport caused by defects in a X-linked gene (ATP7A) that encodes a P-type ATPase that transports copper across cellular membranes, including the trans-Golgi network. Genetic studies in yeast recently revealed a new family of cytoplasmic proteins called copper chaperones which bind copper ions and deliver them to specific cellular pathways. Biochemical studies of the human homolog of one copper chaperone, ATOX1, indicate direct interaction with the Menkes/OHS protein. Although no disease-associated mutations have been reported in ATOX1, mice with disruption of the ATOX1 locus demonstrate perinatal mortality similar to that observed in the brindled mice (Mobr), a mouse model of Menkes disease. The cDNA sequence for ATOX1 is known, and the genomic organization has not been reported. RESULTS: We determined the genomic structure of ATOX1. The gene contains 4 exons spanning a genomic distance of approximately 16 kb. The translation start codon is located in the 3' end of exon 1 and the termination codon in exon 3. We developed a PCR-based assay to amplify the coding regions and splice junctions from genomic DNA. We screened for ATOX1 mutations in two patients with classical Menkes disease phenotypes and one individual with occipital horn syndrome who had no alterations detected in ATP7A, as well as an adult female with chronic anemia, low serum copper and evidence of mild dopamine-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and no alterations in the ATOX1 coding or splice junction sequences were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we characterized the genomic structure of the human copper chaperone ATOX1 to facilitate screening of this gene from genomic DNA in patients whose clinical or biochemical phenotypes suggest impaired copper transport.


Liu, F. C. (2003). "Organotypic culture of developing striatum. Pharmacological induction of gene expression." Methods Mol Med 79: 405-12.


Liu, B. and J. S. Hong (2003). "Neuroprotective effect of naloxone in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Dissociation from the involvement of opioid receptors." Methods Mol Med 79: 43-54.


Liu, B. and J. S. Hong (2003). "Role of microglia in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases: mechanisms and strategies for therapeutic intervention." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304(1): 1-7.

            Evidence from postmortem analysis implicates the involvement of microglia in the neurodegenerative process of several degenerative neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. It remains to be determined, however, whether microglial activation plays a role in the initiation stage of disease progression or occurs merely as a response to neuronal death. Activated microglia secrete a variety of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors that are believed to induce and/or exacerbate neurodegeneration. In this article, we summarize recent advances on the study of the role of microglia based on findings from animal and cell culture models in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, with particular emphasis on Parkinson's disease. In addition, we also discuss novel approaches to potential therapeutic strategies.


Liu, G., M. H. Ghahremani, et al. (2003). "Diacylglycerol and ceramide formation induced by dopamine D2S receptors via Gbeta gamma -subunits in Balb/c-3T3 cells." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 284(3): C640-8.

            Diacylglycerol (DAG) and ceramide are important second messengers affecting cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Balb/c-3T3 fibroblast cells expressing dopamine-D2S (short) receptors (Balb-D2S cells) provide a model of G protein-mediated cell growth and transformation. In Balb-D2S cells, apomorphine (EC(50) = 10 nM) stimulated DAG and ceramide formation by 5.6- and 4.3-fold, respectively, maximal at 1 h and persisting over 6 h. These actions were blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), implicating G(i)/G(o) proteins. To address which G proteins are involved, Balb-D2S clones expressing individual PTX-insensitive Galpha(i) proteins were treated with PTX and tested for apomorphine-induced responses. Neither PTX-insensitive Galpha(i2) nor Galpha(i3) rescued D2S-induced DAG or ceramide formation. Both D2S-induced DAG and ceramide signals required Gbetagamma-subunits and were blocked by inhibitors of phospholipase C [1-(6-[([17beta]-3-methoxyestra-1,2,3[10]-trien- 17yl)amino]hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U-73122) and partially by D609]. The similar G protein specificity of D2S-induced calcium mobilization, DAG, and ceramide formation indicates a common Gbetagamma-dependent phospholipase C-mediated pathway. Both D2 agonists and ceramide specifically induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2), suggesting that ceramide mediates a novel pathway of D2S-induced ERK1/2 activation, leading to cell growth.


Loghin, F., A. Chagraoui, et al. (2003). "Effects of some antioxidative aporphine derivatives on striatal dopaminergic transmission and on MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion in B6CBA mice." Eur J Pharm Sci 18(2): 133-40.

            (S)-(+)-boldine, an aporphine alkaloid displaying antioxidative and dopaminergic properties, and six of its derivatives (glaucine, 3-bromoboldine, 3-iodoboldine, 8-aminoboldine, 8-nitrosoboldine and 2,9-O,O'-dipivaloylboldine) were tested for these properties in comparison with their parent compound. All the tested compounds displayed in vitro antioxidative properties equal to or slightly weaker than those of boldine, and equal to or stronger than (+/-)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8,-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox((R))), a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, used as a reference compound. All the aporphine compounds tested displaced [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H]raclopride from their specific binding sites in rat striatum. When tested on dopamine (DA) metabolism in the striatum of B6CBA mice, all the compounds, except 8-aminoboldine, increased striatal levels of DOPAC and HVA, and the HVA/DA ratio, indicating that they cross the blood-brain barrier and that they seem to act as dopamine antagonists in vivo. B6CBA mice were sensitive to the neurotoxic action of MPTP on dopaminergic neurons as indicated by the strongly decreased striatal levels of DA, DOPAC and HVA following administration of MPTP (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Among these aporphine derivatives, only 3-bromoboldine was able to reduce the MPTP-induced decrease of striatal levels of DA and DOPAC, whereas (R)-apomorphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, i.p.), used as reference compounds, were very active. These data suggest that potent in vitro antioxidative properties and the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier are not sufficient criteria to predict the inhibition of neuronal degeneration induced by MPTP.


Lopez-Real, A., J. Rodriguez-Pallares, et al. (2003). "Localization and functional significance of striatal neurons immunoreactive to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase or tyrosine hydroxylase in rat Parkinsonian models." Brain Res 969(1-2): 135-46.

            Striatal neurons which are immunoreactive (ir) to aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) or tyrosine hydrodroxylase (TH) may play a role in the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine (DA) in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional significance of these neurons and the mechanisms responsible for their induction remain to be clarified. In this study, rats were subjected to different types of dopaminergic or serotonergic denervation and L-DOPA injection to study the effects on these neurons. AADC-ir neurons were found in both normal and DA-denervated striata, and no significant differences in their number and distribution were induced following different types of denervation or L-DOPA administration. TH-ir neurons were only found in DA-denervated striata. However, TH-ir neurons did not appear in those areas with maximal DA depletion, but rather were observed near spared or partially lesioned DA terminals. The population of AADC-ir neurons may make a significant contribution to the effects of exogenous L-DOPA in advanced stages of PD. In addition, TH-ir neurons may contribute to these effects, since we have detected AADC-ir in TH-ir neurons using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Finally, neither L-DOPA therapy nor serotonergic denervation induces significant changes in the number or distribution of these neurons.


Lorrain, D. S., C. S. Baccei, et al. (2003). "Effects of ketamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate on glutamate and dopamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex: modulation by a group II selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268." Neuroscience 117(3): 697-706.

            Previous studies have shown that the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)2/3 agonist LY354740 attenuated glutamate release in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) induced by the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine. In the present study we examined the effects of the more potent mGluR2/3 selective agonist LY379268 on ketamine-evoked glutamate and dopamine (DA) release in mPFC of male rats. Subjects were implanted with a unilateral microdialysis probe in the mPFC and were tested 12-24 h after implantation. Ketamine (18 mg/kg, s.c.) evoked a significant release of glutamate and DA, although the glutamate response was slower in onset compared with DA. Pretreatment with either systemic (3 mg/kg s.c.) or local (1 microM, in the probe) LY379268 blocked ketamine-evoked glutamate, but not DA, release. When applied directly to the mPFC via the dialysis probe, ketamine (1 mM in the probe) had no effect on glutamate release but did significantly enhance the release of DA. Application of NMDA (500 microM in the probe), on the other hand, decreased DA while increasing glutamate release. The effect of NMDA on evoking glutamate release was blocked by systemic but not local administration of LY379268. These findings indicate that systemic ketamine increases both glutamate and DA release in mPFC and that the effect on glutamate can be blocked by stimulating mPFC group II mGluR receptors. Local ketamine, on the other hand, does not increase glutamate but does increase DA release. This suggests that ketamine acts outside of the mPFC to enhance glutamate, but within the mPFC to enhance DA release. The origin of the ketamine effect on mPFC glutamate is currently not known.


Lowry, C. A., A. Plant, et al. (2003). "Anatomical and functional evidence for a stress-responsive, monoamine-accumulating area in the dorsomedial hypothalamus of adult rat brain." Horm Behav 43(1): 254-62.

            The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays an important role in relaying information to neural pathways mediating neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. Evidence suggests that the DMH is a structurally and functionally diverse integrative structure that contributes to both facilitation and inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, depending on the nature of the stimulus and the specific neural circuits involved. Previous studies have determined that stress or stress-related stimuli elevate tissue concentrations of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine, and noradrenaline selectively within the DMH. In order to determine the specific region of the rat DMH involved, we used high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to measure tissue concentrations of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, dopamine, and noradrenaline within five different subregions of the DMH in adult female Lewis and Fischer rats immediately or 4 h following a 30-min period of restraint stress. Compared to unrestrained control rats, restrained rats had elevated concentrations of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, dopamine, and noradrenaline immediately after a 30-min period of restraint and had elevated concentrations of 5-HT 4 h following the onset of a 30-min period of restraint stress. These effects were confined to a specific region that included medial portions of the dorsal hypothalamic area and dorsal ependymal, subependymal, and neuronal components of the periventricular nucleus. Furthermore, these effects were observed in Lewis rats, but not Fischer rats, two closely related rat strains with well-documented differences in neurochemical, neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. These data provide support for the existence of a stress-responsive, amine-accumulating area in the DMH that may play an important role in the differential stress responsiveness of Lewis and Fischer rats.


Lu, L., Z. Liu, et al. (2003). "Dopamine-dependent responses to cocaine depend on corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtypes." J Neurochem 84(6): 1378-86.

            The effects on locomotor response to cocaine challenge, acquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and cocaine-induced dopamine (DA) release in nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area by the non-specific corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors antagonist alpha-helical CRF, the selective CRF receptor subtype 1 antagonist CP-154,526 and the selective CRF receptor subtype 2 antagonist anti-sauvagine-30 (AS-30) were investigated in rats. Both alpha-helical CRF (10 microg, i.c.v.) and CP-154,526 (3 microg, i.c.v.) decreased the cocaine-induced distance travelled, whereas AS-30 (3 microg, i.c.v.) did not show such an effect. The CRF receptor antagonists also have significant effects on stereotype counts induced by cocaine injection, in which the alpha-helical CRF or CP-154,526 but not AS-30 did significantly reduce the stereotype counts. alpha-Helical CRF (10 microg) prior to each injection of cocaine blocked cocaine conditioned place preference with no significant difference observed in the time spent in the drug-paired side between post- and pre-training and both 1 and 3 microg CP-154,526 also had significant inhibitory effects on cocaine-induced place preference. However, pre-treatment with an i.c.v. infusion of AS-30 (1 or 3 microg) prior to each injection of cocaine did not affect the acquisition of conditioned place preference. The alpha-helical CRF and CP-154,526 reduced extracellular DA levels of nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area in response to the injection of cocaine. However, both alpha-helical CRF and CP-154,526 did not modify extracellular DA levels under basal conditions. In contrast, the i.c.v. infusion of AS-30 had no effects on either the basal DA or the cocaine-induced increase in DA release in nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. These findings demonstrate that activation of the CRF receptor is involved in behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine challenge and cocaine reward and that the role of CRF receptor subtypes 1 and 2 in cocaine-induced locomotion, reward and DA release is not identical. The CRF receptor subtype 1 is largely responsible for the action of the CRF system on cocaine locomotion and reward. These results suggest that the CRF receptor antagonist, particularly the CRF receptor subtype 1 antagonist, might be of some value in the treatment of cocaine addiction and cocaine-relate